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CfK <BXobt (tuition 



THE MISCELLANEOUS WORKS 



OF 

OLIVER GOLDSMITH 



WITH BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION 
Bv PROFESSOR MASSON 



fLon&on 
MACMILLAN AND CO. 

1884 



/B 




■iu+i+o 






-*ductr 



CONTENTS. 






THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD 

ption of ih« I 

■ 

I 

lependft, 

P " 

■ 

■ 

P u 

■ 

-Mill ilic.r 

■ 

[' ll 

I 

■ 

■ give dttacice- 

dMi <*ob>i< be rc.il 

■ detected 

P .1 




On*. 



wxu. 

mm 



The History of a philosophic Vaj i 
; I *; Novelty, but taring 

I he short Coi 

: only 



i» Love .v 









txm. 

XXXII. 



i' : i 

but the GuDq mg and 

comriei ■ P- SS 

P 5' 
■ 
but Jus MIM sort • ; 
ii 

A Reformation in t 
Law* complete, th- .-. 

. p. 6i 
wte subject continued p. 6j 

life . 

■-n .i- thirjgi merely i 

ii . 
The eijual ilc il 

Miserable he! 

urureoi Pie i 

nffcr- 

■ 
•lence now repahl with un- 



TIIE CITIZEN OF Till W 



Uttrr 






To Mr - 

Lien Oil Altitngi to 1 

Lien Chi Auangi to the 

l 
wardcx 
II '.i . 

idemy .»t Pnkin, In l 
ion 
a MM 
I 

■ 
1 



VII. 



VIII. 



Altangi to Fum Hoam, 
i ihc Cerca 

. . . 






XI 
XII. 
XIM 
Xiv. 
XV. 
Xvi 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

xxiv. 

XXV- 

I vvi 1 
XXVIII. 
XXIX. 
XXX. 
XXXI. 
XXXII. 

xxxtu. 

XXXIV. 



XVII 

.Ml 



To ilic same . 
To ihc N>mc . 

• iiiie 

I amo 

To the same 
To the same 

• ime 
1 .. ilic umc 

To the mom 
.ime 
ime 
To die 
■ 
To the '.i M 
To the same 
To the ume . 
itne 

• me 
i:ne . 
To the BUDjB 
To the sainc 
To the aajflfl 
To the urac 
<me 



onial Aca- 
P 96 

P 99 



p 11 

• P »°S 

- P 107 
. p. 108 
■ P- 109 

p. in 

P "J 

. P "5 

. P IT'* 
. P 119 

. p. lao 
. p> i»i 
. P ixa 

• P "5 

. p. 136 

- P >3i 
. p ija 

I' '35 

. p. 13(1 

P H ■ 



.IV. 



ki.11. 



: iv 






VIII, 



1.1 

IV 



From Hingpo, A Sla> 

SmvdUng rniwtopptv f - ,, 
by (be way of Moacow p 14* 
-.in..- . , , . p 143 

From ihc ^amc , . . .p. 144 

. 1 Hoam, 
nonnJ Aca- 
demy at Pekin. in Chin.* . . p. 146 

Altaafj 10 , Mcf- 

. . p. 148 
Uiangi to Fum Roam, 

■ ercmonial Aa- 
,. . . \> 15a 
.... p. 151 

From Pun i -n Chi AlUiii„-i. 

the Discontented Wanderei . by the way 
.... p. 153 
a Chi Allan, 

roial Aca- 
p. «54 

Altangi to Hingpn, a 
. - . 

■ to Fum Hoam, 
F»rM President of the Ceremonial Aca- 
demy at Pekin, in China . . . p li- 
ne ...... I {I I"! 

i Altangi to H 

SI. iv In Persia p ('■•- 

Allangi to , Mer- 
chant in Amsterdam .... p. if>i 

une .... p. 165 

mo l-Ionni, 

of the Cererii 1 

demy .U Pekin in China p .>■: 

'In ihc sjme ..... , p. i'V 

ime 1- 1 

1 ■ 1 79 

■•* . 

. ^me p irs 



Zrtfrr 

LVI. 



LVIII 

1. IX 



I. Ml 

unit 



1 1 .-1 

I Wll 



LXIX. 
I XX. 



tXXII 

mm. 



IXXV. 
l.XXVI. 



txxvm. 
ixmx 
LXXX. 

I.XXXIt. 
I XXXI II. 

I.XXX1V 



1 wtxv. 
uoncvit 



xc 



xcv 



lum Hoam to Altangi, the Dis* 
:- led Wanderer p 177 

I .ten Chi AJtangl '■'■ Fun) Hoam, 
Aca- 
demy ji Fojcfp in China . . . p 178 

To the -ame p. tBo 

Fri.ni Winupo to Lien Chi Allanyi. by 

'. DC Moscow .... i 

From the same p. 1S3 

i icn Chi Allangito Hin>;po p. 185 
To the same ... p. 187 

FrotU I icti Chi Alt.mgi (o Fum Hoam, 
host President of the Ceremonial Aca- 
demy jt Pekin in China ... p. 189 

p 191 

To the *ame - p- 19a 

From Lien Chi Altangi to Hingpo, by 

the way of Moscow p 

To the <amc P '05 

From Lien Chi Altangi 10 Fum Hoam, 
First President of the Ceremonial Aca- 
demy ai Pekin in China . . . ;■ 
To (he wmc p 198 

From Lien Chi Altangi to Hingn 
the way of Moscow. .p. joo 

From Lien Chi 
First President of the Cercii 
demy at Pekin in China . . . )■ 
To the aanw ; 

From l-icn Chi Altangi 10 I 
the way of Moscow . . - • [' 3 °* 

From Ltefl Chi Altnne'i to Fum I! 
First President of the < eiemoniul Aca- 
demy at Pekin Id China ... p. J07 
To the same ... p J09 

From Hinupo to Lien Chi Allan, 

11 HI 
. igfl to Funi 1 1 
Presiaeol of ihc Cen 
demy at Pekin in O1111.1 p jit 

To the jhic p 

To the same . . j 

To the same p *i6 

To the same p .117 

To the same . | 

From Lien Chi Altangi to Hingp-. 
the way of Mi "-row . .1 

From Lien Chi Altangi i" rn.ni n 
Lbe CerenunUI 
deny at Pakln in Chhu . . . p 

To the same p 

To the same p. jj6 

From Fum Hoam to Lien Chi Al- 
tangi ... p a»7 
lien Chi Allangi to Fum Hoam, 
I ii 1 Pn let t r theO •■• n mi 1 
demv ni PeUfl m Oiina . . . p t>% 
To the same ....... p. t'fo 

To the same ... p 

To the same . . 

<ame ... Jk 135 

ime p. »«6 

From Hingpo, mM 
Altangi, in Ltmdoa p J37 

' lii Aliangi to Hing t 
Moscow 
■ 

' Aca- 
demy ai Pel in in China 






w, 



I' -' '■ - 

' i Mtaligi 10 H ' 

■ 

;i lo . Mcr- 

P ?*'< 

-MM 

P >53 

• 

r.tMw« 

— .« p. 158 

P »59 

p. 201 

■fe . . p. .66 

« 

i AilaDgl! 

Hi. I 

■ 

11 H' Jin, 
1 riwiliwi oi 

...c 

■ 

P *7° 



p 5tl 

p >88 

• « of Prv*i«r 1 

: popular 
P *93 
■ 

P- »95 

p. 30J 

■;-I al -1 

p -,.'■ 

~1 10 be 

• P J°9 

•>. ^ ls»,.. '. «, ,, ,, 

»l«| J....n,-...l. 



Versification .p. 3)9 

i/jtoUii, the Irish Baril ... 

xvi ,c Leasowcfr. p 344 

JDUJ Scniinu-ni.il Comedy p. 346 

^cu'uah Mjin^^o p. 347 



THE BEE: 

r COttKCT!>.>K Of K&SAVS OK TMR MOST 
IMTKHKSTINi. 

Jf*. 

i„ Si 

On a DCKOliful \ 

with Li^hti ■■■ m ilic 

Kfcmar. nrei . 

■ 
Translated from a Byantinc 

A Letter from a Traveller 

tint of the law Mi 

pertuis 

II .'..)//.r.,.j| ( Octtkrii, 1759. 

. p 360 

■ 
t great measure dcy- 
1 nltuttan 

p. 367 

I I I - -., — 

P 368 

p 17* 

IV A.. 

MUcH . . - . p J74 

A Hemi*h Tradition 

■ 

A t hv Night !' e> '.- p jBi 

P 3 fla 

■ 

llUtC Merit 

P 39 a 
lability of W 
dcur . 

Account of the A 

Vtmt*r 17, 1; 

loquenee . p 409 

.. »n J Law* cum pa 1 eel 

Pride arid Luxury of the Mil 

■ 
I 
Tempo* <>( th« 

J JQ — 

P 4*4 

An A 

■ ■ 
of the 



N INQ1 IKV IN lu 1III 

:■ OF POLITE LEARNING. 






[ntroducfl 'ti p. 4tg 

winch contribute lo the 
iming ... p. 419 

of the Obscure Age* 

.it State of Polite Lti 

I' <-• 
In Germany 

in Holland and 

irope . p. 437 

[ 439 

I Britain . . p 43a 

irding Gcmn p. 413 

< >( 11 ,y Decay in 

I Mgland p. 437 

Stage p. no 

On Cniver.iiie* p. 44a 

nclusion p. 444 



BIOGRAPHIES. 

im n »" Lokii Bo I IMGBROKI . . .p. 447 
l>R. PAfcHBLL ... . |> 473 

KE . . . 1 ■ ) - 7 

THaLiFfcuh Kichako Nash, Esq. - « p 5«8 

POI 
AVPLLEB;or, a Prospect of Society p. 571 

1 'l -•.bHTBD VlLLAi.K p. 580 

1 n« Hermit; a Ballad p 5 89 

i or Vbhisom. A Poetical Epistle 

i • I «d I ' in 

p J94 

1 CArrlviTV. An Oratoiio .... p. 399 

DRAMAS. 

. a Comedy . p 609 
'LEU, or, the Mitlakcs of 
iNighi A Comedy p. 643 



MISCELLANEOI 

Prologue Written and >poken by the Poet 
Libcrms a Raman Ki Caaaf 

upon the Stage.— Preserved by 

0-679 

Tbc Doable TnasfofliuiioA A T.ile . . p 679 

A New Simile. In the manner of Swift . p 680 

d .11 of u Anchor^ Bcdchaabev . p 681 

a the Death of a Mad Dog. . . p. 681 

• •n Woman p- 68» 

II,. (.Hi T<. In-, in Bow street, Covcnt garden. 

ted Iron the rntncli p. 6B1 

Parnell . . . , 

to "'Inc Sister." Spoken by 

Bulkley p 6ftj 

Intended Epilogue to "She Stoops to Con- 
quer" . . p 084 
r ihlcndcd Epilogue to "SI 

lo be spoken by Mr*. Bulk- 
ley 

From the (ir.ttorioof "The Captivity" . p 686 

Song, from the same - p. 0*7 

Reply 

on EJ»urd Purdoa .... 
v on thm Glory of her Set, Mr 
. . . 
11 tended 10 have been Ming by Miss HarQ> 
cavtle in the Comedy of " 

quer" 

to "Zobeide," a Tragedy. Spoken by 
M Quick m the cfaaractej 

K Spoken by Mr Lee Lewes, in il.c 
char.i p. <*9 

„'ieians refuted. In imitation 0! 

3«ift . . . p cV*> 

Stan/a* on the Taking of Quebec, and ,I'< 
,1 Wolfe .... 
nn a beautiful Youth struck Li 

'lliC 

-.^a) 

in reply to an Invitation to Dinner *t 
l»r Bakart .... 

Threnodia Augusta! is ........ 



INDEX OF FIRST LINES TO SMALLER POEMS. 



What ' no way left to shun th" inglorious 

P 679 

ife .p. 679 

nii,*ril in vain to find . . . p 680 

flaring o'er the way p. 681 

. iple all, of every ton . . . p 681 

to folly . . p. 68a 

p Hi 

lte«J to gentle Parnell** 

name ... .p. 68a 

long acts — and all to make us 

rl :■ ' 

udon- What's 
. 
... p. 686 
udemncd with life to part p. 686 



O Memory, thou fond deceiver . . . . p 6»y 
John Trot was desired by two witty peers p 6Sy 
Here lies poor Ned Purdoii, trom ninety 

freed 
Good people all. with one no DM 
vbes wall 1 mam m . 

In ilicc bold time*. HrMfl Learning's MB 

explore P- 628 

Prompter, hold' a word before yon 
sense ! 

LoaricUns have but ill defined 

y% . . p C90 

Sure 'lv»a. by Pi 

Weeping, munniiriiiu, complaining . . . p. <*>l 

Your mandate I got 

Arise, ye sons of worth, arise. ... p. 6y* 



MEMOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



Tut Lift */ 0/ litA by Mr. (now .Sir James) Prior, publisher! in 1S37, 

la two »" [he first really careful biography of a write! WHO 1 1 -t ■ 1 

lilrjjy !• .l.lrainl l.i -. 

■ lesearches it can li.ir I: . ie has 

I any in Mr. John Forster*s well known Ia>- >:furei 

^^Kmt*r i*-Ui- 1S4S. superseded, however, for most pu 

- greater vis 
lUiiij iii ihly remain the standard biography of Goldsmith 

Dsmoosohi. 

miTwc 1. but lias an independenl inl 

nil. 1 u '..'.11 his life, in acknowleil lith as bis 

'••'rrxry IW lith." 

Of smaller mem ihe nuinbcr is past counting. Perhaps, then 

•0 better rea»on can be gr.cn foe here adding one more than that it will be 
cunnueat for possessors of ihi- edHSon^of Goldsnutb's Works to have some account 
<■! ti. th it. 



rn, on the 10th of Govern 
and tben alnn-' 

illtude ol Ireland. His father, the Ri I 
rotestant clergyman of that I 

worth and goodness of heart 1 ithet 
o were originally from i tie South of 1 ngland, and in wh 

stani form, 
I alisn- is also of a clerical and 

' licen naturalised in Ireland. - f the 

of ihe diocesan sen - 

■I hii 1 Ihi 
■ 
U lu'rnnl inrt ' with Olivei 

Fi- I lenry, had ' 

torn his wife before the apycmvxct <A \\vt 



■M 



VOIR OF GOf.DS.VfTH. 



thai was to make them famous ; ami the family was ullimatcly coiuplc 
irlh oflliree sons younger than Oliver, D Itarles, and J oh 

< ily of eight (a daughter), and this last-named John, died 

childhood. Eliectively, therefore, Oliver grew up as one of a family of six, three 

whom were older, and two younger, than bunaelf, 

vi: .if the rural heart of Ireland, Goldafflhb, till his seventeenth year, recciv 
In- eiiin' that of scenery and circumstance, or of more formal 

. within me limits of that little-visited region. Not, however, without 
within those limits. In 1730, while he was; 
but an infant, Ins father, after having been about twelve years minister of I'.dl 
remi" ikenny West, a parish some miles south 

and situated not in the county of Longford, but in the adjacent county of W 

lb. Thenceforward, accordingly, the headquarters of the family were no longer 
Inn .it I.i My, a qnainl Irian Tillage within the bounds of the new parish 
y and rather commodious parsonage-house, on the verge of 
(1 between Alhlone and Ballymahon, the good clergyman 
II I.. Win;; u[i his children on his paltry clerical income, eked out by 
some seventy acres of land. He was himself a mild eccentric of 
"-, kindly tn all about him, and of pious, confused ways. But ' 
rial oddity of Lissoy, and the incarnation of all that had been peculiar 
in tlie race of tlie t ■old-mlllis. was the | Bung ion, ' >liv 

In book-learning, for one thing, he was, from the first, a little blockhead, " Nc 

, " wai the rt port of a 1 inswoman, who, having lived in the I 

try to teach him his letters, and who aftcrwati 
ibeth Delap, kept a (mall school at I 
rourl of her pupil, and to talk of him in her extreme old age, | 

to have been the report of the Lissoy school 
ter, Thomas Byrne, more familiarly knoun a| " I' idd) Ftyrne," — a veteran 
original vocation of teaching aftet having served in the 1 

under Marlborough and risen to the penh of 

Idy Byme" Goldsmith seems to have retained to tin; 

■11 : — 

A man »evere he *«, and stern In view: 

I knew him well, and even 

Well kid the bodinc trembler* learnt to truce 

-icrs hi liis montup 
Full'.ell dwr hmahsd with c iMrfi •<«<! glee 

At all hit joke*, for many a joke had he ; 

mU ii'e bwsy wh is p ai, eJrding mimd, 

R he frowned. 
atghC 

in learning- w.»» hi l-nilt : 
Tlic vilUre .ill dedand how much he knew : 

.sure, hennt tad tide, pic 1 
And even die ItOry iaa thai lit COoM L-io^e 




MEMOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



\\ 



■ stock of talCS, nut only of Ms own nig a>l- 

"in old Irish bal 
miffing, which he was fond of exercising In the form of extempore Irish 
ihis " Paddy B\ I art, il Atom 

of literary invention and rhyming. Hut the poor 

Ijl bad he become aware of the wi 
me, and hardly had Paddy Byrne had time to discern the 
imewhere in his awkward little pupil, when the 
(Cfuratc-I. The boy Was not more than nine years of age when an atlaek 
'his attendance at Lissoy school ; and, when he 
naturally pi to such a grote-s] 

ik at him without laughing. Whethei 
because better instruction than Paddy B 

The purpose was that he should attend the ichool II Elpl In 

h* I been taught by his grandfather, the R 

n. For about ty 
boarding all the while with his uncle, Mr. J 
Of I' near Klphin. lint in \~\>), when he 

oM, 1 I of some reputation nearer I 

«.fi h-' 'one, about live mile) fr..m I.issov, by a Rev. Mi 

(but years more at the school of a Rev. Patrick 

hstown, county Longford, some seventeen miles lion) I i 

i-jMi.-iie I his seventeenth year. 

u he was tossed about from 
1 to ich>x>' coming home to Lissoy and 

singularly with what he was nil 
ttreagti life. At every school m hear of him as a shy, thick, awkward boy. the 

use nf his comically nyly face, arid thought 
than a fool." And yet everywhere there seems 
r lii in as an innocent simple-hearted fellow, who, though 
and liable to fits of the sulks on aocoonl 
iin on the least beckoning of kindliness, ami ■ 
! II fives or ball with those who had been his tormentors, 
n too ork we hear little. We are to suppose him gradually 

in preparation for the University; and 

mil Horace, liis peculiar delight In 

after a while, and lus little care for Cicero. Tiler 

it he excelled in the style of hi- i th.it 

h)d c for talent with the master- than ,. I In the 

saying about Goldsmith, "He was a planl 
mm! ! | remarkable about him when yonng," 

ma \V.s- 



»ii 



VOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



exquisite variety of English writing which eventually he gave to the M 

till this out ■ •thing •' remarkable " about him to Ihi 

not discern th.it it might come, unless they chose, with his school] 

his very quecruess and coufuscd-headcdncss remarkable. What I was 

as a man, we repeat, lie was as a boy. The amount of difference | 

case by growth and experience w. 

booUellows M Klphin, Athlonc, '.ut ai 

v in the nod* ol its expression, of thai 
hi, Burke, Garnet, and others avowed they wool 
till his glory, if they had Judged of hhs 
Writings? "He is little better t; 
Not were there writing, in his boyhood, any more than in his man! 
occasional gleams and Sashes which challenged the current verdi 

he absurd creature with the toured race, and made peo| 
fool, he might not be t fool exl 

Without in the fact that the earl 

h extant (not written years after our preseu. 

nour and grace ■;, we might rem 

superior finish of his boyish exercises in In Bat there 

re than tins. All through his school-days, it is known, young Goldsmith 
I the trick of rhyming which he had leant! from I'addy Byrne, and 
read such English poetry as came in 1 te verses 01 

which made his mother and others think that something after all might be made of 
lit" None of these verses, of any value for comparison with what he u 
have been preserved. But there is an extempore metrical | 
attributed to the time when he was at Elphin, and not more than eleven yean ( 
age, which shows that there was wit in the little fellow even thus early. At In 

- house, it seems, as Oliver was dancing a hornpipe to t 

of a certain Mr. Camming, Ins droll face and figure -o struck Iht p! 

lighter and pointed to the dancer as a fao-simile ol "ugi;. 

el : — 

Our herald hath proclaimed ihi 1 . oyinf : 

■ See .£»op dancing, and hi- p Tig," 

Now that he was come 10 the IgC of to be "done with thi 

■ 1 lad, whom everybodj laughed at as a fool, ami who yet wa 
evidently a nding had been that he was ti 

ier, Henry, had already concluded his a 
: llicic wen es in the way. The famih never 

id by a pat 
tg been privately married 10 a Mr. D 

w Henrj Goldsmith was then acting a, tutor, and who was the 

. her father thought himself OOO 
IkjuI tlie ii, 




1 into mi engagement, ; 1, lo pay 400/. as ha nun 

lent for tin- credit of <l the 

idied at the time, and some of tlicm permanently. If Oliver were 
<y now, it must be not as a "1 like hisbl 

■ in ihe lower grade of a "sizar" or "pour scholar," irearinga 
. and performing menial offices about college in 1 
■id. At ibis prospect Goldsmith recoiled. He would rather, 
he declare.!. . the remonstrances of 

every reason to respect 6 him to yield. This 

1 iie"— i.e. the Rer. Thomas G>ntarine (originally Com 

is grandfather was a refugee from \\ n of Oran, near Ros- 

worthy man, who had been the college-companion of Bishop 

iirried a sister of Goldsmith's father; and, daring her life, Oliver 

1 frequent visitor .it their house. No one had liked the boy better all 

better discerned what was in him, than Uncle Contarine. Already he 

I to m a intain him at school ; and, the lecent de.ith of his wife having 

ne daughter, whatever affection would have gone to a 

son i' ' was transferred to Ins nephew Oliver. He insisted thai Oliver 

a suar? lie had been a oral bit 
1 se for it ? 
At lion, Goldsmith was admitted at Trinity College, 

745, Ihe last in a list of eight sizars, of whom a 
•chool-fellow at I was another. These two chin 

i- of Goldsmith's college-course. Among fellow 

I at college were Lauchlan Macleane, and some others 

Die distinction in politics' or in the church : Flood ud 

uke were both then in the college, but barely remembered, in after life, 

there. No contrast can have been greater than between the 

college-life of Burke and that of Goldsmith. There was nothing, indeed, very 

ig t " formal academic estimation, in Burke's college-career ; 

i him as a "terrible fellow " in a set of his own, domineering 

and storing his ample mind iv.th all sorts of inform. I 

,\n way. In poor Goldy** case we find what might have 

ius," according 10 the report of one of his collrge- 
bul "only squalid j overly, and its concomitants, idleness and de- 
e." He was better known as "lounging about the college-gates," and 
was at hand, or as playing the /lute and ringing 
hl» rooms, than ait making any figure in the classes. Two causes probablj 
• make his college career more reckless and miserable tl 
been ! tiai he had fur his tutor a strong-bodied brute, named Wilder, of 

likeness to all about him there are yet traditions, and who seems to 
hod all the more delight in tormenting the poor siiar because he had come ftOS 

onn p*it of the country and iud been specially recommended to him. "-' 



•mr/f of coLDs.vrrn. 



nttile," Ik- would S«J Sfhef) I under examination, Ihough sometime- hi 

d lo end Willi "- . " Hut I he dealh of Oliver's fatlici early in 1747, 

in the very middle of Oliver's college-course, was a greater cause of hi 

Wilder*! rough tutorship. The main income of the family 1). ,d ihe 

f.nnily group was scattered — Mr. ami Mr*. Hod -on remaining, indeed, in pewsession 
of the house at Lissoyj but Goldsmith's mother settling in li.illymahoii, 31. 
brother Henry taking the curacy of his father's old parish of Pallasmore, with 40/. a 
year of salary and the chance of pupils. In these circumstances, such small sup 
as hail till now reached Oliver from home were no longer forthcoming. Uncle 
•cents to have done what he could ; but, with such lax husbandry as Oh 
. Eke pulling water in driblet! info a sieve. The latter half of his stay at the 
K-ntlv, worse than the first. It was one series of mishap- 
In May 1747, .1 in.. nih or two after the dealh of Oliver's father, there 
was a college riot in Dublin against the police, in retaliation for the arrest of a 
ad 11 end..-. I 111 .111 attempt h) break open the prison and the death! of 
several townsmen. Four ol the were expelled from the University; and 

among fool others who who publicly rebuked for their share in Ihe affair was 
bldnaith — the Latin record In ihe L'niversity-books bearing that he had " favoured 
.11 ami given aid lo the liotcis." The next month he tried for a scholarship 
I railed. He did obtain a small exhibition, worth about thirty shillings a year, 

but even this hi ibsequenl negligence. He had to pawn hit books, and 

resort 1 shifl for raising now and then • half-crown. Nothing 

can be more doleful than ilie account of the poor liar's life at tins. time. Bui he 
was bleated, as he himself said aftl ■ ilh "a knack at hoping." A copy 1. f 

One of his college class-books, and is still 
ved somewhere, attests this very characteristically. It is scribbled over With 
ire in van. .11- forms, 11 ly in such forms as these — " 'Free: Oliver 

IJimith" — showing how, in his 
us, the p would dream of one day being a member 01 

nk letters, or of being in a position to be accom- 
iled easily with any di Meanwhile, too, at least one ol I 

money-making had a relish of superior pleasure in it, Tin 
nling of halladt, to be sold, at a particular shop he knew of, for five shillings 
eh, and thence retailed, [| int, to the Dublin ballad-singers. Every live 

was something in itself; but to go oul at nights, and, leaning against a 
one of the ihllUngl '•'.ill in ■■ 

D a ragged crowd of men ami girl*, and be able to buy a 
for a pel ... a delight worth all the pains Of -in-'ii'. and the 

■f ten Wildi nelimcs Oliver fell ; but the one Wilder hid almost 

One exening, in Ihe flush ..f |O0H lillle success, 1 I 
won ji mce in his ro.snis to " a party of young friends of both 

Ity," when the rnti rule, bunt in, an 

only abused him in gross terms before his guests, but actually collated and thr.. 



VOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



Most. Nnl d»jr Oliver was oft ia and spare clothes, hung about 

Dublin tilt he had but a single shilling left, ami then set out to walk to ' 
tocan America. He subsisted on the shilling for three days; after 

living QQ one knows how — save that DC used alterwanls 
11 Out Ihc . ious meal he Utvd ever lasted was a handful of grey peas 

ijirl at a wake after twenty-four hours of fasting, 
U sensible enough to think of going home; his It , met 

him by appointment ; and alter a little time they Irani hack to Dublin togclhti. 
nude it up so far with Wilder that Oliver was rc-adniittcd into college. 1 1 
tbca wen! on very much as before— Oliver again and again "cautioned," and fines 
1 him in the buttery-books. Once more we hear of an cncoi 
i Wilder, and nol lly for Goldsmith this time, 

lecturing on the tnhjeel of the Centre of Gravity, and had - 1 
iestalemenlofwh.il hail Utterly in the dark, Goldsmith 

i that would pass, when the tutor took the Iruuble 
i, "And now, you blockhead, where is 
/w etui" bring that the question was intended 

from your definition," said Goldy in a slow voice, " I 
he went on to name, in the frankest possible manner, the 
•apposed where.* [uired. There was a roar of laughter from 

tli-- tltu; I was, he could only call Oliver impertinent as well 

(a ignorant, and mm him down to the lowest place. The date of this incident, 
*k»Jt Goht I afterwards to relate with glee, is ascertained to have been 

Wty 0, 1748. Less than a year ,-. m February 1749, he reached the 

rod at h»> ' idmilted to the B.A. degree. He was the 

Ifnrct' The wonder i= that, having been 

all. 

nith could go forth to the world as 

In. Of what use had his four years at the 

ivtfatjr been to him? Apparently, in his own opinion, of very little. Not 

1 to sizarship in those days, hut 

« •crnM lo hare formed a theory that much of the education received at Universities 

WM tiaiti- unnecessary. " A boy," he afterward- wrote, " who understands perfectly 

trail -' .Mimetic, and the principles of civil law, and can write a fine 

thai may qualify him fot any undertaking." And yet, with 

II his indolence, he had probably got a good deal 

thare that I to him. In mathematics he did nothing, consoling 

ion that "this seems a science to which the meanest 

eurUrclt *ir equal ;" and to all forms of metaphysical or philosophical study — 

or the dreary subtleties of Smiglcsius" — he pro- 
(raol hip and genera] literary accomplishment he canaol 

He could " turn an ode of Horace into English bi 
than any 01* tt«m," he afterwards told Mih.ne, and there is no reason to dov) 






MEMOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



In Greek, too, he must have sometimes been rewarded with a Valdt bent. In short, 
at college, as previously at school, though the general opinion of Goldsmith always 
expressed itself in the phrase, quoted by himself more than once, " that he was very 
good-natured and had not the least harm in him," there must have been occasional 
flashes from him causing people to doubt whether he was not a much cleverer fellow 
than he looked. And then there were his private scribblings in prose and verse for 
his own amusement at nights, and those precious and now unknown hall»H« that 
were hawked about the Dublin streets. 

For about two years, after leaving college, Goldsmith led what Thackeray 
calls " the life of a buckcen," hanging on his relatives. He lived chiefly in Ins 
mother's house in Ballymahon — close to which there was a convenient inn, where 
he could be jovial in the evenings, and sing songs and tell stories to the choice 
rustic spirits that gathered round him. But sometimes he was with his sister and 
brother-in-law at Lissoy, fishing, otter-hunting, or lounging abont the farm ; and 
at other times he went over to his brother Henry's at Pallasmore, and tried his 
hand for a week or two at helping that good man with his pupils. This vaga- 
bondage of Oliver seems to have been a sore trouble to all the family. They had 
looked forward to his taking holy orders ; but, to his own secret satisfaction, that 
project had failed through the refusal of the Bishop of Elphin to ordain him. 
Some said the refusal was because of reports of his conduct that had reached the 
bishop ; others thought it was because he had stupidly gone to the bishop in 
flaming scarlet breeches. Anyhow, the Established Church of Ireland lost the 
services of Oliver Goldsmith. Uncle Contarine, who had been the chief hand in 
persuading him so far to the clerical project, next suggested a tutorship, and did 
at length get him, as tutor, into the family of a Mr. Flinn in Roscommon county. 
Here he seemed to be all right for about a year ; but, suddenly tiring of the work, 
or quarrelling with the family, he set out, on a good horse and with thirty pounds 
in his pocket, bound a second time (so he gave out) for America vii Cork. Nothing 
was heard of him for six weeks, when unexpectedly he turned up at his mother's 
door, without a penny, and riding on a bony animal which he called Fiddleback. 
He gave his mother a long rigmarole account of his adventures — how he had gone 
to Cork, taken his passage and sent bis kit on board, and how, the captain having 
sailed without him, he had had to sell his good horse, buy the wretched beast 
Fiddleback, and all but beg his way through the country to Ballymahon. " And 
now, my dear mother," he ended, seeing the old lady's face gloom, " after having 
struggled so hard to come home to you, I wonder you are not more rejoiced 
to see me." Little wonder that, from this moment, there was a coolness on 
Mrs. Goldsmith's part to her young prodigal, and a wish to get rid of him anyhow. 
Even his good brother Henry ceased to have anything to say to him. Only Uncle 
Contarine stuck by him. He suggested that Oliver should go to London and study 
law at the Temple; and Oliver, having readily acquiesced, was provided with 
50/. by Uncle Contarine for his first expenses, and duly set oft But he never 
got any farther than Dublin. Falling into bad hands there, he lost all he had 



Mir if. 



milling and what not, and had to return with real shame and 
Y%\ forgiven, ayain provided with some outfit of money, and again sent off — 
bow o London to study law; but to Edinburgh, to qualify 

If Soi ifession. And this time Ireland and I 1 

. er — rid of him for ever. II 
tea: ir>] twenty year* of age, and lie I iv.-.j twenty years long 
•v (retail family, save when, some five years 

hi* J"osk ■•'! "I* twetf ' at the door of the v. retched 

London garret in which he then w:.-. BC in ruefully to spend ■ di 

way to Jamaica. All through Oliver'-, future lit . 
. was a warm curner in his heart for recollections of his nalive I> 
thaw he had left there— his mother, his brother Henry, I'ncle ConttHae, and the 

Hi ' "1 think of them often till the tears came; he never quite 61 
to c ■■ ith them; and he h ream of revisiting thai 

nig his eyes on > v and the green land 

tt>«'. most pleasing hori/on in Nature." Ere the dream could 

pUtAcd. the n* ' Itet Henry were all dead, am] it 

wxi oo longer worth while. 

ith as a medical student in Edinburgh might be a good theme for n little 

to any on. e to write a variation of some of the 

lJM|mii ol .-, twining the quaint traditions and queer social habits of 

ital, in the middle of t! round 

Ok ftjpiTT oi die humorous Irish lad, of subsequent celebrity, who had come in' 
lie waa there for about eighteen months or from the ant" 

He was boarded and lodged, no doubt, nigh up 
mm* ry old courts, going off from the 1 1 '. thai 

riurgh. His letters do nol tdl the exact spot— the 
*Mmx " ng enough to ensure tl 

; "Jt he gives a satirical ■ in one 

of Ihcai ol r economical style of cookery. There were 

ti tin town besides himself; for the Edinburgl 
Mrfcoo* wa» then far. the world and drew students from all COM . 

Math of i m the great reputation of Dr. A' 

Yftr-wn ie first of three A 

•ad ton) i on from 17:0 to 1846, 

othr» o»r Dr. Charles Alston (Botany and V 

R»V Mr John Rutherford (Tractice of 1 

*■>** Smith (Midwifery). There if 

burgh, attended all die 
' if most of the rrofetsors he did nol 
hai h» was ." " This man," he writes, "ha* 

is much perfection as it is capable of; 'lis he, 1 
raws hither such a number of students. Itotn, moiV ywVi <A. 






!OIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



the world, even from Russia." Thai Goldsmith, while thus attending Mi 

•illy look some interest in medical Studies generally, is proved by the fact 
he was a member of the "Medical Society"— an association of the | 
hopes of the profession, for medical debate and dissertation, which still exists lo 
Edinburgh in high repute. His admission into this society is entered in its I 
Under the date Jan. 13, 1753. The future great chemist. Dr. Joseph Mack, was one 
of Goldsmith's fellow-students at Edinburgh, and remembered him well ; and 
.'.v -students with him, afterwards more or less known, were I>r. William 
Dr. Joseph Peon Sleigh, and Lauchlan Macleane, bis former co-mate at Trini". 
lege, Dublin, and now il-'i thinking of medicine as a profession. But, as m 
supposed, ''• WW not all medical study and preparation for the profession with Goldjr 
in Bi We hear of him, naturally enough, as gathering the young In 

of the University about him, and leading in their suppers and their songs, lie must 
have got somehow also into what was then the more select and stately society of the 
Scottish metropolis ; for there is a letter of his to a friend in Ireland giving an 
amusing description of the fashionable Edinburgh balls and assemblies; — the 1 
like solemnity of the dancers of both sexes, the leanness and high check-bones of I lie 
BU n, and the ravishing effect of the Scottish dialect when spoken by a So 

>r instance, teach one of your young ladies lo pronounce ' Whoar wull 1 gi 
with a becoming widening of the mouth, and I'll lay my life she'll wound 

r." There is something also about some brief and unsuccessful Conner 

his, or proposal of connexion, in some opacity, with the household of the Ilukeof 

milton ; and he had leisure for at least one walking-lour into some part of the 

Scottish Highlands. Very probably, by some exertions of his own, in teaching 01 ihc 

like, he helped to pay his expenses in Edinburgh, though obliged to draw now and 

on Uncle Contarinc for 6/. or 4/- His l" 51 draft on the excellent man was late 

1 1 lie winter of 1753. " As I shall not have another opportunity of receiving money 

um your bounty," he writes to Uncle Contarine about that date, "so I have 

n that I hope I shall cvct trouble you for ; 'lis zo/. And now, dear 
me here acknowledge": — what is acknowledged may be easily gin 
ternal sense of obligation to the good uncle. The 20/. were wanted. ■ 
Ihc same letter, to carry him to the Continent, for the completion of hi- 
education. "I have seen all that this country can exhibit in the nedil 
tbi rcforc intend to visit Paris, where the great M. Farhcin, Petit, and Du Hamad 
Monccau, instruct their pupil- In all the branches of medicine." That the lectures 
. which he understood perfectly, and not in Latin, as the lectu 
at most other foreign Universities were, would, he hinted, be of great advantage lo 
I and this was the reason for his determining on Paris, rather than on Leyden, 
which lie had also been thinking of on account of its "great professor,'' All 
The 1 He had always had a desire to travel 

and "tin great M. Farhcin" and "the great Albums" were convenient as on 

as Paris that Goldsmith wanted to go to, it was at I 






in a Idler p 
■kI 
Ifm ig and the Scotch he hod 

i the highesl contrast, There hills ami i 
• .ill a continued plain. There you might sec a 
ing from a dirty close, and hen.- a 

! appear, had d .■ 
} for 
re as in Edinburgh ; and in Leyden there arc but four 
id being so cxtrei. 

pled." Wnli i: 
icquaintance. But, though be remained about 
tra . there, it was only to set out from 

> ii through tl lotion of t!ie possibility 

jich • ■ out finances appears I i i put into In-- hi 

nx-u'-m:. nival in Leyden there had died in thai town the famous 

DtaMi hi' ; (1684—17541, 

on* •*- 

literature, and 1 out the hoi 

arf«*ntui'» of his early life. A Norwegian by birth, lie had Gome; after * 
kv»! ' ' 

" 1kn he world. Without mo 

travels and mal 

Mn I. so extensive . so he ti 

M f£h» .1 Willi 

1 lied 
\\ hal I lolberg had 

1 ■■■ 

llltry, mud 
rj'. '; l::rr rll' .11 tl- ,1. 10 aiming llielll with lil-il else. Rcailling 1 " . , 1 1 -_. lie 

es of M. 1 

d likening to n splcndi ' :h the 

Kbnun, ill. . 

/.iish, in which . . i bciu£ luu£ ilk 

v 








MOW OF GOLDSMITH, 



inic 

rema 

playi 



nvl into ft magnificent defence of them against Piderol and Fontcnelle, 
n eagre face" gathering beauty as he spolce, "his eye beaming \\ith unusual ' 

and 'Strokes of the finest raillery falling from him thick and fast." So 

miili afterwards described the interview, the scene of which he certainly makes 
In have been Pans, though Mr. Forslcr thinks tins a mistake, and that it must have 

in Switzerland. Through Switzerland, at all events with a touch of Germany 
OB I lie way, Goldsmith did go, visiting Geneva, Basle, and Berne, and making foot- 
excursions among the hills and valleys. Then, crossing the Alps, he descended 
Into li >!;. by Piedmont and went to Florence, Verona, Mantua, Milan, Venice, and 

I , at which last city, on account of the reputation of its medical school, be 
I some time. In Italy, he gives us incidentally to understand, his flute- 
playing stood him in less stead than in France, every peasant in Italy being a belter 
musician than himself; bnl he had another resource in the old custom of ] 
sophic.il disputations at universities and convents, followed by dinner, a i 
lodging, and a small graluity to the successful disputant. But, indeed, the moi 
Goldsmith's existence during his extraordinary tour is a mystery. Letters be 
sent to Ireland once Of twice for remittances appear to have brought no i 

friends, met anally in Puis or elsewhere, may have help d : 

gambling, in which Goldsmith always did a little, is mentioned as probably helping 
too ; and once or twice he seems to have hooked himself on to somebody, travelling 
himself, who did not object to a companion. There is a dim tradition tfa 
; Committed to him in Switzerland the charge of a young gentleman, the son of a 
wealthy London pawnbroker, who bad been sent abroad for menial improv. 
and l hat the young gentleman, preferring cash to the menial improvement lie was 
III the connexion rather suddenly. Back through France, al an) 
ly seems to have made his return journey quite alone, fluting gaily as be 
come. On the Isl of February, I75C he landed at Dover, after an nearly 

IWO yar. in all. Having, ii 1- bt lievfdi not a farthing in his pockets, it 
;! a fortnight, and some comic singing in country barns, lo pull himself 
Ion. He was twenty-seven years and three months old when he I 
in the I.c : -. and he was to lie a Londoner and nothing else all 

I Ins life. 
All ! London, London I thou breaker of hearts from of old, thou v. reel., 
gem lives, thou insatiable maw of the bones and brains of men, vast 

ovrf thy flat acres, then as no. liy fabric of bricl. 

: 1 -. with using steeples among them and ii 
yard then as now. by the flowing and ebbing river, and on 

he same roar of traffic and ad the same rush 

of myriads, all Competing for existence, and some for ils prizes and sv 
ilf-hrulnl London of that d tin few of 

myriad., on either, bank of the river, whose occupation seemed to be the 

11 to the river with 1: 
matches, papers, tapers. 1 Ihel 




tun 'I ii 'ire? Not cm 

••■ unbnmablc, river, I 
ggest t- -r c ii thai can be Rung into ii. But the attempt ti 

has l-een n traditional emph n lime immemorial, and so fascinating 

I Mini, in, and even men, 

have more combustible, streams, and set 

h with iiis neu triek f"i inflaming water, on the bonki of 
one. Pod <■ does the Thames no harm, and it amuses lluml 

Stra< ■• r, that it ii precisely those Londoners, native or u 

iged in this hopeless occupation, th.it the world cures to 
rem-" r contemporary myriads, otherwise occupied, are 

lie very history of London is a record of the succes-i 

Injured at setting lire to the Thame;. Well, then big half- 
Ion of February 1756, here is another young fellow, footsore Irani 
return from a wild continental lour, who enters thee on thy south 
1 .in lii r 1 i confusedly, lie has himself no notion in the world 

I besy that lie will have to 
I bames-kindh is. He seems fil 
diploma of M.B. I nhn 1 -iiy 

no one know*), and may practtsi 
ind i "Dr." Goldsmith, Hut who would I 

■Belt a sin d-looking fellow, to bleed him or pr< 

eventually than one 
match brigade. Meanwhile receive him U gentlj u yen 
1 1 ailures thi lie out of Ire] nd, wi 
1 than he Ii 
little infom ime than farther exclanwti 
ovw 1 opul ition of I. Ion i" 

II., which had ahead] I over 

■ou In home-pohl 

nee in office of the Duke of N 
1. I>) I'm (afterwards Lord ( hatham), give 

of that statesman, and to hi by that blau of Pilt'f 

ascrud of George II. so brilliant « 1 

rederick the 

iifctor-l wl ..in.. Prim . did the al 

■ 
ngs bod a blacl - 

uilding of the new chapel for \\ I. Ii 
or tli 



row of cor.n. 



- on London Bridge. To assist them to proper opinions on the) 
c.ihci subjects, then were the London newspapers of that date— daily, 

, Tory, and what not ; and, in addition to ilic news] 
abundance of critical journak, reviews, and tnagaaines. For it 
a vciy busy time in British literature. Thai in of literature into 

commerce winch ihe Tonsoos may be said to bare commenced bod 
pic iiv well improved and regularized. It was no longer on the Court, or on Wl 

Ministers, or on the casual patronage of noblemen of taste, to 
letters depended, but on the demand of the general public of readers and 
purchasers, as it could be ascertained and catered for by booksellers n 
publishing their business. The centre of this book-trade was n 
and here, accordingly, hanging on the booksellers, and writing for the i 
and magazines, but with side-glances also to the theatres and their manage: -. 
Bow congregated such a host of authors and allies by profession as had ncv 
i in London before. To borrow fi.nu Mr. horsier a convenient list 
whom we have now dismissed into oblivion as the smaller fry of thai Ga 
I world of London in the latter days of George II., there were the 

i ., Kenricks, Kellys, Shiels, Smarts, Bakers, Guthrie*, W ■.-.■.■ 
rs, CoUyers, Joneses, Francklins, l'ilkingtons, Huddleston Wynnes an 
nnns." They did not consider themselves small fry. but were busy nil 
01 enough — the Irish among them lighting with the Scotch, and i 
English; and perhaps the last-named Irishman, Iliffernan, ought to have 
v history still, as the inventor of the grand word "impecuniosity." I 
I of these less-kno' :tten one would seek out now the figures of tn 

• were undoubtedly the Thamevkhidlerj in chief. And tir-t at con 

Johnson, now forty seven years of age, and a Londoner already for Dearly 
years- -not yet "Dr.," ami not in possession of his literary dictatorship, 
ad. it. The poet Young was alive in old 1 

and Londoners confirmed were Richardson, appro 
with all his novels published, and Smollett, not past 
itith year, but with some of his liest novels published, and i ■ 
, and all sorts of things. Fielding had be 
years, and Sterne, though some years over forty, had not \et l>ccn heard of. 
poet Collins was dying in madness, at C mp together Ihe • 

M diet, and Armstrong. Glover, Akensidc, Gnrrick, 1 

L Murphy, ami thi ntg too particular in inquiring whether tr, 

ti habitually at the exact time under consideration; rei 
1 >yer. Sluo . 1 1. nice Walpnle. an 

inland, and could be in London if they likcil, 
nriing of London in the distance, were a few 
tllan Ramsay still surviving among them ; finally 
in adventurer in London, 
nilh'i own age as Percy of the Ballads, the 



■ 



m 




rOIK OF GOLDSMITH. 






.- lo London or tending 
lettca 

•-•ign, anil also I ihe 

treats interpenetrated London when 
led streets. And who was the nominal chi 
tl W] n — 

I Mature farmed ihe pool fur the long. 

doI live beyond 1757. He 
itchead, h nose ' • 757 10 

aba of tin 1 liom 

. w attocim. . i.-mith, fell within the laureateship of this memorable 

G Ismith lo the London world of letters tl 

h coonanioa Nat to 

liy which li 1 sheer bread for lor 

1, wiili a daily gulp ol die poor felhov'- 

ondon. It was desperate \\< 
. in Ins own memory, and neva 
When I lived among the beggars in " tie 

nil n laugh ; and there are traces of liiio 

jiw 1 • 11 ■-. He was, for aome time, 

•me; he was then einplnyod in the shop of I drug 

IM of ashavhngset up for htajsell 1 OMIUj 

poor earing a mi md-hand sail "J 
pM; «..l afaii 

$*■.'.' Fleet Street Of Ihia last eon- 

acvwo, m 

BM( v-ijaJiiiii Ming ; and 

1'llAiartb had 

1 u' " ih« Written Mounts 

(the accr ii 'm ilu I'm 

tehooJ <J •■ I Eerc he lived for tome time 

really 
mm mn ler 1 if 

ratemukti < IW or had ! 

tl ii .-.•.'fill for 1 

but 
H a Tory rl 1 dite i by 

icimens of kind 

lo engage him '-•■ . in 

AftU IJJ7. in the house of ' V fc 



\roiR of GOLDsitrrrtr. 



, mi i he understanding that, foi hoai 
salary besides, be was to write rocb articles and revii I . might be 

required thug him. Griffiths, and (What n- wane for Goldy) Mrs. Griffiths, were 
to be j sd were lo clip ami doctor then to Hit 

Behold Goldsmith at last with the pen put into his hand— his one predestined 
UlStnnsenl in [he world I In i ho ( -in unistanccs, however, he does n 
taken to it kindly. For live months, indeed, he sat daily in i 

i house from nine o'clock till mo, and sometimes later, writing, 01 
posed to be writing, notices of books and suchdike fur the . ; 

hotter, in the successive numbers of the A'.-ti^c- from 
abet 1757, have been picked out from among the articles supplii 
other liths staff— Griffiths himself, RulThead, C 

Kippi-. Laoghome, &C, 1'hey include a paper on Mallet'-. "Mythology of the 
Celts.' 1 and reviews of Home's " Douglas," Burke's "Essay on the Sublime 
itlful," Smollett's "History of England," Voltaire's "Universal Hist 
Wilkie's " I I the "Odes" i-icles 

he land then going, and something of Goldsmith's lightness and 

.1 or most "i them. Bat, whether because Goldsmitl 
industry did not satisfy the methodical bookseller, or because Mr-. Griffiths did 
!iis ways, or because the tampering of both with what he wrote and 

:it of him hurt his sensitiveness, the engagement, which had been fot 
ir, was broken short at the end of the five months. A new hand, a 
ith's place as Griffilhs's resident hack ; and Goldsmith 
1 adrift— not absolutely cashiered by Griffiths, and indeed . him, 

on (he best of terms, but at lihcrt;, her work. 

he particulars of the next year nr two of Goldsmith's anon 
he merest sketch suffice: — In or about September 1757, after leaving 

ret somewhere near Salisbury Square; and here it 

I brother, I ime in upon him, and lived for a day 01 

with him ruefully, on his way to Jamaica, lie ■ as then livin lotions from 

I rench and other things, still chiefly for Griffiths, with the Temple Exchange 

le Bar, as his daily house of call, where letters 1 

le could meet and talk with a few fellow-craft 

like more flourishing. Then he is traced going back ' 

'.inie. in in 10 hi- ushership nt Fedthnm— only, however, to emerge 

ickwork. In 175S he is found living In No, IX, Gi 
lit, Old Mley— ■ dingy Httle old square, approached from Karri* 
-age called Break-Neck Steps, now all demolished, and son 

•n of it when he visited it for Goldsmith's 
it a colony of washerwomen, and slovenly ad * the 

njenl and clothes hung to dry on lines from the windows, Her..-, when it 

. ildsmlth !:■ I Lite 

■ ;■'©-!. ( till George II. WIS king no longer, but 1 



••Wilt OF HI. 



fcl b:» |CC*J '. I"-' W « 

• jr. bed lo hope something from his 

had actual!; i Dr. MUncr, 

olved (o (ry for an ap| 
on-. i'iie result appears from u entry in il. 

ikr CoUr«- ons. At .i I 

i ■ 

..in was .1 J 
to an hi'.-; 
iter Idsmitli, Found n.it qualified for ditto." It 

•rily on account ■<{ the shame ihould the ' 
well kepi M dy"s lifetime), but also on account 

•4 tone i ipear becomingly before the exam 

he tod wa -;h by this time he hail begun to 

ka«r Aeoli "- with Newbery, the propi. 

Hamilton, the proprii 
I u was to Griffiths th.ii be had ap- 
l-'or four rticles contributed in advance I atkly 

wCcUMis security to the tailor for the new suit, on 

t)ut irned or paid for within a certain time. Hut, four 

H ill, his landlord, to whom he « 
arrears Wl Tor debt, and, to help somewhat in the tainli. 

d-urr.% not only ihe new soil wen! into pawn, but the books of Griffiths which 
GofciuBitri 1 1 lis, learning the fact, and probably all tl 

he had written lor Hamilton and the rival Ri 

arper" and .1 " villain," anil threat 
." wrote Goldsmith in reply, "I know of no misery 
ind your letl 1 lint I have 

miiI, by heavens! request it as a 
imewhat more fatal I l.r. 
44 yr- II that contempt which indigi 

i|J» with it, Willi ill those sir is which make contempt in-.11; 

■■ m (ban bis tokbtokli was let live on in I 

•»t. 

ten by him to his Irish relalii 

Ctltssrr slnftrv be) ttly after his rejection by thi 

y*\ of his deep 

"Whether I eat or starve," he writes to hut brother In-law Hi 

£h, I still rcmemlier them |hii ds] with 

in for a share of m) 

lufayi, as th 



7/7/. 



hould slill have an affection for a place who never, when in i 1 

" iin iv..- common civility ; wb Doghl anything out of it but 

" hi- blunders ! Surely my affection is equally ridiculous with the Si 

used to be cured of the itch, made him unco' thoughtful of nil I 

I bonny Invcrary." He goes on to my that, if be went to the open, v 
ora Colutuba was pouring forth all the mazes of melody, it only made him 

inside and •• Johnny Armstrong's Lost G I Night" from ti 

[en, and that, if he climbed Harnpstead Hill, the magnificent 
only made him think of the dearer landscape from the little moi; 

. Again in a letter to an old college friend, Bryanton, whom hi 

. having forgotten him : "God's curse, Sir ! who am I ? l£h 1 wha 
"am I I Do yon know whom you have offended? A man whose character 

hesc days be mentioned with profound respect in a German comment 
"Dutc! ryj whose name you will pn i ushered in by a 'doct 

or heel-pieced with a long Latin termination. ... "1 
te a day, no doubt it will — i beg you may live a couple of handled years long 
se the day — when the Scaligers and Dacicrs will vindicate my chat-act. 
" give learned editions of my labours, and bless the times with copious comment! i 
" the text. You shall sec how they will fish up the heavy scoundrels who disregard 

DOW, or will then offer to civil at my productions. How will they bewail i 
" ■ in i. red so much genius to lie neglected 1 If ever my work-. find iIm 

irtary or China, I know the consequence. Suppose one of your C nine 
tnowitzers instructing one of your Tartarian Chianohacchi- you see I 
names to show my erudition, as 1 shall 
hman to show his. This may be the subject of the lecture. 
Israith flourished in the iSih and 19th centuries, lie lived to be an huudn 

old, and in that age may be justly styled the Sun of Literature 1 
' lonfuciuj of Europe,' " 4c, Again, in a letter to his cousin. Uncle Ci 

iw Mrs. Lauder : " Alas ! 1 have many a fatigue to encounter before th 
OUI poor old simple friend may a^aiii give a loose to I 
Ire, silting by Kilinore fireside, recount the vat 
il life, laugh ovet the follies: of the day, join his flute to j 
that ever he starved in those re Butler ai 

"starved before lr.m." And, I, in a long letter to his brother Henry : " 

paifl to think I am aim rid at the age of thirty* 

"one I a day's illness since 1 saw you, I am not tl 

. Iv can conceive how much ciglil 
tish, and study, have wont me down. If I remem 
lei than me ; yet I dare venture 
« the honor 
ige, with tw nkles between thi 

.hkI you have a perfect picture of m 
I can neithei laugh Dot drink; have contracted a he 






//•//. 



<rtetl>l< i i!l-ii.inirc itself; 

huicholy, and an uttei 

('.•• dum : ron 

tibed 

v — 

< place, 

*i(h keen dcuio 
I fire . 

iod, 

.il ilic chimney-board.'" 

■ bui£« tool i Ultn fm tin? Iieitci Hrllh Goldsmith. Hi. unlinks hnh.ii... 
1»! »: mom li.uk w<.ik in the Monthly Keviea, the Library Ufagatiitf, 

IS— 

.hi coacteat 

1 rSi 

■ i Bui u mnsequence o( bis '(•• 

iii that 
pthing beside*, by « ri 
i«u ' ■>! jlr.ni; wit!i .1 i» « iMiulation of the Hcnriade. The 

Kl tl»e lTui-!j4i..n were ivlverti-o'il liy GrilTillis in fclirusf) Ti'i. M lhefl 

.1 both 

March, if 

I on a 

I to lie I. 

The bad 
i which wi n in 

•Bcaa«xw«) I 'nili, .nun. 

1 thus depriving him 

jaf iv t«- 

«i»- ■• in A|l;l I 

1,/ieA.n Iry 

1 I 



p of coldsmitu. 






mind, ud is still well worth leading. Though his name did not i [be 

i il the authorship, but quite the contrary; and, « 
the notices of ii tbM tnmedistely or soon appeared were on the wl 

(with the excepti in Griffiths 1 ! Monthly 

Kennck, hi the hack for that periodical, and full of 

scurrility*, the publication Itention to Goldsmith ami won I 

ition even in the crowded London market of letti n that date 

connexion with Hamilton, the publisher of the Critical Kevieso, and with 
ne closer, and ins i«vii ontributor more in dent 

towards the end of the yc.i 

for the use of the light and easy pen 
i Griffiths had nut sufficiently valued. Thus, when in Oclobei l 
I Bet, a weekly period n 
&C, i I-o a new magazine ca 

illtesi lor lady-readers, »ho but Goldsmith was the cli 

Critic i" the one, and the principal writer in the other? Not the less foi 
with Wilkie in these two periodicals was he n « 
Tke Buy luted at the same time by another b 

nger, :md published thrice a week. To be sure, both The /»'.-.•■ and The Bnry 
were short lived— the one reaching hut its eighth number, i 

.- in them were noted at the lime, and 
The I in such dei.. thai ibey had to be reprinl 

after both periodicals bad icre "ere still the Critical Review and 

ine to write for. 

■•I, were multiplying round Goldsmith. liven in his 

le Itinueli at home with his landlord's family | 
. when lie had them, were at the sen-ice of the Clio 

leaf wh grew up lo remember him and tell ani 

Of him i hmaJcer of the neighbourhood, 

i bin. Then, according to Thackeray 
ts an Iiishniau so low in circumstance* but the* 
I o hi fol him, there wets 

several fellow-countrymen ol Goldsmith clinging to him, to be hi 

I hardly help rthnaclf «upeuiaJly a certain Ned Purdon, who had been his 
ihoolfellow. At the Temple Coffee II , there were opportunil 

something like general society. Bui in the course of 1759 we have 
traces ol th's contact with known men in London. It was in M 

'. just licforc the publication of Goldsmith's Inquiry into 
. 1l1.1t the Rev Mr Percy, afterward. Bishop Percy of the Ballads, paid 
him in Green Arbour Court, the queer Indi 
which h thai day l\ Idsrnith were 

■ encounter with Goldsmith was several month 
iiip of the Society of Ails bciug 




i>^iit3k.ih ■ Melt 

Ut vote 3-' hiffl Of 3 : 

peel liis support after that. Ii <m 
of iiie iii i miih had 

lief ae^lf. lived on old .lock )■ 

ke my mind, and believe I 
«*»l i 
I i.xrrwW *• otherwise it " 

fiiHnMlti ami - of these two, perhaps tin 

■Irnc, iiius of theii day— the simple, gentle- 

ally-independent, Insetble, 
i*i,]s i otchman — to think of 

tk*c ' ly to 

[niggling hi 

•ii, tliey had ..me 

i oi ili.u year tin ; SmollHt, 

: ill's 

nportanl results, 

the indefatigable Smollett, 
r libel, had projected a 
im; a ii J N 

of a daily 

■■iih's 

;s that they had called upon him aglf, 

■ tai o ii the ist of January, 17G0, 

I'iii. and : diiiinctiofi of a royal licence to Dr. 

i* I , i 

tS 1 1 1 1 
1761 ' .■ Msmilli's 

; .irate essays, of « 
wtrt ii 

v to furnish for thl urticre 

e/aomeaii' 1 k, to !>e paid for . ofa guinea p 

I|r tu 1 o'' lit, when the Idea struck hji 

tiaagli; on the tcone < 
hag »tr>'. 
tmi«miK<ti ' 

|HW(irHai t« with I lie replies of 1 1.. 

tW ■surrU 

n id 
J story. II rayshadafai 



Mr 






of tli is idea will be (band raich we have ilready quoted. 

.is tlicy came soon t 
I in- the Ltigtr on the 241I1 of Jan. 1760, with no intimati 

1 t ! . ■_• 1 1 1 ; the second appeared on the 29th ; the third on the 31st; and 
■ dote so eagerly were they expected, and so much did they contribute to the 
that Ncwbery gave them the most conspicuous place in the paper. 
Ninety-' in all appeared in the course of 1760; and these, com] :■ 

hi stragglers in the Ltilgcr, and by the incorporation of other | 
same vein pablilbed elsewhere, formed eventnally that delightful, if somen : 
lengthy, CititfH of //it World, whose place among our English classics is 11 
after more than a hundred years. It was while all London v. as reading the " ' 
' and becoming fond of the philosophic Chinaman, and his Iriei 
Goi'leman in Black, Beau Tibbs, and the rest, that George II. died, and Ids grand- 
son, George III., began his reign. The glorious ministry of Pitt was 
abrupt e r, and the favourite Bute came into power, drawing Scol 

in hi- n.iin, and rousing the unaniiiirius execration of all England . rjnbJBfj 

.'dd bt eoli 
A change probably as important to Goldsmith personally as the change of king 
w.is hii removal, towards the end of 1760, from Gn 

in Wine Ofl . Fleet Street. Here, through the 1 

1761 and I) rrk for the Pirf'lu LtdglT and the 1 

..- continued to be a considerable part of bis occupation. Ni 
however, lie bad not quilted his hold of th if which periodical, 

indeed, he appears to have become virtual editor some time in 1760. Among his 

ii in 1761 were successively-published portions of that Lift of I 
Which he had written fb( Griffiths two years before, but which had, for some reason 
dned in manuscript. But, naturally, it was for Ncwbery thai 

vices went now chiefly reserved. This worthy publisher, whoM 
■I in getting up nice children's 
bnted in .1 w..-il-l.n,>wn passage, did not confine himself merely to children's 
hut had a flourishing general bu lea, lie 1 id 

r many a year ; And advancer of loans to needy men 

literary tribe, Including his own son-in-law Ch: -mart, and also _!• 

Isinith, who had .lone such a Stroke of work fix btB 

fir Irani of employment. lie - to have taken 

Goldy under 1 kind of charge, partly for Gold' With a view 

,ig in Wine Office Court to which C" 
removed was in a house the tenant of which was a relative of N« Mere 

Ncwbery could have him at command, not only for the Lldgtr, btll for all kin. 

,, pamphlets on this and ih 
'»>oks, prefaces to men, abridgments "f such books as 1 
ical manuals left unfinished, 

. tides for the Christian. .then edited ' 








unhanged Di 1 lod I. 1 b 
such 

n them, is veiy large j and much remains unl 

. foniKj ii worth while, in 
tmpc- mghi him. Mi- thia tana, and chief)] I 

now to about 150/. 0* 300/. 

- generally on the debtM '-i-lc- la 
work paid fix in pan beforehand, there ii f« A Kmith of Win* 

Oe»-> ■■■ .ially, in ■ 1 the Goldsmith of Gi 

|uarc Not only does he frequ '--atrcs and taverns, attantl 

I the Society of drop in on Monday evenings at the fai 

in Butcher Row, where, under the presidency of 

• ker" Caleb Jeacocke, young lawyers and Hedging wits discu 

Vies; he even " readi <:- " id hi own lad mged upon there 

uinuas Liy rascals that know his good nature, and sometimes 
One such supper, given by him in Wine Olhcc Conn, 
It was on the 31st of May, 1761. Whether Johnson had 
ire is uncertain ; most probably he had, for the author of the 
Inquiry mi} Pol'!/ I.. -.st iMltrs can hardly have remained 

a arranger . was then first meeting MM 

«a«u.-' villi's invitation to meet a largish parti 

y was to accompany him. As the two were (Talking hi Wine 
Ottoc Court, I'll I, to his iurprise, that Johnson had on "1 new nil 

ely powdered," and tn 

(torn Johnson's usun lie ventured 

Why, sir," said Johnson in reply, "1 hear thai Gold- 

• ncy 
, to show him a I 
rooms, ami the door was shut belm. I the 

no doubt, much noise and splendid talk far into 
Iwtt ii his not ! for there «i ell there. l;m From that 

day I— gen tl oldsmith with the 

and all th»t peril ice over the Lor 

we ti igores in its antiq 

ithusiasm— Smollett, tl 

ble. With Smollett at nee 

had a . Inn the 1 

■ r, and he was about to be a 
■a aaau 

■ of the 1!. 11 in any case all 

a— twi inn 1 1 ("vii.neil. Johnson was then in his Bftj second yeafi tiring in 
caamben h and not ) ugh 



MEMOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



Cit, 



? 



on the point of being so; liut already with much of his greatest work (lone, and 
film in hil literary dictatorship. Goldsmith was nineteen years your:, 
lore him. 
bondage of Goldsmith to the bookseller Newbery continu 
end of 176.1. .ji even beyond that. In May 1762 Newbery | 
Citiun of the W*rU in its completed form, giving Goldsmith five guineas 

It Somewhat later in the same year Goldsmith, whose heal 
suffered ' BttSDCaS, Went to Tunbridge and Hath for recreation; 

and from Hath he brought back lo London materials for a memoir of Beau Nash, 
the famous master of the ceremonies or King of the Fashion at Bath, then just dead. 
This curious and rather amusing little book, for which Newbery gave him fourteen 
guineas, was published in October 1762, under the title of Tht Life of Rith*>4 
Naih, Esq. It was immediately popular; Johnson, who was by no means a book- 
buyer, i> found purchasing a copy; and there was a second edition in I'c 
By this lime Goldsmith had made n new arrangement in the matter of dom 
Newbery had made a new arrangement for him. The lodging in Wine Office Court 

t en up or retained for occasional use only, and apartmeui 
in ilie suburban neighbourhood of Canonbury, Islington, in the house of a Mr*. 
:li Fleming, close to Canonbury House, where Newbery himself resided. 
The terms wilh Mrs. Fleming were to lie 50/. a year for Goldsmith's board and 
-equivalent to aljout 100/. a year now; and Newbery' undertook 1 
Jar quarterly payments, deducting them from whatever might be Goldsmith'* 
ved all trouble on the main point, and with only his incidental 
expenses to care for— which, however, were considerable enough, for a guinea could 
never remain a day whole in his pocket, and he had begun to have a gaudy taste in 
dress, and lo have 1 dealings with Mr. Filby, the tailor, it the Hai 

-miili went on compiling for Newbery, touching up books for 
him. writing prefaces where they were wanted, and furnishing papers for I. is 
IS ach bit of work so done Goldsmith was credited for so much m 

Ncwbcry's books — one guinea, two guineas, three guineas or higher sums, ac 
■lent of the work ; and drew, or overdrew, for what he wai 

. leaving thl I to look at the slate of afll 

to paj Mr. Fleming her iai. tor., together with any little eau 

I ill I.. ■ by 1 . . . ! ■ i - 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 . Thai lady, I.. . 
. and ih.es n 

when Goldsmith brought a friend home i" dinner a 
the Irish physician Dr. Redmond, iSo prod 
DOthinf . but only to make such an entry as thi 

I dinner and tea, o/. or. Co/." There is some reason to I 

' mill in his Islington 1 

fillers from Mrs. Fleming, was the painter )i 

in- life. Altogether, in these lodg 

r.ibly comfortable and tolerably industrious through 1763 and 



Or GOLDSMITH. 






Aaaeae: the fniitj of liis iodi siry, in addition :•> .1 gr.-m deal "i mlseeUaneotu work 

»V«rh oet-1 not 

rally hit, o«»e would like lo know ii), was a Hillary el i a serifs of I 

["Ms work, which ifounded with a 

>nd from his pen, was published by Newbcry in two 
i. ; The title was a ruse lo attract attention to the 1 

■tlributcd t'j Lord Chesterfield or Lord Orrery, and 
wry purr . and became very popular. Goldsmith, having 

reco> ' ■ him for il no) ■ tab 

d, by him, lininhed or nearlj finished, certain 
order, but for private pleasure, arid fur 
vfach he c^ir 1 more tlun for iny compilation But of these presently. 

i gtoev thoarb IDC il central London then than ii U ROW| 

• . ■ ... i .r ■■•'. l-ui tba try oilier 'lay would bring Goldsmith into 

n had led 
rt y years of 
Mag ia liu noi I hospitable, with nil I v of 

to the largi attached ttb 

I 

ly. Here he would meet I 
Trinity College, Dublin; nn,l sometimes hi 
id parting with I r, would £> 

in Inner i me, or pi-: 

t& early hours) drop in 

. r,...«..-ii'- v; age doa begin la be teen on the ikirts 

orld. lie had been up lo [.ondon foi llie 
■ ilread) a i 
Jr.\ ti.1,-1. ami pot\essed »nh a passion foi being introduced to him. He bad uUled 
b it 1762 he ».i, again in I ondon on In- way to 

of Johnson "—two as interesting 

.,1.1 1763. Early in lb 
aaaaaati 
aari 1 1 Inn 

'lW otual n in I ondon foi ; 

Urn 

wall ecra eship 

far wluda !.,■-•■ il rniili, with Wi 

Chanctaal Uoyil 
had vxacl »ay— so lung ' At last 





•///. 



M.cy, I763. Boswcll 
Mr. lad Mrs. Havies in llit hack-parlour behind their si 

D have ben for some tune on the watch for the ap| 
presented itself. It *U Johnson at last, rolling into the shop, as large ■ 

a talk with Davie*. "Mr. D f* Boswell, 

"and respectfully introduced me to him. 1 was much agitated; ami, 
" hiB prejudice against the Sootehj of which 1 had beard much, I said to levies, 

I" ' Don't tell him where 1 come from.' 'From Scotland,' cried Davii . 
" ' Mi. Johnson,' said I, ' I do indeed come from Scotland, but 1 cannot ! 
I find, 1. what a very great many of your countrymen 
"This stroke stunned me a good deal; and, when we 
little embarrassed, and apprehensive of what might come ne 
"addressed lnin-.li LO Davies, 'What do you think of GanrickJ H 
" me an order for the play for Mis, Williams, because he knows thnl the 
" will b* lull, and that an order will be worth three shillings.' 1 

"any opening to get into convmatioo with him, I ventured to say, 'O 

"cannot think Mr 1 such a trifle to you' 'Si 

" wiih a slern look, 'I have known David Garrick lon| 

'and I know no lighi Ton have to talk to me on the subject. '" Here wnj 
knock \cars of tig., 

lie retnembered in his favour. But one of the best tin 1 
i what Goldsmith laid nf him not long afterwords Some one had 
"No, no," replied Goldsmith, "you arc too 
h bur. Tom Davies threw him at Johnson in sport, and he has the 
nf sfhtui,:" He allowed ihia faculty by the way in which he took ]■ 
11 tr. Much as it discomposed Mm, ii did not prevent him from 
U; he called again on the 15th of June, ■•■ 
dlted 10 hear Johnson MR why he had Dot returned sooner; and, 11 
hi a week 01 tWC f> on tl at time the queer Scotch lad had wound nil 

in a way that - dy. Sixteen di heron 

ins with |o those already mentioned, art 

uly chronicled by Botwell as having made him happy during the six or sevei 
ii town— some in Johnson*! chamber!, some in Co-.- 

r another tavern, and one, which lasted a whole day] 
1 the river. At most of these meetings Roswcll ki 
.ill to himaell ; I ut on the 1st of July Goldsmith was with them at the MHl 
mii t!,.- O1I1, when I'. ...-well gave Johnson n formal rapper at the Mi . 

with two ing like n mill 

v with Jol 
professed regard lot bin, Menu to have mingled with the pleasure of B 

nth a view to I, OTBOCl thereafter in the narrative ; and in 



MEMOIR OF VITH. 



XXXV 



ng lone of this sketch, wilh its often quoted statements as lo Goldsmith'"; 

"US ways of showing it. we have the anticipation of nil lh.it 

1'. »-r t would let himself feel at think about Goldsmith to the ret* end. \\ llh 

K», i the lull to Johnson. And yet — for, though jealous, 

-there are passages, even in this first sketch he 

of Goldsmith, which make amends. He tells us what Johnson said to him 

ne was first mentioned between them. " Dr. Goldsmith," 

" is one of the first men we now have as an author, and he is a very 

•* li '" — praise which, as Goldsmith was then known only or chiefly by 

ry into tie State of Polite Learning and his Citicen of the H'crlJ, seemed 

father orer the mark to the hearer. Again he informs us how "Goldsmi'l/-. 

mpeclful attachment to Johnson " equally struck him, and how GoM.-u ith'. 

Ktlrn i' rem irks about Johnson increased his admiration of Johnson's goodness 

rf heart. For example, when some reference was made to Mr. Lcvctt, whom 

lohowMi maintained as a pensioner under his own roof, Goldsmith said to Hoswcll, 

" He u poor and honest, which is recommendation enough to Johnson ; " and 

i.i*, when Bo ed to some man of known bad ch.ii.iUcr villi inrp 

&j* JoV be kind to such a person, "He is now become miserable," 

■ml i, "and that ensures the protection of Johnson." On the whole, 

■ >n and Goldsmith were so cordial that Bnswcll tniurt 

lu«» thought with a pang how much they would be together, and wh.il talk of 

Johnton's Goldsmith would hear, when hr should be in London no longer to 

parukc of mess, hut away in I'trecht, studying law. If anything could 

ktrt reconciled him to the coming absence, it was the extraordinary proof given, 

! be went, how thoroughly he, an unknown Scotch lad, whom Johnson had 

r teen till he met him in Davis'i shop, had won the big HI To 

heard Johnson say to him, " There are few people whom 1 lake so much 

I yym." was much ; but to hear him farther say, as the day for his departDN 

nadird, "I must see thee out of England ; I will accompany yc* lo Harwich, " 

I my. AnJ actually lo Harwich Johnson, while all London wondered, 

iving him good advices all the way, and at lost 

■»• revered friend," says lioswell, " walked down with me to 

1 beach, where we embraced and parted with tenderness, and engaged lo 

(wioeonJ by lelleis. 1 said ' I hope, Sir, you will not forget DM in my 

"ihnnoe,* * Nay, Sit. it is more likely you should forget me than that I should 

"ferjet rem.' A\ the vessel put out to sea, I kept my eyes upon him for a 

**CMtUosbie time, while he remained rolling his m ijeslic frame in his usual 

*»iimr : and at last I perceived him walk back into the town, and hr 

ffiaaf^warca . 

M ■■'■ n ' Importance in the Johnsonian world, which happened ihortli 
«A« John from seeing lloswell off at Harwich, and the rumour of which, 

t have greatly interested lloswell, was the foundation of the 
lit afterwards called "The Literary Ou\>," v.\\\c\\ 



vi VO/K Of- GOLDSMITH. 



( ,i (he 1 ">ir k '» Head, in Gerrard Street, Soho. Theoriginal members of this ciob 
were Johnson, Reynolds, Burke, Goldsmith, Topham Beauclerk, lVnnct Langton. 
Si] John Hawkins, and Dr. Nugent — to whom were soon added M 
Oyer, and others. They met one evening a week — Monday evening at : 

changed to Friday evening — for supper and talk. The dub may Iiave tees 
founded in 1763, but it was certainly in full operation in 1764. From that dale, 
accordingly. Goldsmith's attendances at its meetings, and his enjoyment of 
passed there, have to be remembered in our imaginations of the routine of In 
It appears even that, for the convenience of these attendances, or fur other rta 
Goldsmith, early 111 1764, had a share of sonic rough chambers in the Temple, "on 
the library staircase," in addition to his Islington lodging. Possibly, ih 
way of removal from the rooms in Wine Office Court, hitherto retained for sleeping 
purpi'ic's when he was in town. 

It was either at some now unknown lodging in town, occupied for some little time, 
or, more probably, at the Islington apartments in Mrs. Fleming's house, that I 
occurred, lale in 1764, an incident in Goldsmith's life, of which very 
have been given, but of which the true account is indubitably Dr. Johnsou's. " 1 
"received one morning," Johnson long afterwards told Boswcll, "a message from 
" poor Goldsmith that he was in great distress, and, as it was not in his pow 
"come to me. lagging that I mold come to him as soon as possible. I sent him ■ 
'guinea, and promised to come to him directly. I accordingly went as soon a* I 

rcssed, and found that his landlady had arrested him for his rent, at « I 
" H u in a violent passion. I perceived that he had already changed my guinea, a 
' had got a bottle of Madeira and a glass before him. I put the ( 
I he would be calm, and begnn to talk to him of th 
' which he might be extricated. He then told me that he had n novel 1. 
" the PKSs, which he produced to me. 1 looked into it, and saw its merit ; 

landlady I should soon return ; and, having gone lo a bookseller, sold it for 6cV. 
1 I brought Goldsmith the money, and he discharged his rent, not without ml 
idlady in a high tone for having Died him EQ ill." If, as appears all I 
to Islington that Johnson had trudged, and the harsh landlady v. 

the expl.in.v "ly i-. that, Owing to some break-down betweca 

: -mi(h and Newbcry, Mrv Fleming saw no chance of getting her In 

board paid her in the usual manner. What renders this likelier is that 
advances to Goldsmith are found about this date dwindling to 
sums and that, as if Newlxry were proving a broken reed, Goldsmilh had re 
l*cn negotiating, or prop.. sing to negotiate, with other booksellers, such as Dod 

Ml, and Griffin, It was, possibly- for this last bookseller, whose shop was the 
riekV Head in < Mherine Street, Strand, and who speculated in music, Ih 
libretto for an intended the subject of the Captivity in Babylon, » 

ttten by Goldsmith early in 1764, although afterwards il was told by hkp 
to Dodslcy sod Newbery conjointly, But what most confirms the conjecture of some 
!>etwecn Gold s m i th al • lime i" question b that the book- 



VOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



adler lo whom Johnson carried the manuscript was not Newbery himself— who, if 
■II had been right between him and Goldsmith, would naturally have been first 
applied to— but his nephew, Fran ry, of Paternoster Row. In giving 60/. 

lav it tbw younger bookseller mubt have been influenced as much by Johnson's 
esosaaeMTiiaelions as by any notion he could have had for himself of the worth of 
I etui hr had bu>' | : of the ' tear ,y 

C n: thrown aside as soon ■ I, to wait young Mr. Newbery's corivem 

I tar Owe present, ill the satisfaction Goldsmith derived ft dsitc 

I Uti» ulc • ■■• lie had been i|uie(ly and carefully writing 

•rralt, by »ray of relief from his compilations and taskwork, was the tanned 

I tar", brou,; r, he had another thing by 

I Km, aiaul.irly written for his own pleasure, and according to his own best ideas of 

iieri-y art. Tli poem of the Tiraodltr, the idea of which had occurred to 

[ aha woe years before during his own continental wanderings, and some fragments 

home from ier Henry. 

1 poem, as well as on '. ' 'ulJ, he had been for some lime engaged 

m ha Islington lodgings writing ii slowly, nnd bringing it lo the last degree of finish, 

I tat to dlf£ , success as to say nothing about it to hat friend*. Reynolds, 

I «.!< ting him, found him bending over something at his desk, and II the 

I suar time holding up I ery now and then lo a little dog he was 

•■thing lo «it on its haunches in a comer of the room ; and, on looking ova 

hi see tli.it it was a poem and was able to re 1 
waiiiubci At length, probably at the very time of I -it of 

an ifidence in the matter of the poem too. 

h waa highly approved by that judge, who even added a line or inn ol hia 
■a eVIer Newbery, who may air Keen spoken lo about it, did not mind 

pnn.u^g and '.11 the 19th of December, 1764. it was 

eafcfctbed, price one icoce, with this title, " Thi ,<r a 

Av».- MimitM, M.B." It was the fine publi- 

Cabea of '■ ne, and il was dedicated, in terms of beautiful 

afcrtinn - Rev. I k-ury Goldsmith. 

TV ' Ii in Goldsmith's life. Now, at hist, at 

dtcageof v. he stood forth, not as an essayist, cornpiler, and misceUan 

habit of the anonymous, but avowedly as a can- 
bUle fee those highei tnd finei honour] thai belong to the n ime ol English Poet 
TWlaiewMin nrable. ronr as Britain had been, during the 

an* praor- nth century, in poetry, at it had once lieen 

to be understood again— with Pope ns it- nil-ruling 
• id only Thomson and one or two more recollected 
haps no point in the century when the I 
Mac, aacfc as at ig less, or I ised to do 

linion of herself, as precisely about the year 1764. 
Y«mn£ w». dying; Gray wat recluse and indolent ; lohnson had long gyvca crvaVBa 



xxxviii 



■rotR of corn smith. 



metrical experimentations on any except the most inconsiderable scale -, 

uong, Smollett, and others less known, had pretty well revealed tl 

of their wurlh in poetry ; and Churchill, after his ferocious blaze of 

mgc and declamation in metre, though conventionally it was called poetry, w 

lurely dead and defunct. Into this lull came Goldsmith's short, but careful); 

poem. It was no innovation in apparent form, for the verse was that heroic 

couplet which the eighteenth century had adopted as the one and only 

save for such lesser themes as would run into stanzas or gurgle into the 

paroxysms that were called Pindarics. But Goldsmith, as the dedicati 

brother -hows, really meant the poem as something new in spirit and i: 

return to simplicity and truth of feeling, and, above all, a protest against I 

and the wretched reduction of poetry, as in his case, to the one principle, " 

JiUil verms." And the public was wonderfully ready for such an appeal ' 

literary instincts, an'l welcomed Goldsmith's poem beyond his utmost cxpei 

It was widely Rod h ghly praised in the Reviews, the general verdict being 

had been nothing so line in verse since the time of Pope ; even poems were 

in commendation of it ; and the author's high-mindedness in dedicating 

brother, a poor Irish parvin, rather than to any noble or wealthy pat' 

he notice. A second edition was called for in March 1765, and a tl 

•wing August; and, before Goldsmith died, he was to revise it again 

with slight corrections throughout, till it reached its ninth edition. Of con 

this Goldsmith benefited socially. The author of the Traveller was not a 

'n of or looked at with indifference. People who had known him I 

to whom lie Bid been little more than a laughing-stock, began to see what 

him that deeper observers, like Johnson and Rurlte, had all along rccogn 

shall never more think Mr. Goldsmith ugly." '.li'i Miff Reynolds, Joshi 

after Johnson had read the poem aloud in her hearing from begin*. 

even the deeper observers themselves were roused to a higher npini.in 

us. When Reynolds afterwards hinted to Johnson that pcrhapi 

reception of the poem was due to the parti.iliiv ■■' 1 roldsxnith's fun 

said Johnson candidly, in a reply which reflected even on hfrnsi II. " the | 

lends was always against him: it was with difficulty we could e. 

hearing." Johnson's own opinion of Goldy from this time forward was tl 

distinctly one of the chiefs of Brilish Literature. 

While the Tr a m lter was passing through the press, Goldsmith had I 
pretty ballad of "Edwin and Angelina," afterwards introduced into 
of Wakefield, under its present title of -'The Hermit." This little c 
wis occasioned by his interest in the collection of ballads and 01 
poems which his friend, the Rev. Thomas Percy, was then bus] 
was published in 1765 under its ever famous name of The Reliqua. G0I1 
shown his ballad to Percy, who was then chaplain to the Earl, aftc 
Northumberland : and the Countess of Norlhiimbcrlind hid taken such 
it as to have copies privately printed for herself and her frien 




lit arise from this introduction to the 
i illy as the Earl was Lord Lieutenant of I; 
uii the Irish establishment 11 »al, and might easdv, 

•ome sinecure to one who was not only a popular 
• boot. Goldsmith did have an interview with tin 
ortbnnbc: e, received cuiiii.linii.iii, hum him on his Traveller, and 

'ud heard he was a native of Ireland, and would be glad 
is. Instead ui" improving the occasion fur himself, " this 
■ lire afhtis ol ihc ■redd,' 1 as Sir John Hawkins calls him, only told the Larl he 
tad 3 .1 poor clergyman, who stood in much Deed of fa 

," he said afterwards in telling the story to Sir John, "I have no 
dependent' .inises of great men : 1 look to the booksellers for supp 

Go .', part ; it was really true. With the eacep- 
Nugcnf, afterwards Lord Nugent, Viscount Clare and Earl 
ily ln.liin.in, of great wealth, and free-and-easy politics, 

us glad to see him at his seat at Gosheld Hall, 
.. r cared to trouble any of the "great people" with his 
most that came tu him from this friendship, besides a week 
■< country d then, was the appearance, once or twice, of .i haunch of 

•arisen in hi» clumbers in town. For, of course. Goldsmith was now done with 
lalm ,i .ii in ', Mr . Fleming. The Temple, no« and thenceforth, was his established 
at i He had had rough temporary accommodation here, H 

it the library staircase," in 1764; and this he is found exch 
.: erior chamber* in the same court — i.e.. Garden I 
TDOr 

Goldtmith, to take advantage of his new popularity, published, 
UMiamc. and under the title of Lisay, and with the motto " Collect* 
from his anonymous papers in the Bee, the 
/.%Ji , the British Stagnant, &c Other people, he says in the 

a lieen reprinting these trifles of his, and living on the pillage, and now 
or reclaimed the bast of them. The republication was in one duodecimo volume, 
for - >ery and Griffin, who were the joint-publishers, gave him ten 

gojstaa* each. Then, again, through the rest of that year and the whole of 1766 
aaal 17^7. '■ having brought him more applause than cash— 1 e ulapses, 

tar ana- purposes, into hackwork, compilation, and translation. He thought of 
Uanslating the I ignorance of Portuguese being a sliglv 

A thai \mong the compilations which he did I 

•a. fcaaur of snclt things as /t*Survey ») lis pen mental Philosophy and a S 

.1 Ncwbery, a translation of a French //ittery of 
(rky»ol . i-wbery, a collection 

XaaWs (or Paternoster Row, and another poetical collection in Wo 

in called Beauties of English Pot 
jivt Uii ninse, he rcc. ij but (he ' ton. , wYMo. 



xl 



(OIK ('/■' GOl OS :///■// 



tasteful one, is said lo liavc suffered from the adn 
two pieces of Trior not deemed lit for family reading. And what, ail 
bad become of the Vicar of iVaktfitiii} li emerged from ihe you 

> in l lie very midst of Ihe compilations just named — viz. on the ;;i!. 
. .jr afteca months after the TravelltriaA been ■ -n t. /'/;<■ I'uar 0/ H'attffe/t 
y.nV; itipl-tscJ tj 61 written by himttlj — such was the title under which the 
prose masterpiece announcrd itself. Willi less of acclamation than had hailt 

'.',-/-, but gently, quietly, and surely, as it was read in household*, end 
charming sweetness felt wherever it was read, the Tale made its way. There 
second edition io May, a third in August, and before Goldsmith died the 
-, in circulation. 

Her, Goldsmith had taken his place among English poet- 
the </. ." of Wakefield he took a place, if not as one of the remarkable groi 
English "now lists" that distinguished the middle of the eighteenth c< 
Ihry had all been voluminous in this department), at least, with pi 
spicuousness, near that group. Richardson had been five years dead ; IV 
twelve years j only Smollett of the old three remained, with his Humphry Clutter 
still to be written. But Sterne, the fourth of the group, had recently flashed 
notice — eight volumes of his Tristram Shandy, published between 1750 and 1 
having taken the literary world by storm, and made their stiangc author, fj 

"caged clergyman of loose notions, the lion of London society for the time 
being, with dinner engagements always fourteen deep. Not the radiance of 
Tristram Shandy itself, however, diamond-daiting in all colours athwart the literary 
heaven, could hide the pure soft star of Goldsmith's new creation. How simple 
thii ri.it r ,'f Wakefield was, how humorous, how pathetic, how graceful ii 

..r, hew humane in every pulse of its meaning, how truly and deeply good I 
ujd every b o d y •• and gradually UltQ that world of imaginary scenes 
■ familiar to British readers by former works of fiction, and the lalc-.i 

had been Smollett's and Sterne's inventions, a place of especial 1 
was found for the Ideal Wakefield, the Primrose family, and nil ilieir b 

i|h the gross of green spectacles and shagreen cases for which he 
the bane ; the philosophical wanderer George; the two daughters, Olivia and 
the bouncing Flamlwrough girls; Miss Carolina Wilhclmina A 
ggs, and the other fine lady from London ; the rogue Jenkinson and hu 
ptntance ; the rascally Squire -. and the good uncle, Sir \\ illiam, aitai Bnrehdl 

'I forget any of them? Above all the good clergyman himself, with lr« 
punctilious honour, his boundless benevolence, and his one or two foibles ! 

1 help laughing over that passage in winch he tells how the rogue Jenkii 
in 1 swindle him. assails his weak point by asking if he is ihe great 

Primrose who bad written M learnedly in favour of monogamy and against 
pa ? " Never did my heart feel sincere! rapture tha 

of so good a man as 1 am vine you . 
1 that happiness in my heart which your 



R OF GOL. 



xli 



** brhuld ■ the monogamist, whom yon 

rt platan! lo call great. You here sec that unfortunate olivine, who has 10 long, 

•• «vi. it » ome mc lo say successfully, fought against the deuterogamy 

" of lix ftp wripttoa of the family picture, executed by I lie travelling 

jakiti i oh. i took hk' Keen ibfllii I : Theii neighbours, the 

Haantmtoirghs, hail been painted, seven of them in ill, cadi holding an orange ; 

bat r ■ maid not be painted thai way. "We desired to b*w 

•• tor i brighter Style; and, after many debates, at length came to I 

i I '--ther, in one Urge h unity 

be cheaper, a-- one frame » lur all, and it « 

* be Infinite!* more genteel ; for all the families of any taste were now drawn in the 
"same manner. As we did not immediately recollect an historical subject to hit 
-«e were contented each with being drawn as independent historical figl 
be represents I r.s Venus, and the painter was di sin i not I 
linmondl in her stomacher and hair. 1 lie [WO little one* »crc to 
by her side ; while 1, in my gown and band, was 
:s on the Whistonian controversy. Olivia would be drawn .' 
: npon a bank of flowers, dressed in a green Joseph richly I 
■I a whip in her hand. Sophia wan to be a shepherdess, with ns 
"may sheep as the painter could pul in for . 

•* oal With a white hat and feather. Our taste so much pleased the Sqoire that he 
listed «■ > one of the family, in the character of Alexander the 

u there was no end to the passages thai 
Nay, not to Hritain alone was the renown 
■ cont... us nf one or two of i . 

but the I'iear of Wakefield ran, almost at once, over 
irs after its lir-t publication when young 1 
a VruJ«r; reai n> of it to young Goethe. 1 f of 

rlial in Impression the beautiful prose-Idyll, as he 
CasVl m of the glorious youth, and how he 

■and tea names I , poetic hare the realities oi 

■arty » To the end of Ml 'lav, and after he had long been the 

aa m il th el t, Goethe retained his affection for the I poke 

•f tt as l>s ,f subtle spiritual blessing to him at on 

■ Mtaisw of bis . v. Here was praise, indeed, could Goldsmith have 

he*"' is but twenty years of age when he first read the I 

^ ''«' < .'■■', and it h doubtful whether, when Goldsmith died, !.•. knew thai there 

•■S kadi * • in 'he world ! 

*>» the ng literary reputation, Goldsmith, even ' 

'|SafeaWMst»> '1 made one more attempt (o get inti IS a 

to this by Ri 
wtt» ' 

,1 in the re,- 




MEMOIR OF COLDS Ml Tit. 






income than he received from the booksellers. It went so far ill 
dotmed a tplcndid professional suit made for him by Filby — "purple 
ClOthW, a handsome scarlet roquclaure {i.e. short mantle) buttoned to his 
a full-dress wig, a sword, and a gold-headed cane. The top of this last he was W 
put to his mouth when meditative in the approved fashion at the bedsides oi 
patients. One hears, however, but of one patient of any consequence that he ever 
It was a Mrs. Sidebotham ; and he did not keep her long. He had pr 
■ dose for her, the terrific nature of which so stunned the apothecary 
I lo make it up; and, as the lady chose to trust the apothecary rather j 
the physician, Goldsmith went off in a huff, and vowed he would practise phy 
more. Accordingly, though from this time the name of "Dr. Goldsmith" 
more firmly attached to him than it had been, he fell back for the 
OH literature exclusively. A distinction between two kinds of his literary lal 
will have already amply presented itself in the course of our memoir so far ; and 
tins distinction has to be carried on in the reader's mind as applying even 
conspicuous') lo what of his life remains. We have brought him to the year !;'•;, 
when he was lliirty-cighl years of age, spoken of with admiration as the am! 
the Inquiry into the State of Polite Learning, the Citizen of the H'erld, the Tnnitlir, \ 
volume of Essays, and the I'icar of H'.Ui/iM, but known also to have written nn i 
of compilations and done an immense amount of obscure hackwork for publishers. 
Well, he was to live seven years more ; and during these seven years his life was still 
lo distribute it self as before, and to exhibit a few finer occasional performances 
the Kidding of his own genius gleaming over a vast basis of sheer drudgery 
compilation. "It is surely to be regretted," wrote one of his critics, " that 
"author of the Traveller, one of the best poems that have appeared since those I 
" Mr. I'ope, should not apply wholly to works of imagination." It was c. 
this, but how could it be helped? He found it impossible to live by pi 
novels done as he would like In do them. By hackwork alone could he live; 
if he died of hackwork, you must blame the system? 

chance of escape there was, and Goldsmith had it shrewdly in view. The 
Dram v. was -till a form of English literature in which one might follow the b. 
l*, and yet hope for sufficient remuneration. If one could write a i 
successful play, and so establish a permanent connexion with the theatres ! So I 

h been thinking ever since the publication of the I 'tear ; and not merely 
thinking, for in the spring of 1767 he had finished the manuscript of his cot 
(WAUkW Man, and, through Reynolds's introduction, had subm it ted it to Carrie 
with a view to its production at Drury Lane. He had spent pains on th 
and had taken the liberty, in it also, of differing from the prevalent t.vsie. Th 

comedy then in fashion was "Genteel Comedy " or "Sentimei ' 
as it was called ; and there was a special horror, nn the pari mana 

and critics, of what might be considered " low " or loo broadly farcical. I 

assessed in favour of the older dmmalists of the century, and especially ol lo* 
toman lnrquhar, whom he justly reckoned the best of them all, had ventur 



■T/f. 



dtli 



aa a iet»ni to ibe tfyfc Of free and natural humour. Whether on this account, .ir 

far other leucr.' . and, after much hesitation oa nil 

put. and Mwpenteon was pul into the hands uf Colman, the ' 

-t» manic t was Colman In any hurry ; and poor Goldsmith, 

, had to betake himself for immediate supplies to hil 'it> n 

of i of St I 

.15 Davies of Kussell Street, he m.i 
Dm 1 1 i^t.jry. " to bt readv in two years, 
and ' he was to receive 250 guineas. And 10, with ■ portioB of iMs rn 

ailiatxnt biro, ' ', and at length, OH the 29th Of January, I 

! bad the ■ "'■*./ .''fan prodnced at Corent Garden 

I Satbaaction Is too strung a word. Colman had had no great hopes of the 1 

one or two exceptions, were cool about it ; through a great pad of 
ience were little moved : at the famous scene of the I 
Mates were 

II the fourth act was the house fairly conquered into laoghtQ 
end approl Idsmith, who had been accompanied to the house by Johns 

• crrard Street Club, had suffered dreadfully. It was the 

I dub nigh' ;h, when all 'ie took the congratulations offered him, 

[ sad nds, and seemed in riotously high spirit! 

" ajscj his comic 1 Woman tossed in a Blanket," it was only make- 

X<w •' All the while," he said, telling the story afterwards at a dinm r-tabk, ■' 1 

*•»• saftr ltd verily believe that, if I had put a bit into my 

*«■»' Jed me on the spot, I was so excessively ill ; bat 1 made 

Brirr r- cover all that, and so they never perceived my not eating, 

"■»! it all imagii s the anguish of my heart but, when 

"afl were gone except Johnson here, I burst out a-crying and even IWOH by — 

write again." " All which, Doctor," said Johnson, who bid I 

frank public confession of Goldy, " f thought bad 

"been a v >nd me ; and I am sure I would not have said anything 

Iter all, however, the comedy might be called a sue 

of the bailiffs cut out, it ran a due Dumber of night*; it 

11 300/ and 400/. ; on its publication by Griffin, with the 

■sag scene I n deference nent of a few friends who think 

' u way." it had a considerable sale; and John- .n, who had Itood by it 

■aaasUly ind wr.tten the Prologue, pi 1 the best comedy that 

tad spr» 

AH r) of the Good- Natural \fan, and the trouble in 

B lacaujbl oat. Goldsmith had continued a tenant of his Dart, 

Teatpir, wties rvant. The racoess of hi 

ill farther promotion of lnm-.li in the 
I I • pu 1 ed, for 400/,, the li 

L~"-"""" 



xliv MEMOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



furnished them in what was thought a decidedly luxurious style — " Wikon carpets," 
"mahogany sofas," " card -tables," "looking-glasses," &c. These chambers, 
consisting of three apartments, were to be his fixed London residence for the 
rest of his life. For neighbour, and occasional money-lender, on the same floor, 
he had a jolly barrister named Bott, also from the Green Island; and in the 
rooms underneath was the great lawyer Blackstone, dreadfully disturbed in the 
composition of his Commentaries, every other night, when Goldy had friends 
with him, by the singing and stamping and general hulla-baloo overhead. Two 
nights every week, however, were club-nights with Goldy, when he met 
company out of his own chambers. Monday evening for some lime, as has 
been already mentioned, and then Friday evening, was the fixed evening of 
meeting with his more celebrated friends of the Gerrard Street Club. Bnt for 
homelier jollity, and especially for the pleasures of song along with conviviality, 
he belonged, it appears, to another dub, called the Wednesday's Club, which met 
at the Globe Tavern in Fleet Street. In addition to persons now unknown, this 
club numbered among its members Kelly the dramatist, King the comedian, 
Thompson the song-writer and editor of Andrew Marvel, an Irish medical man 
and ex-actor named Glover, and a certain William Ballantyne. Some manuscript 
memoranda by this last of the proceedings of the club, and of the songs sung in it, 
came into Mr. Forster's hands, and enabled him, in his Lift of Goldsmith, to recover 
more of the history of the club and of Goldsmith's connexion with it than had 
been previously known. 

From such a trial of the nerves as the comedy had been it was almost a relief to 
toil on at compilation. And here it will be as well to give an account at once of 
all of this sort that Goldsmith was occupied with during the last years of his life, 
including the undertaking that was largest of all and that hung like a millstone 
about his neck almost to the day of his death. Contributions to the Gentleman's 
"Journal, started by Griffin in November 1768, and to a Westminster Magazine, 
begun in 1772, are hardly worth mentioning; a Life of Parnell, prefixed to an 
edition of ParoeU's Works, published by Davies in 1770, was but by-play; and a 
Life of liolingbroke, prefixed to a reprint by Davies, in the same year, of some of 
Bolingbroke's pamphlets >s perhaps the poorest compilation that came from Gold- 
smith's pen, if not the most featureless thing that ever called itself a biography. 
It was on his more extensive compilations of an historical kind that Goldsmith 
depended. His Roman History, which he had promised Davies in two years, and 
shares in which had been assigned to other publishers, duly appeared in two volumes 
8vo. in May 1 769, leaving him free for a greater compilation which he had just 
agreed for with Griffin. It was to be a huge Natural History, or History of the 
Earth and of Animated Nature, in eight volumes, the payment to be 800 guineas for 
the whole, or at the rate of 100 guineas a volume. It was the most magnificent- 
looking engagement that Goldsmith had ever made ; but it proved, as has been said, 
a millstone hung round his neck. For, five hundred guineas of the price having 
been paid ere the work had been well begun, and the whole before June. 1 772 — 



OF COLDSMmr. 



xU 



bf which ■ right 10 oOv 

GaMstnilh. whiie em| king, was in the coir 

■•'»i. -^ nfl a Iic.j e working for expected wagi the 

ied on collaterally. These were — a Hit 
in 4 fob., | June 1769, for 500/., and fil 

ibridgment lor levies, in 177^. ■ ■( the / 

rtttt, begun foi ' h ;, l.nt 

iih. Add a translation of S 
, the ~.iinc kind of which no ..■ 
miscellaneous literary imlustry from 1769 onward! "ill not 
IffMH lBf"M'leinlil<-. Deserving particular mention 1- a project of his, in 1773, ol 

r which he had promises of contributions from 
JiAni — 1. Burke, Reyni ck, Burney, and others. He had drawn dp n 

ing scheme, and made other preparations, when the 
obliged him to di 

I the Muse of hackwork (what a hag she mi Idsmith 
leglect the finer ami dearer Muse of his own ajTectioi e f6th 

I, published by Griffin, at hb (hop in 1 stherine Street, 
[wfcr • 1 Ulsmuh. I 

for the copyright of which Goldsmith hid 
from Griffin, was instantaneously popular. Two new 
• I for in the following month, and a fourth in August; and 
ige of Auburn was in all mi 
i!i, and the topic-, which it 
■VatofMiIiition, In wiry, and !■ ;sscd In connexion with it 

h poel by i r was 

and people • anxious to have more in the vase- 

I tli.it firm with so perfect a mastery As a writer of 

1 of even- line and phi 

\tnek ./ Vtni ."< ■ A /' 

'.^1 till after his death, and Thn il.u'11, 

; >, written - 
t steal' at a 

that event in February 177; in the room of ' 
le exception, to he mentioned in 1 
M of any lei 
T^t lioftrl .' , But, to make an 

■tw £a>f a second comedy, richer and belli 

kind in lli I 

I I had 
Kim Batata I before the end ol thai year; bill there was the usual, stn 



BSISISI 



aasV 



xlvi 



tr/TJT. 



stage. Not till the 15th ol March, 1773, was il brought oa( >l 

V ulnian, under the name She StoofH fa C.>ni/m'r; or the Mutak 17, whicl 

1 ...Msmiili had happily adopted for it at the last moment. Colman himself *» 

• I-. ■ ■> I against it, and had spread at)out dismal forebodings of its failure I'.ui 
tr.umph was immediate and complete. It was performed cv- night 
the rest of the season, and once by roval command; all the town rang with it , un 
the humours of the immortal Tony Lumpkin raised such roars of laughter that | 
hearty laughter came again into fashion on the stage, the deathblow m 

prim "Sentimental Comedy," and the practitioners and partisans of that style 1 
drama were beaten ofT the field. Goldsmith's receipts from the tin 
been between 400/. and 500/. ; and as when the play was published, 6,000 cople 
were sold within a year, he must have received something additional on that jccoun 
dedicated to Dr. Johnson, in words admirably chosen. " By inscribing th 
"slight performance to you," said Goldsmith, " I do not mean so much 
" you as myself. Ft may do me some honour to inform the public thai i h 
" many years in intimacv with you. It may serve the interests of mankind al» to 
" inform them that the greatest wit maybe found in a character without imp.: 
I uniffected piety." What could be better expressed? Pen in ban 
here sees, Goldy could do anything of this kind more beautifully ami delicately 
lh hi ,my one else. 

in.", lining, with one exception, completed our inventory of Goldsmiti 
trhcthcr of the compilation kind or of the finer and more 
nent kind, during the last years of his life, we are free for a look at the 
fellow himself, and his habits and circumstances socially, during all this exercil 
. pen. 
Hit headquarters were his chambers in No. 2, Brick Court, Middle Temp 
Not only had he furnished them expensively; but the breakfasts, din 

is which he frequently gave in them, whether to his friends of the Johna] 
and Reynolds set, or to the needier Hiffcmans, Glovers, Kell; 
literary Irishmen, of whom he had always a retinue attached to him, we 
ly lavish. This, with his perpetual giving away of guineas to 
lards, or belter fellow;, who wanted them, and his general cai 

• if money, kept him always poorer than, with his receipts, he need have 
lli- receipts: during the last six years of his life may be calculated at betwc 
3,000/. and 4,000/. in all, which was worth in aboul double wha 

.. sum would be worth now; and yet lie was always in debt S 
live gone to his relation* in Ireland— to his much-lot 1 Hem 

before his death in -M.iy 176S ; to his mother, who nirvtved till > 
blind in her old age; and then to hit ' itheT Maurice, to whi n 

1 ue we God him resigning a small legacy that had been ltft linn I 

line. Some expense to Goldsmith was also canted by the arrival In I in 

n, ami hii residence 111 nc lime wilhoul 

his own. Goldsmith's famous accounts with 1ns tailor, l-'ilbv, * 








year as high is ;o/.— were (Welled by ordera of clothes for this incon- 
ang gentleman, i lie whole, his general recklessness in 

here he never kept a drawer locked, and lei his ni.m 
unage everything— iliib anil his open-handedneas to all about him in ihc 
streets account sufficiently for his expenditure. Often, however, he was 
a, taking his open-handedness with him to the fields, or alone; 
roontry roads, and into roadside inns or country houses. He was particularly fond 
.g with one or two Irish friends, after breakfast in Brick Court, on a 
"on, Kilborn, Hampstead, or some other suburb, returning late or 
day. He and his friend Bolt rented together for some time in 
. and again in 1769, a convenient cottage eight miles from London Ml the 
ewire Koad ; an 1 in this "Shoemaker 1 ! Paradise," as Goldsmith called it to 
trade of its builder, he worked away for weeks together, in I 
at his /Vtmm Hhl.'ry and other things, running up to London (TOM he 
liked- The neighbourhood was a favourite one with him, for he re) 

mns of 1771 anil 1772, for greater leisure to write his Ammutal 
a time to the "Shoemaker's Paradise,'' Of with Bolt, but to a 
Hyde Lane, near the six-mile stone on the same Edgewarc 1 
i occupying a single room, and boarding with the fanner's family, who became 
of him, he wrote not only a good portion of his Animated N.ilurr, 
hoi - said. Site Stjopi to Cattqutr. Of course, in addition to these 

oecasmn.il retirements to the quiet of the Edgeware Road, there were 1 
josmejn at intervals into various parti I. He is traced into Hamp 

tflblk, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire; and in 
for a good while together, with his friend Lord Clare at B 
II appear to have been undertaken in the int. 
. Animated A'.itiir,- • at all events, in the course of the excursions, hi 
n an observation for use in that compilation, More 
pleasure was 1 visit of six weeks to France in the autumn of 1770 — In. 
tW Continent since his long and strange vagabond ramble in it fifteen years bd 

rcasion he went as one of a family-party, with Mrs. Ilorncck, a widow 

lady, whose acquaintance he had recently made through Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 

her two daughters, beautiful girls of twenty and eighteen respectively. The elder. f..r 

.uvenred the playful name of "Little Comedy," was engaged 

to « Mr. Banbury; Ihe younger, Mary Home'.!:, m " I . 

called her. gaged, and ! Well, who l.i,. 

ore, at all events, save this ," do we I 

near !>• him, and in such oicu instances, thai 
'he was in love with her and can wish that they had Redded, "The 
Nat a suggestion of the jasmine-nower, of gracefulness and 
rerj name ' Poor, plain, mean 'i\ I 

— two-ami I mly b>"l< an 

lnr<ln a > I him even in tins journcv. ihcie 



OLDSMtTU. 






was lhal wretched Hickcy, the attorney, who joined the party in Taris, and 
make a butt of Goldy even in the presence of the ladies, and came back with 
Iton lh>w, riminl-iining a certain distance from one of the fountains at Versailh 
to be within reach of a leap, he made a jump to prove his assertion and 

i power to the Jcssainy, and tumbled into the water. Who could nuiry I 
'ike that? One comfort is that she did not marry Mr. Mickey. When she 
engaged, which mi n. it till a year after Goldsmith's death, it was I 
wife she became about three years after that. She wa-. 
>. having survived Goldsmith sixty-six years. She talked of him 
to the last. 

The reader may remember a certain Kcnrick, who succeeded Goldsmith 
Griffiths'! h.ick on the Monthly Review in 1757, and who had ever since 
some reason, his deadly enemy. In March 1773. when Goldsmith had re: . 
very height of his living reputation, and She Sloofs to Conquer was wil 
plaudits of the town, this envious brute, who was editing the Ltmint /'ifJttt : 
paper, inserted in its columns an anonymous letter of abuse against Goldsmith 1 
nil that he had done. Not content with condemning all Goldsmith's writi 

lly his last comedy, as worthless, flimsy, and what not, he ventured on sue 
elegancies as this : " Your poetic vanity is as unpardonable as your personal : wc 
" nan believe it, anJ will woman bear it, to be told that for hours the , 
" Goldsmith will stand surveying his grotesque orang-outang figure in a pier-glass? 

I'ut the lovely II k as much enamoured, you would not sigh, 111. 

" swain, in vain ! " When Goldsmith read thi«, his blood was pn p;rly a 
iinied by Captain Horneek of the Guards, the brother of the la.! 
name had been dragged in, he was ofTto the bookseller Evans's in Paternoster "' 
the newspaper mi published. What passed was described to Mr. P 
when be was writing his Life cf Goldsmith, by M.-. Harris, Lie publisl 

Churchyard, who had been in E 1 . t me in qucsl 

and was a witness to the scene. "I have Called," said Goldsmitn to Evans, ' 

icicncc of n scurrilous attack in your paper upon me (my name is Gol 

"and an unwarrantable liberty taken with the name of a young lady. As for mysell 

little, but her name must not be sported with " Evans, prof. 

thing of the matter, stooped down as if to look for the offensive article in j 

1 , when Goldsmith, unable to resist the sight of the big 

exposed, came down upon it with a whack of his cane. Instantly 

I little Irishman ; a lamp which hung overhead wa 

'ile. and they were both drenched with the oil ; one of the 

■ constable, and the sneak Kcniick himself, coming out from hiseditOI 

helped I I ..irate the combatants, and send Goldsmith home in I 

conch. I'"r 1 week the town was merry over the affray, chiefly at Goldy's expense J 

who had, moreover, to pay 50/. to a Welsh charity, to avoid .111 ..ana. 

One's wish now is that lime could be rolled back to the moment of the scuffle, 1 

the lamp-oil that was spilt might have been poured down Kent 



OF GOLDSMITH. 



llix 



TV **J1 in 

too* rbey arc ill in tlie same effect— wh.it a Km 

:ly high-minded, creature lie was, so that on 
body itwt d yel liow absurd, blundei lately 

ooejK^art''- '• md ii.rihinl. so thai ■verybodj tool Ubeitiei frith IriBt, and it mu 
galjr afcrn pn>[»le rcmctiilicrcd what a writer h« iw and then when Ml 

■ S talk, and lie flashed out a brilliancy ..- ny ia 

baa • uj looked at with adequate respect. "Dr. Goldsmith," 

when he comes into a room, if you have not 
u look ot him with reverence because of his writings; but, before 
kat- i may be ridinjj on his back." Again, when the poet 

Riagrrs a»l i Cooke, as he was called, who had known Goldsmith 

hJ ami been mush wilh him, what he really was in talk, this was the nwvn he 
potato!, "-Sir, he was a fool. The riidit word never came to him. If you gave 
" Ktm back ' Why, it is as good a shilling as ever was ttt 

i to have said coined. Coined, Sir, never entered his head, 

i 'i nk' I '.f one of his conversations with 

Sir, he is 50 much afraid ..f I. 

" uiwttir' . merely lesl you should forget that he is in the 

"i«m;iMi' yet, he stands forward.' JoHNSuN— 'True, Sir; but, 

id wuh to do it not in an awl 
1 he shall only be exposed to ridicule.' BOSWKI 1 
:ll to hear honest Goldsmith talk 

Ice to hear himself.'" To the tame 

' smith's friends about him, recorded by 

"N — 'It is amazing how little 

Coktanahh knows. here he II not more ignorant than any 

NOLIJS— 'Yet there is no man whose company is 

iked.' JOHNSON — *To be sure. Sir When people find a man of the 

MtSBhganhcd abilities as a wi ifcrior while he is with ttt ■ ■ 

.uifying to them. What Goldsmith comically says of himself 
-1 ways gets the better when he argues alone; meaning that he 
he comes into company, grows 
, and unable to talk ' " 

itfl are certainly those preserved Ivy Boswcll. 
•nag Scotchman, II , whom Johnson had seen off at 

it, had returned from abroad in February 
h*a head full of a new enthusiasm for Corsica and PaolL He it once 

•n, whom he found now residing in Johnson's 
as during ' e Goldsmith had pul 

7tr he no longer .it finding |< mith 

kaanacfc I upped at the Mitre, and net CMC 

aaaaaVa, before lioswcll's retni argh to begin the practice of law. fcstf. 



1 



MEMOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 



in 176S Boswell was again in London for a considerable lime; again in 1 
in 1772, having in the meantime married; and again in 1773, when he 
the honour of being elected a member of the Gerrard Street Clnb, aln 
forced since its commencement by some other new members, among whom were 
Percy, Chambers, Colinan, and Garrick. In Boswell's pages, accordingly, and 
v in the form of his own recollections of those visits to London, we have 
a pretty continuous history, from 1768 lo 1774, of lliJt Johnsonian world which so 
Inated him. It was the time, in general politics, of the continued famcof Wilkes 
and Liberty— the time of Chatham's obscuration, of the Grafton and other unpopular 
ministries, of the Letters of Junius, and of Ihose discontents in the Am. 
colonies which led to the War of American Independence. Nor, amid these public 
events, were matters stationary in private with the members of the Johnsonian g] 
Burke's political career as a Rockingham Whig had begun in 1766, and his 
was now powerful in the House of Commons. Johnson had added his edition of 
Shakespeare to his many previous publications, had had his famous interview with 
young George III. in the royal library, had liegun his intimacy with the Thrales 
.mi! had entered on his sixties. The Royal Academy having been founded in 176S, 
Reynolds had become its first President, and received his knighthood. What 
mith had been doing has been already told— save that we have yci 
honour that came to him, in association with Johnson, in consequence of this 
mentioned fact of the foundation of the Royal Academy. "Hi 
ihe Puilic Advertiser of December 22, 1769, " is appointed Professor of An 
nature, and Dr. Goldsmith Professor of History, to the Royal Academy. 
K titles are merely honorary, no salary being annexed to them." It was 
who had arranged these distinctions for his friends in connexion with the 
union. About the same time he painted his well-known porlt 
Goldsmith, engravings from which were to be seen in 1770 in the windows of all 
the print-shops. Its only fault is that it represents Goldsmith without a wig. 
whereas he invariably wore one. Reynolds, doubtless, foresaw that posterity »■ 
like to know the real shape of the head. 

And now, with these preliminaries, let Boswell tell some of his stories 

mith'-. ridiculous ways. Colli)' 1 Envy of Johnson on account cj kii 

vita with t/ir j\':ng : — " During all the tim'' in which Dr. Johl 
" employed in relating to the circle at Sir Joshua Reynolds's the particulars | 
" what passed between the King and him, Dr. Goldsmith remained unmov< 
" upon a sofa at some distance, affecting not to join in Ihe least in the eager 
curiosity of the company. He assigned as a reason for his gloom and seeming 
" inaticniion that he apprehended Johnson had relinquished his purpose of 
" furnishing him with a Prologue to his play, with the hopes of which he had 
1 Battered ; but it was strongly suspected that he was fretting with chagrin 
" arnl envy at the singular honour Dr. Johnson had lately enjoyed. At length, 
" the frankness and simplicity of his natural character prevailed. He sprung fi 
" Ihe sofa, ad\ r anced lo Johnson, and, in a kind of flutter, from imagining himself 



ich he had hearing described, exclaimed, 

bould have dow \ i"i 

i stammered through the whole of It.*" <7, 

■ — "He (Dr. Johnson) honoured me with iiis «.■ 
tobcr (17691 at my lodgings in Old !!■ 

Dr. 1 ■■ Jdsmith, Mr. Murphy, Mr. 1 

. of the company not ben 
as usual on such occasions, drona M 

lit six people to be kept waiting fur one?' '\ 
" rev ■ delicate humanity, "if the one will suffer a 

ian the .-i>. will do by wailing." Goldsmith, to divert 
Igiflg of his dross, and I believe was 
onilcrfully prone to such im 
ae,' said Garrick, ' talk no Bore of that. You are . 
rlj attempting to mtemtpl 

it on, laughing ;., you will alt) like a 

■in talking of being well or ill i/rat.' ' Will, let me ll II 
"you. bloom-colo.. 

■ 1 have a beg of you. When inybodj .'--ks yon who 

lention John Filby, at the Ilarrov 
ir, 1I1 a wa nge colout 

1 thus ihcy might hear of him, an 

even of so absurd a colour.'" 1 

Vpril 29 (1773), 1 dined Willi him 

were "Mr Joshua Reynolds, Ml 1 u 
1 Dr. C 'in 11— "There i 

itals at the signs "I massacre, If rou pul a tub full of I 
' Johnson— ' I doubt thai 
— • You hi 
ir b->.ik on Natural History. Yon may do it in my - 
you « iv. Sir, I would not I. 

Mem I malion from others, he may gel thtOB^I bfa lwwk with 

lile, iuI much endangering his reputation Bui, U he makes 

ould be no end to them ; 

a»sn d then fall upon himself.' " 

ioldsmith's incestanl desire of 
pant wn the occasion of his sometimes appearing to such d 

baldly have supposed possible in a man of hi* genius ...('> 

a company with fluent vivacity, and, as he flattered 
•nnitf, to the *• who sat next 

I'ped 
melhing.' 

1111U1, »lvi 



In 



V0//1 <>/• inr. 



■■id • 






iiily mentioned a with strong cpressions of indignation, It may also be 
■ Idsmiili w.is Mimetimei content lo be treated with an cosy 
" familiarity, bat I ioni would be consequential and important. An 

" instance of I i in I small particular, Johnson had ■ way ol 

"the names of his friends' as Ueauelerk, Beau; Boswcll, Huzzy; Lati£l.>n, Lanky, 
" Murphy, Mar; Sheridan, Sherry. I remember, one day when Tom 

. that Dr. Johnson said, ' We arc all in labour for a name to GM\ 
"Goldsmith seemed much displeased that such a liberty should be lake 
" hia name, ' 1 have often desired him not to call me C'.'n'v. ' " 
The foregoing are from Boswell's " Life of Johnson," where there is mot. 
ii ; liul other slories, as good, have come down by other channels of ti 

One or i may be added to the string. Gibbon making game e/ t. 

While Goldsmith wra busy with Ins ' Grecian History,' Gibbon is said to haw 
upon him at his chamber! in Brick Court. " Vou are the very person I wantetl to 
lid Goldsmith, "for I can't remember the name of that Indian kins "ho gave 
Alexander the Great so much trouble." "Montezuma," said Gibbon iniscln 
till, perceiving thai Goldsmith took the information in good faith, and 

it, he tboughl the jest might go too far, and added, "No, I mislaki 

p.. I Montezuma; it was Poms." Burke mating g*mt »/ Goldy: — Bl 

Ins friend Mi. (afterwards Colonel] O'M c were walking i< 

to dine, when they saw Goldsmith, who 
crowd thai had gathered to Hare and sltout al some foreign women iv lio I 
om the windows of a house in Leicester Square, "l 

nion, "and marl, wbal pomes between him 

-." They arrived at Sir Joshua's before Goldsmith ; ami, when he appeared, 

red him with a grave face, as if seriously offended. When Goldsmith 

ed some lime for an explanation, Burke, with secininn reluctance, said 
i, illy too much to expect that one could continue to lie intimate with htm afti 
reel way in which he had been behaving in the square, With great earnestro 
.nth professed his ignorance of having done anything wrong, and asked wh. 
it was. " YYhv, ' mid burke, "did you nol exclaim, as you were looking up 
.1 beasts the people nuist be for atari uiii.in., 

tinted Jecebdl while a man of your talents passed by uni 
ly I did not say ilial." -aid the astonished Goldsmith. "Nay, Ifyo 
said so," replied Burke, "how should I have known it?" " I 1 
Goldsmith humbly; "I lis very sorry — it " .iish ; I do 

lung of the kind passed through my mind, but 1 did nol think I hid uttel 
it." — Kutcher — At the humble Wednesday'! 

et Street, according lo Mr. Forster, no less than at the I ■ 
ind the parties at Sir Joshua's, Goldsmith a a the snbjed of practh 
Mi I anon tells tome of these and add- this Kory: \ rrequenl a- 
is "a certain Mr. B,, >, - a good sort of i. 

'hulihci, WOO piqued himself scry much fellowship With tin 












.'•re's 

mj w .1 night afto 1 1 1 •_- comedy 1*4. 

! when there was .1 very full club, Glovei went over 

i he ought n- .t to ill-." such liberties. 

i iih, 'and you'll tec how civilly I'll let him 

nd, on the next r.ause in the conversation, called out 

'al'wd, ■ y. 'Mr. 11., I have the 

honour ol i health.' 'Thankee, thankee, Noll, 1 returned 

mouth, and answering with great briilrnwa." 
lumerous are the anecdotes of Goldsmith's 
t.Uemc tenderness ivl | osity, his quick sympathy with all kinds of 

drtre**. ' ' ling in the streets, 

y mournful in the c, he could 

ty. In hit 
ad kind words not only for the Pardons, Hiflern 
•ol .i (a liini, bat also for any 

might casually encounter walking about the Temple 
imless and * Remembering this, one cauBol help 

■ might have happened '>r been prevented, if the l»>y 
I three months in! ..•■ August 1770) had chanced 

iry ramblings. One cannot hoi imagine, at nil evi 
m the fact that the hour of the li of that 

hungcr-ond-arsenic agony in the dreadful garret In 
with the time of (luld.mith's absence from 
was, lie was one of the first, on his return, to 
mil to talk of him and the Rowley Poems, But what 
• essential goodni Imuth'a heart, his singular 

than the story which ; i. of hi- momentary 

HOC? " I dined with him (Johns (May 7, 173 

Iward and I 

there were present— their elder brother. Mr I 'ill 
truth ; Mr. 1 Dr. I 

ly; and my friend, the Rev. Mr. Temple." There 

■ "ii the ml i irjon ; and 

prop i made unusually loud and pugn.i 

ui much success against I >r. MayVl Dalai 
:i. "During this argument," continues Bo 
ition, from a wish lo get in and ihme. Finding 
hal t'i go away, QUI remained for some time 
-.ter, who, at the close of a long ni for a 

.ii ruble opening to finish wit] 
k, he found himself overpowered by the loud 
end of the table and did not ^Mcevsit 













Goldsmith's attempt. Thus disappointed of his wish to obtain the attenti 

the COP ismilh in a passion threw down his h.n, looking angrily i' 

astro, .mil mrlaimfd in a bitter tone, " Toht it.' When 
"speak, Johnson uttered some wand, which led Goldsmith to think it 
" beginning again, ind t.iking llie words from Toplady. Upon which he ; 
"this opportunity of venting his own envy anil spleen, under the 
" supporting (mother person : ' Sir,' said he to Johnson, ' this gentleman 
"yen patiently for an hour; pray allow u> now to hear him.' |on 

:, 1 was not interrupting the gentleman ; I was only giving him a 
•• signal of my attention. Sir, you are im; 

" bill continued in the company for some time." After he had gone, the res! talked 
a while longO ; bill at 1 i.-t, it being the clnh night, the company broke up. 
" (Johnson), and Mr. Langton, and I," says Boswell, "went together to the 
" where we found Mr. llurki:, Mr. Garnck, and some other i 
" t ] i . 1 1 1 out friend Goldsmith, who sat silently brooding over Join iins 

" to him after dinner. Johnson perceived this, and said aside lo some of 
"make Goldsmith forgive me;' and then called to him in a loud voice, '1 
" Goldsmith, something pasted today where you and 1 dined; I ask your pa? 
wwered placidly, 'It must he much from you, Sir, thai 1 ta!. 
" \. e the difference was over, and they were on as easy terms as I 

" tad Goldsmith muled away as usual." 
i. i , Imit, did not always drivel in ei 

now and then came out of the fog, and tl client and mem..' 

things. We have already quoted his definition . I Boswell'smain faculty, and Bo 
has himself honestly recorded two or three sallies of Goldsmith at his exp 
■vening, in a circle of wii-, he found fault with me for talking of J. 

Itled to the honoor of TTnquestionabl 

i; a monarchy of what should be a republic." 1 Again, in 17 
had booked Johnson lot his three months' tour that autumn in Scotland ail 
rides, and it was more than Ball and blood could stand to hear hit 
log in the prospect and talking of the matchlessness of his great man, "Is 
like Burke, who winds into a subject like a serpent?" said G" ! 
I was occasionally outwitted by Goldy, an 

ImtDouredly, "Johnson — 1 remember once being with Goldsmith in We 

ibejr, While we surveyed the Poets' Corner, I said to him, — 
' For^itan el nostrum nomeu nmcct.itur i»lis-' 

" When wc got to Temple Bar, he stopped me, pointed to the heads upon it, 
whispered me, 

• Forviun ct nostrum noiiv : rs/u.' 

Again, when Goldsmith, in talk with Jnhnson and Reynolds, spoke of the difficulty 

Iting, and gave as an instance "the fable of the little fishes whi 
fly ever their heads, and, cmying them, petitioned Jupiter lo be changed Into 




like liltle fi laughter <■ 

," he proceeded smart I] . 
o make little fishes talk, they woulil talk Ufa 

lyings about Jol ill's : "I hi 

■o rarjjumg wiih | . ■ t j t . ~ ■ ■ i ■ ; his pistol M 
and, "Johnson, to be 
an lis lit : he has nothing of I I'mnlly, 

ppei of Jol 
1 1 John " these romp 

en n man must eat a great many 'if il,, 

lny nf these woulii rc.icli to the moon?" 
echoed Johnson; "thai, sir, I fenr, exceed) 

; " l tiimk i could il-ii." "pi , v 

! ldy slowly— and Mr ! it be rigln 

m w.rjoi ■■ from Johnson— "one, u it 

• rrr '• - .• i " i ;l. ' " Sir, I have deserved it," gaspi d Johnson al last 

this way, however, bore no proportion 10 
olnh tiacc you lefi I 
. another member of the club, on ih. j 
■ . Goldsmitl 
Had Viecoi i -ion way of talking of him. More especial h 

; cv and mii' hief, had member of die club, il 

brcMar lh' id and did. But the fashion 

»■»-.•■..'- I hryonil i he • lui' ■. ""I. whenever Goldy's friends net together, and Garrick 

hi theme, 
sarli plfteg was Si. J ami -, i "il"- House iii St. James'i Street, where for tome time 
i (m»|«ni' ■ i" ihe club and panl) not, hail been in the 

h»i.r Here, one day in February i;\ 









•acb »xic i 



■ him, 
ig I hem thi k : — 

d N.'ii. 

but talked in. 

M-miih al this kind of sport, as Garricl 

arse of the next month, fragments of 

'. . -,•■ ■:. Iiiilr i called /,'. i.i!i:i!i. ■</ began u. be whispered nboul Who does 

if malice or mere i 
, anil the quinle 
;hing ni him are , 

the >• • tori "i i • 



i/R OF GOLDSMITH 



ilirec portraits in miniature are those "f Burke, Garrick, . 

Idcl Burke lived fivc-and-iwentv years longer, and was to be and do iluiiu 
those fivc-and-twenty years a great deal more than he had yet been or done : but 

'smith's character of bin thai we always quote when « 
epitome. In vain Garrick tried, by subsequent verses, not in the best taste, to out 

h Goldy after he was dead; his clever " U " couplet does lasJ. I 

'. thirty-two Una on Garrick in his RiHfiatkn last also, and arc a settle 

■r of the account between them. And what portrait of 
us from the i Reynold! more graphic than the unfinished pen-and-ink skclt 

of Reynolds himself with which J\,!jIhiuoii ends? 

• •Tombs averse, yet m<«| civilly steering, 

linrtl of hearing ; 
'-Is. Cocreggios, and stuff, 
He shifted his trumpet, and only look muff. 
lly flattery unspoilt .... 

i [his living tribute to Sir Joshua, the poem breaks oft He bad more I 
s.iv iii In. nour of the great painter who bad been to truly 
contemplate the addition of a portrait of Johnson ? Most probably not. 

h foun you, Sir, that I take ill," the gentle creature hail Bid to the lerfiti 
• nig his apology for a gross insult; and, notwithstanding h 
Observation about Johnson to BoaweU, " Is he like Uurke, who winds into 
like a Krpenl ?'' it is clear that there was no human being for whom Gold; 
s" pro found and absolute a regatd. 

were not to be troubled, any of them, with poor Goldy much longer, lit 
Anlmottii Xnturi and his Grecian History, though not published, were ofl 

| mil except that Retaliation may have been lying on his desk to have a few 
lines added to it now and then when he was in the humour, wc hear of nothing 
■ccupying hhn in the months of February and March i 

itnc years of labour in compiling ; and now, if eve 
WBI ill, time lb( carrying into effect the resolution, to which he had been pi 

', of retiring permanently into some quiet part of the country and CO 
London only fee two months every year. Hut, in bet, either to go or si 
have been difficult for him. All his resources were gone ; his fe. I 

I-, were in a meshwork of debt, to the extent of about a.oco/.i 
tad all that he could look forward to, with any promise of relief in it, «.-is r 
ROW stretch of some ten thousand acres of additional ditch-work .u- 

ller who would not mind prepaying for the laliour in par 
* ■■mething of the kind to the publisher Nourse, into whose band 

v of the AiinntiliJ Xaturr bad passed, and who had it nov. 
to taking shares with Griffin in a large seqtn 
in the form of a work on the " V 
docs not appear to have had lime to consider this proposal when, 

ernod, it became unnecessary for him to think dm 



.■■hVJ! OF GOLDSMITH. 






!«■ had gone in M two a to his n 

when an attack of a local complaint to which 
subject brought him back tn his chambers in the Temple. I 
M H1»mt passed off, but a kind of nervous fever followed ; and al ele 

:51b of March, Mr. Ilawes, an apothecary and a friend al I 
He (ouud : II, and bent on doctoring hli 

ders," a patent medicine the property in which 
belonged V f ihc publisher, and in which l.oldsniiih had great faith. 

1st Mr. Ha say, he would take one of 

i worse. Dr. Fordyce, who had be ctcd 

mrmli ird Street Club, and lit Turton, another 

called in to assist Mr. Howes, but without avail. "Youj | 
urton la his patient, "is in gi let than ii should be from tbi 

r mind at ease?" '' It is ho/," said Goldsmith, -And so, with 
lay on in his chambers in Brick Court till Monday, the 4th of 
it was known through town that Goldsmith was 1 
inr 1h.1t morning in strong convulsions. When Burke v. . 
irst into tears. When Reynolds was told il. he leii I. 
Sen was, and did no more work that day. How Johnson was iflccti 

the I,, can only guess ; but three months afterwards he wrote .ii fol 

ire: "Chambers, you find, . and poor 

. icb farther. I Ic died 1 . 1 . v 

>ira«. He raised money and squandered il by I 

But let not his frailties be nmonbered . he 
ry great man." When Goldsmith died he was foi 

buried, on the 9th of April, m the .mid 

hnrch. The monument to him in SV« f, with the 

.nson, was erected in 1776. 

illy we ran add but few panir-ul.irs to those all 

Idy," so persistently atl ira in 

. lie WU .1 little man. 
it and thick about the chest and limbs. To I 
reel, with the gigantic Johnson by hi-, side, inu-i I 
; ale and pitted face taken along with h 
little bodies that ever entered a roi 

-, but only a certain oddn< 

and in general the 

lion, Thou L and convivial, 

.self to havt 
. he never had .1 habit of eai 
ol milk to the last, Utie of In.-. Deeuliw 



1 % iii 



MI: MOW OF GOLDSMITH. 



notes it as ■ peculiarity in one who professed to write on Natural ml 

, anli|i.it!iy to miic, eels, and most little animals of the crawling kind, so 
worms and caterpillars. Of all the rest of that strange mixture, or jumble, of 
qualities that went to make Goldy, a sufficient account has already been gii 
if one wne bent on summing it all up in some one general idea or im| 

oily remembered, it must be that impression or idea in which his contempo 
arrcd unanimously through every period of his life, and which 
Batted to us in so many form*, viz. that he was one of the best-hearted creatures 
ever born, but a positive idiot except when he liad the pen in his hand. 

Except when he had the pen in his hand I Ay! there has been 1 
with the world! And what shall one say now of Guldsmilh's writings? 
four brief remarks: — (I) Not to be forgotten is that division of them, ah 
dwelt on, into two distinct orders u and original fucts. As the 

division was a vital one to Goldsmith himself — for his literary life consisted, *s 
«c have said, of a succession of glittering! of spontaneous genius ainid dull 
habitual drudgery at hackwork— so it is of consequence in our retrospect of 
linn. Probably much that Goldsmith did in die way of anonymous i 
lies buried irrecoverably in the old periodicals for which he wrote, and v. 

DOW little better than lumber on the shelves of our great li b r a rie s 
Ins compilations of Knglish, Roman, and Grecian History, and Ins .-ir.iwatoi 
.Valine, once so popular, are still known, and arc to be distinguished from that 
class of his writings of which the present volume is a collection. Even r. 
present volume there arc some small things that must be regarded as mcrv • 
.:i. I may serve as minor specimens of i loldsmilh in that line— the wreti 
shred called a Lift of i . for example, and the better, but still poor, Lift of 

'■'. if not indeed also the Memoir of Vol/aire, and the Lif. 
1 ledud these, and in the Inquiry :n!o Ike Stale of Polite Learning, the .' 

/. the Vicar of WaiefieU, and the Poems and < . 
yon have, in various forms, the pure and real Goldsmith. (2) In all that he « 
his eo led, there was the charm of his easy, perspicuous si- 

one of Goldsmith's natural gifts; wiih bis humour, his tenderness, and 

a. he had it from the first. No wnler in the language 
arpassed him, or even equalled him, in that witching simplicity, thai 
lie ease of i tsnetimi - i 

taste, and i ting with the nibtlcsl turni and felicitlea, which i ■ 

have admired for a hundred years in the diction of Goldsmith, li i., this I 

at interest they have, though it was bu 
rid exhibit it thi 
'; nullum,- I" ("There was no kind of wri 

Ocfaed that be did not adorn,") said fohn 
in nil epitaph in Westminster Abbey . and I lie remark includes I 
In matter, ■ xrme quite >n4 

want a r of "hat K 







VOIR Of ■ 777/. 



■nigti lescriptioni of (he battles of Cressy and 

ny ! and how i( k Prince in the one 

in the other, th.it settles everything with his own hand, 

fc»l But lead on, and you a ill sec how the style could 
to the meagrcness of the matter, and keep the compilation 90 

Vaturt. Johnson prophesied that he would 
. tale; and the pn I fulfilled. The 

, of course, the habitual rule of sequence in his 
tdat i.l harmony, the liveliness of his fancy from I 

lact — this is a study in itself. (3) In his or 
style is most felt, there is, with all theii 

furm. a cci i.d effect The field of incident.,, characters, tenti- 

within which the ami is a limited one, 

1 t;icat deftness of recombination Within that horizon. Wc 

hteenth-century writer, did m 1 the 

,e to which his century had restricted itself. 

Il we discern 111 Goldsmith*! writings ■ fine I . even 

[he generation to which they belonged, there is yel abundant 

id those of his generation, 
BU» in for some of his ci Pope was the limit of clu 

■>hakcspcare and Milton were rugged, barbaric 
nwtaiii-snaasc., iist.mce. But, over and above thii limitation of I 

ih the taste; of his time, there ■ thing 

■.Is causing a farther and inner cir. 
' whether in verse or pro; carof 

f.-U, I.-. /■.;."■ ■'.'. i, Iir- IMf't.lf /'..'.'.' V, his C, ;'..'- \',:.'.-/r,:i '[.::: and Si, Statfis 

letches that occur in his Essayi and 
-ire phantasies of what n ifltisrellef. 

■ .hi ..f 
I Inaa^ I a filling of portion after portion of tl 

tN»''i: ., events, and beings, nc . He 

10 the 1 his own life, on the history of his own family, 

on whimsical ini I had happened to him in his 

-. r,n his experience ns a literary 
istrimu [I . pick out | his Hear, Ins C 

d>T" h har.ily .1 ical. 1 Ir i 

Icrgyman of the Dai 
ihc Gentleman in Black, young Honeywood in the I 
l.umpkin in Slit Stoops lo 1 

■11 whic h this last piny 

That of these simpl BNkM] 



lx MEMOIR OF GOLDSMITH. 

charming combinations, really differing from each other, and all, though suggested 
by fact, yet hung so sweetly in an ideal air, proved what an artist he was, and 
was better than much that is commonly called invention. In short, if there is 
a sameness of effect in Goldsmith's writings, it is because they consist of poetry arid 
truth, humour and pathos, from his own life, and the supply from such a life as 
his was not inexhaustible. (4) Though so much of Goldsmith's best writing was 
generalized and idealized reminiscence, he discharged all special Irish colour out ol 
the reminiscence. There are, of course, Irish references and allusions, and we 
know what a warm heart he had to the last for the island of his birth. But is 
most of his writings, even when it may have been Irish recollections that suggested 
the theme, he is careful to drop its origin, and transplant the tale into England. 
The ideal air in which his phantasies are hung is an English air. The Vicar 0) 
Wakefield is an English prose-idyll ; She Stoops to Conquer is a comedy of English 
humour, and Tony Lumpkin is an English country-lout ; and, notwithstanding all 
the accuracy with which Lissoy and its neighbourhood have been identified with the 
Auburn of the Deserted Village, we are in England and not in Ireland while we 
read that poem. Goldsmith's heart and genius were Irish ; his wandering about 
in the world had given him a touch of cosmopolitan ease in his judgment oi 
things and opinions, and especially, what was rare among Englishmen then, a 
great liking for the French ; but in the form and matter of his writings he was 
purposely English. 

DAVID MASSON. 



August J 868. 



THE MISCELLANEOUS WORKS 



OF 



OLIVER GOLDSMITH 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 
(1766.) 

ADVERTISEMENT. 

TMere are .lit ha in Ikis thing, •>"•! nn 

iici.iUsi. A book 
frrfej. f < ul ,1 iingle at'surJity. 7%t htro of this J 

- priest^ '"I ■' 
tit flikrr . //r- 11 t{>,: 

M mjftttnee, aru! 

frtm 

/«t i» i" 

m'^« tati laugh hi out whine thief ' storti qf tomfuri art drawH from futuritjt, 

Otivi 



CHAPTER I. 

7»» Pnerittt— t/tlu Family -J 

M—A •« -/ . 
I WA . that Ihc 

I began lo 

I ■• <l" li'.i 
irnl I 

we grew 

Mfa other I 
Heal increase' I 




situated in n line country, and n 

Ml III 

001 migration! fium Ihl 

bid the traveller or Mi 

. with 

find fault with it Our 

.ill remi 

quently i" 1 I ili,-n, 

1 c had ilir blind, 1 
and the hall 1 number. How- 

wen.- 11 
sit wit! 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 






Old as some 

■ 1 1 1 - "; the wing <<t a buttefH 

re, an admirer "i happy liuman 

H ben lay one of our 

relation! was round to be .1 person of wry 

bad character, .1 trouble >.r one 

i id of, 11 1 .. »n In, i 

lend bin a 

some- 

1. 1 I always 

in i.if findin 

in rcium them. By this the 

lid nut 

■in never was the family of Wake- 

i Her or the 
loors. 

in a date 

. linl 'nil! I 

id my wife's en 

e children. 
I ii Squire would tometimes f.ill asleep 

return mj 

I curtsey. But we 
cd by 

iiegan to wonder how they 

\iv children, the ofl ten- 

' 

active, 
iii\' A 

while othei 
mures, 
o children, 

is the 

be had to i ■ 

i 1 had but six, 

i ii as a very valuable 

,. and con- 

. nfter 

ounds 

i girl, I intended to call 



after her aunt Grissel ; but my wife, who 
during her pregnancy Mad I. 

romances, insisted upon her being 
I Uivia. In less than anotbi 
had another .la* 

ned that I Id be 

name ; but a rich i 

ind godmother, ll . bj 

■ ailed Sophia ; so thai 
two romantic names in 
I solemnly protest I rod in 

was our next, and, after an i 
of twelve years, we ha.! 

It would he frn i 
when 1 Raw my little ones about nu 

nity and the 
were even greater than mine. 

' say, " Well, u[" 
Mrs, I'riiiii'.ise, you have the 
children in the whole country;"— 
nuld answer, " thi 
as Hen 

if they l>e good enough; for handsoi 
thai handsome does." And 
would bid the girls hold up their 1 
who, to conceal nothing 
very handsome. Mere - 
trifling a circumstance with me, that 
should scarce have remembered ('■ 
tion it. had it n<>! been a gem 

i nation in the country. Ou't 
about eighteen, had that lu 

with which |i 
draw Hebe; open, spi 
manding. 

g at first, luit ofti 
i mi : fur the] 
alluring. The one vanquilhe ' 

■lly l 

■ 
the turn of her 
least ii 
« ished im man) . 

■ 
great a desin 

•cd cxcelk. 
offend. The one entertained me with 
hei vivacity h1i.ii 1 mi- gay, ihe oth 
■ 

• • never carried to exo 

in cither, and 1 

exchan lay to- 

gether. A suit of mourning has i 



IE OF U-AKEFTELD. 



and a 

r . .: 
i 

■!. In 



Icil 10 

iii (lie 
(li« iii' 



which, e»er sold, I have the 

' 
he ii '■ 

my v. || 1:11 Rving, iu 11M..I1 I 

f.iir, with .11: 

over 1 1 ■■ 

: ii admon- 
ished my wife ol hi 

to her : ii inspired ha with a 

i end. 

Ii ii 

At my 

bouring 

fortune, Bui fortune 

nil, health, and 
were si ill I 

As 

Mi Wllmoi ■ 

■ 

nongh 

; and iIh 

We 

ai 

..illy read a pa£'-. 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



at themselves in the glass, which, even 
philosophers might own, often presented 
the page of greatest beauty. At dinner, 
my wife took the lead ; for, as she always 
insisted upon carving everything herself, 
it being her mothers way, she gave us, 
upon these occasions, the history of every 
dish. When we had dined, to prevent 
the ladies leaving us, I generally ordered 
the table to be removed ; and sometimes, 
with the music-master's assistance, the 
girls would give us a very agreeable 
concert Walking out, drinking tea, 
country dances, and forfeits, shortened 
the rest of the day, without the assistance 
of cards, as I hated all manner of gaming, 
except backgammon, at which my old 
friend and 1 sometimes took a twopenny 
hit Nor can I here pass over an omi- 
nous circumstance that happened, the last 
time we played together. I only wanted 
to fling a quatre, and yet I threw deuce 
ace five times running. 

Some months were elapsed in this 
manner, till at last it was thought con- 
venient to fix a day for the nuptials of the 
young couple, who seemed earnestly to 
desire it During the preparations for 
the wedding, I need not describe the 
busy importance of my wife, nor the 
sly looks of my daughters : in fact, my 
attention was fixed on another object — 
the completing a tract, which I intended 
shortly to publish, in defence of my fa- ' 
vourite principle. As I looked upon this 
as a masterpiece, l>oth for argument and 
style, I could not, in the pride of my 
heart, avoid showing it to my old friend 
Mr. Wilmot, as I made no doubt of 
receiving his approbation : but not till 
too late I discovered that he was most 
violently attached to the contrary opinion, 
and with good reason ; for he was at 
that time actually courting a fourth wife. ' 
This, as may be expected, produced a 
dispute, attended with some acrimony, - 
which threatened to interrupt our in- 
tended alliance ; but on the day before 
that appointed for the ceremony, we 
agreed to discuss the subject at large. | 

It was managed with proper spirit on 
both sides ; he asserted that I was heter- 
odox ; I retorted the charge : he replied, 
•ad I rejoined. In the meantime, while , 



the controversy was hottest, I was called 
out by one of my relations, who, with ■ 
face of concern, advised me to give np 
the dispute, at least till my son's weddmr 
was over. " How," cried I, *' relinquish 
the cause of truth, and let him be a 
husband, already driven to the very verge 
of absurdity ? You might as well advise 
me to give up my fortune as my argu- 
ment" — "Your fortune," returned my 
friend, " I am now sorry to inform you, 
is almost nothing. The merchant ia 
town, in whose hands your money was 
lodged, has gone off, to avoid a statute 
of bankruptcy, and is thought not to have 
left a shilling in the pound. I was un- 
willing to shock you or the family with 
the account till after the wedding: bat 
now it may serve to moderate your 
warmth in the argument ; for, I suppose, 
your own prudence will enforce the ne- 
cessity of dissembling, at least till your 
son has the young lady's fortune secure." 
—"Well," returned I, "if what you tell 
me be true, and if I am to be a beggar, 
it shall never make me a rascal, or induce 
me to disavow my principles. I'll go this 
moment and inform the company of my 
circumstances : and, as for the argument, 
I even here retract my former concessions 
in the old gentleman's favour, nor will 
allow him now to be a husband in any 
sense of the expression." 

It would be endless to describe the dif- 
ferent sensations of both families when I 
divulged the news of our misfortune : but 
what others felt was slight to what the 
lovers appeared to endure. Mr. Wilmot, 
who seemed before sufficiently inclined to 
break off the match, was, by this blow, 
soon determined : one virtue he had in per- 
fection, which was prudence, too often the 
only one that is left us at seventy-two. 

CHAPTER III. 

A Migration. Tke fortunate Cimm it an c n of 
onr Liven are generally found at last la he of 
our own procuring. 

The only hope of our family now was, 
that the report of our misfortune might be 
malicious or premature ; but a letter from 
my agent in town soon came, with a con- 
firmation of every particular. The loss of 



THE VTCAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



Inrtan. v.- been 

who were to be humbled with- 
not < ider them callous to 

ht had passed before I 

attempted to restrain their affliction ; f"r 

premature oonsol the remem- 

sorrow. During tins interval, 

•5 were employed on some I 

- of supporting them ; and at 

.f fifteen pounds a year 

me, in a di -ur- 

ild still enjoy my prin- 

With this 

a! 1 joyfully closed, having deter- 

.rease my salary by m. u 

ITU 

iken this resolution, my next 

care « : the wrecks of my 

'.(.-bis collected and paid, 

■id, we had 

I remaining. My chief 

ire, was now to bring 

,r cir- 

T well knew that aspiring 

If. '" V'Ul 

it, my children," i 

I have 
■ ? misfortune ; but pru- 

eoVcts. \Vc arc i ay fondlings, 

urn Me 
withont ret 

6 1 num- 

seek in humbler 
ctroimst oners that peace with wh 

• 

jive up 
aO p» ive still 

e wise, 
hedefi- 

cfcacie* of ' 
At my ddeat ac la scholar, I 

where 
ir sup- 

r>!. ind i . miic i,, perhaps, one of the 
OV'-I hUiulul circumst.iiicc-i attendant 
oa praary. Tli ved on 

the first 
time, My ton, after taking leave of his 



mother and the rest, who mingled 

tears with their kisses, came to 

ing from me. This I gave him from my 

heart, and which. ve guineas, 

was all the patrimony 1 had now to oe 

are going, my boy," cried I, " to 
i on foot, in the manner Hooker, 

your great ancestor, liavclled there before 
lake from me the same horse that 

was given him by the good bishop I 

- this book, too. it will 

i it are worth a million, — 'I have 
ijng, and now am old ; yet never 
saw 1 the righteous man forsaken, or his 
seed begging their bread.' Let this be 
your consolation as you travel on. Go, 
my boy ; whatever be thy fortune, let me 
see thee once a year ; still keep a 
heart, and farewell." As he was possessed 
of integrity and honour, I was under no 
apprehensions from throwing him naked 
into the amphitheatre of life; for 1 knew 
Ir- would act a good part whether van- 
quished or victorious. 

His departure only prepared the way for 
our own. which arrived a few days aftcr- 
Thc leaving a neighbourhood in 
which we had enjoyed so many hours of 
tranquillity was not without a tear, which 
scarce fortitude itself could suppress. 
Besides, a journey of seventy milt - 
family that had hitherto never been a 
len from home, filled us with apprehen- 
sion ; and the cries of the poor, who foi- 
st fir some miles, contributed to 

ie it. The first day's journey 

i u- in safety within thirty miles of 

our future retreat, and we put up foi the 

night at an obscure inn in a village by the 

When we were shown a room, I 

desired the landlord, in my usual » 

In u- have ins company, with which be 

what he drank moid increase 

the bill nt-\t morning. He kne i 

the whole neighbourhood to which I was 
removing, particularly Squire Thomhill, 
who was to be my landlord, and who lived 
within a few mile' of the place. This 
gentleman he described as one who de- 
know little more of the world than 
isurcs, being particularly remark- 
able for his attachment for the fair sex. 
He observed that no virtue was able to 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



resist his arts and assiduity, and that 
scarce a farmer's daughter within ten 
miles round but what had found him 
successful and faithless. Though this ac- 
count gave mc some pain, it had a very 
different effect upon my daughters, whose 
features seemed to brighten with the 
expectation of an approaching triumph : 
nor was my wife less pleased and confident 
of their allurements and virtue. While 
our thoughts were thus employed, the 
hostess entered the room to inform her 
husband that the strange gentleman, who 
had been two days in the house, wanted 
money, and could not satisfy them for his 
reckoning. " Want money !" replied the 
host, " that must be impossible ; for it was 
no later than yesterday he paid three 
guineas to our beadle to spare an old bro- 
ken soldicrthat was to be whipped through 
the town for dog-stealing." The hostess, 
however, still persisting in her first asser- 
tion, he was preparing to leave the room, 
swearing that he would be satisfied one 
way or another, when I begged the land- 
lord would introduce mc to a stranger of 
so much charily as he described. With 
this he complied, showing in a gentleman 
who seemed to be about thirty, dressed in 
clothes that once were laced. His person 
was well formed, and his face marked with 
the lines of thinking. He had something 
short and dry in his address, and seemed 
not to under.-tand ceremony, or to despise 
it. I'pon '' le landlord's leaving the room, 
I coujd not avoid expressing my concern 
to the stranger at seeing a centleman in 
such circumstances, and offered him my 
purse to satisfy the present demand. " I 
take it with all my heart, sir," replied he, 
"and am glad that a late oversight in 
giving what money I had about me has 
shown me there are still some men like 

Ku. I must, however, previously entreat 
ing informed of the name and residence 
of my benefactor, in onlcr to repay him as 
soon as possible." In this I satisfied him 
fully, not only mentioning my name and 
late misfortunes, but the place to which I 
was going to remove. " This," cried he, 
" happens still more luckily than I hoped 
for, as I am going the same way myself, 
having been detained here two days by the 
floods, which I hope by to-morrow will be 



found passable." I testified the pleasure 
I should have in his company, and my 

. wife and daughters joining in entreaty, he 
was prevailed upon to stay supper. The 
stranger's conversation, which was at once 
pleasing and instructive, induced me to 
wish for a continuance of it ; bnt it was 

, now high time to retire and take refresh- 
ment against the fatigues of the following 

The next morning we all set forward 
1 together : my family on horseback, while 
\ Mr. Burchell, our new companion, walked 
, along the footpath by the road-side, ob- 
serving with a smile that, as we were ill 
| mounted, he would be too generous to 
attempt leaving us behind. As the floods 
| were not yet subsided, we were obliged to 
I hire a guide, who trotted on before, Mr. 
. Burchell and I bringing up the rear. We 
j lightened the fatigues of the road with 
1 philosophical disputes, which he seemed 
, to understand- perfectly. But what sur- 
prised mc most was, that though he was a 
money borrower, he defended his opinions 
with as much obstinacy as if he had been 
my patron. He now and then also in- 
formed me to whom the different seats 
lwlongcd that lay in our view as we 
travelled the road. "That," cried he, 
pointing to a very magnificent house which 
s'.ood at some distance, " belongs to Mr. 
Thornhill, a young gentleman who enjoys 
a large fortune, though entirely dependent 
on the will of his uncle. Sir William 
Thornhill, a gentleman who, content with 
a little himself, permits his nephew to 
enjoy the rest, and chiefly resides in 
town." — " What ! " cried I, "is my young 
landlord then the nephew of a man, whose 
virtues, generosity, and singularities are 
so universally known? I have heard Sir 
William Thomhill represented as one of 
the most generous yet whimsical men in 
the kingdom ; a man of consummate bene- 
volence.'' — " Something, perhaps, too 
much so," replied Mr. Burchell ; "at least 
he carried benevolence to an excess when 
young ; for his passions were then strong, 
and as they were all upon the sideof virtue 
they led it up to a romantic extreme. He 
early began to aim at the qualifications of 
the soldier and the scholar : was soon 
distinguished in the army, and had some 



THE VTCAR Oi 









_ men of learning Ad D - 
loin ll 

a regard 

■ in 

■ too gives 

UOK 

:i in felt in liis 
hell .- real 

lility 

• ; .. Tim- . Li - 1 .. .-,.j . 1 

I he 

: lie 

m>Un... . » till in., 

aMc i 



Utgted S 

he litw i 

(O it" ii for a 

it i> he 

K • ::l - ! '* I ! 

II I'l lltlW 

rnrftU'i.i ' . illii rcl Knin.l 

' foUII'l 



oad co 




— that- 

bull Ik- prcKi " lin- 

■od liucl. i 
iric vin 

Myallenu 
Mr. BnrcheH'a account, thai I - 

■ ■ i I » >.. 

alien, 

■ 

knovi !i 

■ 
senl.e. I 

I I lin-1 



THE VICAR T FIELD. 






I M UTER IV. 

A Preof tkat even the //:. WW may 

gram H\if, . fr/entii, not OH Or- 

. but Ci"isti:ur:ou, 

THB i n in 1 little 

neighbourhood, consisting of fanners, wlio 

own grounds, and were equal 

< opulence and poverty. As 

11 the convenience! of 
lift within themselves, they seldom 

: search of superfluity. 
, they still rc 
ii .ineval simplicity of manners j 

libit, they scarce knew 

\ ntue. They W I 
on days of labour ; but 
.'iv.ilsas inter.- .lis of idleness 
and pleasure. They kept up the Christ- 
t.l, sent true love knots on Valen- 
tine morning, ate pancakes on Shrovetide, 
I their wit <in the I >l, and 

- racked null on Michaelmas 
eve. Being apprised of our approach, the 

ibourh 1 came out to mec-t 

their I in their finest 

by a pipe and 

■ provided for our 

at which we sat cheerfully 

what the conversation wanted 

in w r up in laughter. 

hide habit . mated at the 

: a sloping hill, sheltered with a 
ehind, and a prat- 
eforc ; on one side a nil 
• 'i. My l.rm 001 

• >f excellent land, 

ii an hundred pounds fur my 

- g l-will. Nothing could 

■iy little enclosures, 

■ •I bill ' w ith 

. were nicely 

I, and my iinder- 

'M with pi. turefl i'l their 

ov. ii di e room 

> the 
: tiehcr funuturc. 



There were three other apartinerr 

v wile ami me, I ur t« 

daughters within our own, and t: i 
with two beds, fur the rest ..f the rl 
The little republic to which 1 gav i 
gulated in the following n.. 
l'.y sunrise we all assembled in on 
iiii.ii apartment, ihe fire being pi. 
kindled by the servant. A 
saluted each other with proper ci 
— for I always thought lit to I • 

inical forms of good breeding, 
out which frei dom ei 
ship — we all bent in gratitude to that I 
who gave us another day. This duly being 
i and I went lo purat 
id, while my wife 
and daughti I themscl 

reakfasl, which I 
il a certain time. I allowed half an 
. and an hour for dinner \ 
which time was taken up in innocent 

philosophical arguments between my 

e rose with the 
pursued our labours after it was gi 
down, but returned home lo the exi 
famii . ling locks. .-. 

_ond pleasant lire, wen 
reception. Noi were we without gucstsi 
I ".rough, our talk 
ativc i tid often the blind pi| 

Would pay us a visit, and taste ourgo< 
berry wine, for the making of whuh 
had lost neither the receipt north. 
lion. These haimlcss people had seve 
ways ol I w bile ( 

Siycl.iht other would tu 
li.ul, — Johnny Armstn 
Night, or ihe Cruelty oi I 
The night was concluded in 
we Iwgan the nion 
being appointed to read the Ii 
ind hclhatre.nl ! 

halfpenny 

Sunday to put ioti 

Whi 

. 

H. Hon well 

.nquered the van it 

all their former 



THE I'fCAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



and catgut ; my 
for hercrim- 

CflUiC I fil 

- her. 

ocular, their 
me. I had 

•- next day ; 
be at d 

ion. The] 

lull when we 

to aawemhle in the morning at break* 

low* ' -liters, 

i heir former splendour ; 

ed up with pomatum, 

faces patched bo taste, thai 

UI a heap behind, and rustling 
milling 
irticularly that of my wife, 
more discretion. 
fore, my only re- 
son, with an im- 
i our coach. The girli 
were amaze . -inland ; bal 

than before. 

well : 
we want no coacl >w." — 

I , " we 

we walk to church 

ery children in the ; 

." — "Indeed," replied 

maimed that my 

n.it and h.iinWiime aliout him.'' — " Vou 

rupted 

III love you the better for it ; 

but frippery. 

■* end pirikings. and patch- 

oakeashatcilbyall the wives 

: ijf children," 

',' of a plainer 

timing in us, 

cency. I do 

Nether hi ing and 

ecoming even in the ri>li, if 

rtdigenl world 

a the trimn; 

h great Ci at very 

oid the 



next day I had the satisfaction of Ending 
my daughters, at their own request. 
putyed in catting up their trail 

daywai 

little ones; and, what was still moo 

factory, the gowns teemed in 

tins curtailing. 

CHAPTER V. 

A new and grt-\! . . Maaoot 

:c /.'.i,v aMIf Z/i'yVi uJVH, grm 
/nntt mt'il/atat. 

At a small distance from the house, my 
COOT had made a seat, over- 
shadowed by a hedge of hawthorn and 

honeysuckle. Here, when the weather 
was line and our labour soon hi 
we usually sat together. Id enjoy an ex- 
tensive landscape in the calm of the even- 
ing. Here, too, we drank tea, which now 
was become an occasional banquet ; and, 
as we had it but seldom, it diffused a new 
IB preparations for it being made 
with no small share of bustle and cere- 
mony. On these occasions, our two little 
ones always read for us, and they were re- 
gularly served after we had done. Some- 
times, to give a variety to our amusement-, 
the girls sang to the guitar; and while 
they thus formed a little concert, my wife 
and I would stroll down the sloping field, 

:li bine-bell 
centaury, talk of our children with rap 
and enjoy the breeie that v, 
health and harmony. 

In this manner we began to find that 
every situation in life may bring its own 
peculiar pica "ares : every morning n 
us to a repetition of toil ; but the t . 
repaid it with vacant hilarity. 

It was about the beginning of autumn, 
on a holiday— for I kept such as intervals 
of relaxation from labour — that I hid 
drawn out my family to our usual place 
of amusement, and our young musicians 
began their usual concert. As we were 
thus engaged, we saw a stag bound nimbly 
by, within about twcnt] 
we were sitting, and by Its pantil 
seemed n the hunters \V 

not much lime to reflect upon the poor 
animal's distress, when we perceived the 
id horsemen come sweeping along 
at some dad* I , and making the 



10 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 






very path it had taken. I was instantly 

Miming in with my family ; but 

(Other curiosity, or surprise, or some more 

hidden motii laugh- 

o their seat*. The hnnrtman »ho 

-t passed us with great swift - 

I ed by four or five persons 

itemed in equal haste. At 

last, a young gentleman of more genteel 

trance than the rest came forward, 

r n while regarding us, bub 

pursuing the chase, stopped short, and 

giving his horse to a servant who attended, 

approached us will 

1 lc teemed la want no n, but 

was going to salute my daughters ai one 
i ola kind reception; bnl they had 
early learnt the lesson ul ump- 

lion out of countenance. Upon which he 
Jet us know that hi; name was Tiiornhill, 
and that he was owner of the estate that 
lay for some extent round us. lie again 

to salute the femal 
of the Eamily, ind such was [he power of 

fortune and fine clothes, thai lie foul 

us,, though 
soon becani' 
rcciving musical insliu- 
1 1 e begged to be fa voured 

one. As I lil not approve of such 
disproporl u med a< : 

my daughti . i to prevent 

tlnir compliance; but my hint was coun- 

I by one from their mother; so 

tli.il, wilh ■ cheerful air, they gave us a 

lliorn- 
I delighted with their per- 
id choice, and then took 
If. He played but very indif- 
ferently; however, my eldest daughter re- 
ter applause wilh interest, and 
atsured him that his tones were louder 
than even those of her master. A 
compliiiKiii I Inch the rd 

with I i :e, and 

the commended his understanding J an 
m better ac- 
quainted : while the (bod mother too, 
aqu illy happy, insisted upon her land 

of her 

■ 

Dust modern, while Moses, on the con- 



trary, gave him a question or tv 

ancient.-. for which 

My Ultii 
and fondly stuck clot* I 

anger. All my m 
ki ep their di 

and lining up the ilai 

• bat was there. Ai i! 
of evening he look li 
had requested permission i" reDCM 
visit, which, as nc was our lai 
agreed la 

U he was gi 
a council on the conduct of the day. 
was of opinion, that it was a i. 
natehit; for she had known ei 
things than that brought to bear. 
hoped again to see the dry in wi 
might hold up our head; with thr 
them ; and concluded, she protested «i 
could see no reason why the twi 
Wrinlders should marry gi< 
and her children get i 

argument was directed roieatd 

I could see no reason for it 
why Mr. Simpkins got the ti 

Sound priie m the lotti 
own with a blank. " 1 protest, Ch. 
cried my wile, " this is the way you alu 
damp my girls and me when we 
spirits. Tell me, Sophy, my d 
do you think of our i 
you think he seemed to I 
— " Immense!;. 

plied the: "I think he has a great 
to say ii, iiuj and is never at 

loss; and the more lulling !!,■ 
the more he baa to say."—" \ 

well enougl 
for my own part, 1 don t much lil 
he is so eM I 

but on the guitar he is shocl 
two last speeches I intei 
1 found by this, 
terually despised, as much a- I 

dmired him. " V 
your opi 

1, " to confess the truth, he hi 
possessed me in Dufl 

disgust ; and I thought, nolu i 
all his ease, thai he 
tible of the distance beta 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



n 



keep to companions of our own rank. 
There is no character more contemptible 
than a man that is a fortune-hunter ; and 
I can see no reason why fortune-hunting 
women should not be contemptible too. 
Thus, at best, we shall be contemptible if 
his views are honourable ; but if thev be 
otherwise ! — I should shudder but to think 
of that. It is true, I have no apprehen- 
sions from the conduct of my children ; 
but I think there are some from his cha- 
racter." I would have proceeded, but 
for the interruption of a servant from the 
Squire, who, with his compliments, sent 
us a side of venison, and a promise to dine 
with us some days after. This well-timed 

Iircsent pleaded more powerfully in his 
avour than anything I had to say could 
obviate. I therefore continued silent, 
satisfied with just having pointed out 
danger, and leaving it to their own discre- 
tion to avoid it That virtue which re- 
r" res to be ever guarded is scarce worth 
sentinel. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Tkg Haffituu of a Country FirttMt, 

As we carried on the former dispute 
with some degree of warmth, in order to 
accommodate matters, it was universally 
agreed that we should have a part of the 
venison for supper ; and the girls under- 
took the task with alacrity. " I am 
sorry," cried I, " that we have no neigh- 
bour or stranger to take part in this good 
cheer : feasts of this kind acquire a double 
relish from hospitality." — " Bless me," 
cried my wife, "here comes our good 
friend Mr. Burchell, that saved our Sophia, 
and that run you down fairly in the argu- 
ment." — "Confute me in argument, 
child ! " cried I. " You mistake there, 
my dear ; I believe there are but few that 
can do that : I never dispute your abilities 
at making a goose-pic, and I beg you'll 
leave argument to me. " As I spoke, poor 
Mr. Burchell entered the house, and was 
welcomed by the family, who shook him 
heartily by the hand, while little Dick 
officiously reached him a chair. 

I was pleased with trie poor man's 
friendship for two reasons: because I knew 
that he wanted mine, and 1 knew him to 
be friendly as far as he was able. He 



I was known in our neighbourhood by the 
character of the poor gentleman, that 
would do no good when he was young, 
though he was not yet thirty. He would 
at intervals talk with great good sense ; 
but, in general, he was fondest of the 
. company of children, whom he used to 
' call harmless little men. lie was famous, 
. I found, for singing them ballads, and 
telling them stories, and seldom went out 
', without something in his pockets for them 
I — a piece of gingerbread, or an halfpenny 
whistle. He generally came for a few 
days into our neighbourhood once a year, 
and lived upon the neighbours' hospitality. 
He sat down to supper among us, and my 
wife was not sparing of her gooseberry- 
wine. The tale went round ; he sung us 
' old songs, and gave the children the story 
of the Buck of Bcverland, with the history 
| of Patient Grissel, the adventures of Cat- 
skin, and then Fair Rosamond's Bower. 
Our cock, which always crew at eleven, 
now told us it was time for repose ; but 
an unforeseen difficulty started about lodg- 
ing the stranger — all our beds were al- 
ready taken up, and it was too late to 
send him to the next alehouse. In this 
dilemma, little Dick offered him his part 
of the bed, if his brother Moses would let 
him lie with him : " And I," cried Bill, 
"will give Mr. Burchell my part, if my 
sisters will take me to theirs."— "Well 
done, my good children," cried I, " hos- 

?itality is one of the first Christian duties, 
he beast retires to its shelter, and the 
bird flies to its nest ; but helpless man 
can only find refuge from his fellow-crea- 
ture. The greatest stranger in this world 
was He that came to save it. He never 
had a house, as if willing to see what 
hospitality was left remaining among us. 
Deborah, my dear," cried I to my wife, 
"give those boys a lump of sugar each ; 
and let Dick's be the largest, because he 
spoke first." 

In the morning early I called out my 
whole family to help at saving an after- 
growth of hay, and our guest offering his 
assistance, he was accepted among the 
number. Our labours went on lightly ; 
we turned the swath to the wind. I went 
foremost, and the rest followed in due 
succession. I could not avoid, however, 



12 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



01 serving the assiduity of Mr. Burchcll in 
:ig tny daughter Sophia in hei part 
of the task. When he hail finished his 
own, he would join in hers, and enter into 
a close conversation ; but I had too good 
an opinion of Sophia's understanding, and 
O well convinced of her ambition, 
lo be under any uneasiness from a man of 
broken fortune. When we were finished 
fur the day. Mr. Burchell was invited as 
on the night before, but he refused, as he 
was to lie that night at a neighbour's, to 
whose child he was carrying a whistle. 
When gone, our conversation at supper 
tuned upon our late unfortunate guest 
"What a strong instance," said I, "is 
that poor man of the miseries attending 
a youth of levity and extravagance. He 
by no means wants sense, which only 
serves to aggravate his former folly. Poor 
n creature ! where are now the re- 
vellers, the flatterers, that he could once 
inspire and command I Gone, perhaps, 
to attend the bagnio pander, grown rich 
by his extravagance. They once pi 
him, and now they applaud the pander : 
their former raptures at his wit are now 
converted into sarcasms at his folly : he is 
poor, and perhaps deserves poverty ; for 
ne has neither the ambition to be inde- 

fmdent, nor the skill to be useful." 
rompted perhaps by some secret reasons, 
I delivered this observation with too much 
acrimony, which my Sophia gently re- 
proved. " Whatsoever his former conduct 
may have been, papa, his circumstances 
should exempt him from censure now. 
1 lis present indigence is a sufficient punish- 
ment for former folly ; and I have heard 
my papa himself say, that we should never 
strike one unnecessary blow at a victim, 
over whom Providence holds the scourge 
of its resentment." — "You are right, 
Sophy," cried my son Moses ; "and one 
of the ancients finely represents so mali- 
cious a conduct, by the attempts of a rustic 
to flay Marsyas, whose skin, the fable 
tells us, had been wholly stripped 00 by 
another. Besides, I don't know if this 

fltiofl be so bad as my 
»thc r would represent it We ar>.- 
judge of the feci then by what 

we might feel in their place. However 
dark the habitation of the mole to our 



eyes, yet the animal itself finds the i 
ment sufficiently lightsome. A 
fess a truth, this man's mind seems 
to his station ; for I never heard an 
more sprightly than he w 
he conversed with you." — This was 
without the least design ; however, 
cited a blush, which she strove to i 
by an affected laugh, assuring him 
she scarce took any notice of whl 
said to her, but that she believed he I 
once have been a very fine gentle 
The readiness with which she unde 
to vindicate herself, and her blus 
were symptoms I did not internal! 
prove ; but I repressed ray suspicion 
Wt expected our landlord the 
day, my wife went to make the ve 
pasty. Moses sat reading, while I u 
the little ones. My daughti 
equally busy with the rest ; and I obs 
them for a good while cooking some 
over the fire. I at first snp| 
were assisting their mother, but little 
informed me, in a whisper, that they 
making a wash for the face. Was! 
all kinds I had a natural antipath 
for I knew that, instead of m 
complexion, they spoil it. I thci 
approached my chair by sly rlegrc 
the fire, and grasping the poker, ai 
wanted mending, seemingly by aci 
overturned the whole compos 
was too late to begin another. 



isitioo, | 

tutu* r 

Victor 



CHAPTER vii. 

A Ttmm VB ducrihtd. Tki duh 
may learn la be comical J** a .'• 

Wiikn the morning arrived on 
were to entertain our young landlo 
may be easily supposed what prov 
were exhausted to make an appeal 
It may also be conjectured that m; 
and daughters expanded their gayes 
mage on this occasion. Mr. The 
came with a couple of friends 
lain and feeder. The servants, who 
numerous, he politely ordered 
alehouse : but my wife, in tin 
her heart, insisted on enteri! 
all : for which, by the by. our famlt 

E inched for three weeks aft'-' 
urchell had hinted to us the day b 
that he was making some 



*a»W 

ea.thi 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



'3 



i Wilmol. my son George's 
■Jus a good deal dm 
■ of his reception : but acci- 
«e measure relieved our cm- 
IC company 
to mention her turn: 
arnrvi with an oath, th»t he 
anything more absurd than 
ighl a beamy ; " 

mued he, '• if I 
u much pleasure in 

i 

SockofSt. Dumtaa'a." 
and so did we : the 
nful. Olivia, 
■ i • i whispering, loud 
rd, (hat he hail an infinite 

r, I began with ray usual 

he saul the Church 

. of his all 

misli 

• ; " for 
'•in .1 fine girl 
priestcraft in the creation ! 
cks but an tm- 
nposture, and 

IT.' IIS 

:ll»t Subject, I n 

\ i I hi si, -. 

oataagtag it analogically or 

il me 
Why/' re- 

I grant that a 




part is less than the whole,"— "I gram 
I nit just and 
reasonable." — "I hope," end the S 

rill doI deny, that the wo angles 
of i triangle art c , 

—"Nothing can be plainer, ' rei 
t'other, and looked round with hii 
importance. —•' Very well,' 1 Cried the 
Squire, speaking very quick, "the pre- 
misses being thus settled, I proceed to 
:• the concatenation ul self- 
aces, proceeding in a reciprocal 
duplicate ratio, naturally produce a pro- 
blematical dialogSsm, which, in some 
measure, prove- thai the essence of spiri- 
tuality may be referred to the second pre- 
dical.le." — " II. .1.1, hold I" cried the 
other, "I deny thai I do you think that lean 
thai tamely submit lo such heterodox doc- 
trines?" — "What!" replied the Squire, 

as if in a passion, " nol submit ! \ 

. : Do you think 

le right when he says that relatives 

t" — "Undoubtedly," replied 

the other. — " [f .. then," ' cried the 

Squire, " answer me directly to wli.it I 
Whether do you judge the ana- 
lytical investigation of the first part of my 
cnthymem deficient secundum quoad, or 
quoad minus ; and give me your reasons 
—give me your reasons, I say, directly." 
— "1 protest," c "I don't 

rightly comprehend the force of 
reasoning; but if it be reduced te 

simple proposition, I liuicy II may then 

have an answer." — " Oh, sir," cried the 

Squire, " I .im vourmost humble sei 

I find you vranl me to furnish you with 

argument and intellect 

there I protest you are too hard for me." 

This effectually raised the laugh against 

poor Moses, who sat the only dismal figure 

in a group of merry face. ; nor did li 

a single syllable more during the whole * 

entertainment. 

But though all this gave me no pleasure, 
it had I ent effect upon Olivia, 

who mistook it for humour, tfa 
mere act of the memory. She t! 
therefore, a very fine gentleman ; and 
consider what powerful ingredients 
1 figure, fine clothes, and fortune .ire 
In that character, will easily forgive her. 
Mr. Thornlull, notwitli lb real 



u 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELI>. 



ignorance, talked with mid ex- 

upon the common topics ■ 

then, that such talentsahould winthi 
lions of a girl who by education was 
to value an appear.nue 

value upon ii tn another. 

Upon hi* dcpaiture, WC ::'.: 

inf'i a debate upon the merits of oui 

■ directed his looks and 
conversation to Olivia, it « 

ted but [lint she was the object that 
induced him to be oui visitor. V 

be much displeased at the to- 
ll raillery of her brother and sister 
occasion. Even Deborah her- 
arc the gluiy of tl 
in her daughter's victory as if 
it were her own, " And no* . my 

■ me. " I'll fairly own, that it 
I thai instructed, my girls to encourage 

,s. 1 had always 

ambition, md you now see thai 1 
right; for who knows how th 
end '. : u indeed ! 

ay part. 

e it j and 1 coul 

one thai was 

md honest, than this fine gentleman 

with hii fortune and infidelity ; (of depend 

I I -aspect him, no free- 
thinker shall ever have I child of mine.'' 
." cried Mo 
in this ; foi I leaven will never 
;u him for what he thinks, tmt lot 
man has a thousand 
h nri~e with. ait his 

■nicd for 
v with- 

ler he is obi 
- 

at if the 

■Nell is alw 

I tlllt, til." 

formed, vet u we have been wilful 



nipt, or very negligent in forming 

punishment foi ■ 
contempt for our folly." 
My wife now hep nvemtJcj 

though not tl 

quaintance . 
very g' 

moke •• And | 

who knows, my 
" what Ulivia ma) 

jreal deal to s y in .. .u ... 
and. t.i my I 
in controvi 

" Why, my di venry 

can shi 
not occur to me tl 

merit." — "Indeed, papa," n : 

Iocs not] I bave read a great deal 

e . and 1 i i 
iding the ( 

1. "tl gill; I find you are 

and so in mother i 

goose 1 

CHAPTER viii. 

An Amnrr.wltich f> 

mwK 
Till n 
by Mr. I'.ureh.ll, tl 

ni ) of his return 

■ im my company and fireside. It 
is true, his labou 
his entertainment; fur h 

u- with vigour, and, citl 

Hcsides, he 1 
that I : 






THE VFCAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



'5 



rtc the 

tnd ire 

■ 



tube 

[n m, 

- 

. "It;:,; 

have equal 1\ 

c- mi. 

Img all 

f Rule 

•;[y imitated 

v, like 

. 

of lUX- 
Miil . ,[■ , ,,111 

■ 




I 

1 ■ 

■ 
rfll . 

will. 

My blowing ami r-] 
" No ..llcy free 

,ra«*y tide 
A *cnp with 

" Then, 

All earth- 1>'-' 

01 little here li 
Nor v 

Bbft :» s th* dew fhl! 

The m ..(«-*! «nam- li.wly Iknd*, 
And 

'i l*y. 

I pu.ir, 
And tl 

■ 

■ ilh ;» latch, 
Received i. 

; > Mile fire. 
An.! 

! 'tigering hour* beguiled. 
Arnni. irlh, 

irrupft on Ihe hearth, 
The crackling fagot : 

But no thins- could .t charm impart 
iroe ; 
•f iva* be»vy 
And (car* be^an lo flow. 

- the Hermii 

"The wire 

trn .1, 

1 

Arc trilling, and .]■ 



16 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



And those who price the paltry thing*, 
More (rifling still than they. 

" And what is friendship but a nunc, 
h inn thai In. 
A shade that follows wealth or fame, 
but leaves the wretch t.j 

11 And in emptier rand, 

•dent fair one s jevt ; 
On earth uateen, ur only I 

To warm the turtle's nest. 

" For shame, fond youth, thy sorrows hush, 

And spurn r . u,i . 

Hut white he spoke, a rijua 
lli> lovc-lufi. guest hetr-.y'd. 

Surprised he sees new beauties rise, 

Swift mantling to the view , 
Like OotOWl "Vr the BMniUlg -lies. 

As bright, as trans u . 

The bashful look, the nunc breait, 

.Mtcrmitc »|ni-.i'l |] U 
The lovely itnwgCt stands conk 

A BHid in -ill her charms. 

And. " Ah ' finite a stranger rude— 
A wretch furk.ru,*" the cried ; 

| unh-illowM thus intrude 
Where II ud 'fOII rcsulc. 

" But ' . pity share, 

^ DO R lovf IMI bUpil 10 ^frny. 
WtM '. but finds dc-; 

pBOiOD of he: 
" My filler Bfttd besfcle the Tync, 

A wtaJlhy lord 

And all his wealth was mark'd xs mine. 
He had but only inc. 

tender arm* 
(Jnnum 
\\ :. imputed charms, 

Aon 

" E.irh how -■> mercenary crowd 
With richest proffer* itrove . 

) roof Edwin bow'd, 

Hut ii love 

" In hmiihle, Minpl.- habit clad, 

No » tafia n id Ite; 

U) were rill he had. 
But these were all to me. 

" And when, beside me in the dale, 
irafrd lave of I 

to the gale, 
And music to the grove. 

" The blmwm opening lo the day, 
en refined. 
Could irily display 

■ 

• '-"n the tree, 

i o me, 
Their constancy wu 

rJtl I tried I ■ 

And, while his passion touch'd my heart, 

1 ir.uinph'd in hi- | 



" Till, quite dejected WltJ 

He left tnc i 
And sought a -thtuoe (o: ! 
In secret, where lie died. 

'* But mine the Barron . nine Ihc fault. 
And well my liic wall pay . 
Ill -cck the solitin! 
And stretch tnc wheic he 

"' And there, forlorn, despairing, hid, 
I'll lay m e doi 
Twas so for me thai 
And M for luni will 1 " 

" Forbid it Heaven !" the Hermit cried, 
And clasp'd her t-> his It- - 
The Wonder il in] Id chid*— 

Twas Edwin's self thai Of 

" Tuni, Angelina, ever •.'.• 
My charmer, turn to see 
Thy own. thy lnngdost Edwin here, 
Restored to love and thee. 

" Thus let me hold thee lo B) heart, 
And every care r>. 
And shall we never, never part. 

My life — my all that's nonet 

" No, never from tin- hoQf (0 part, 
l true. 
The sigh thai rend* thy constant heart 
Shall break thy Edwm , I 

While this ballad was reading, 
seemed lo mix an air of tendenu 
her approbation. Bui our trai 

■■•ii disturbed by the re) 
just by us, and, immediately after, a I 
wa* seen bursting through the 
take up the game he h 
sportsman was the Squire's chaplaii 
hod shot one of the 1 I that id 

agreeably eniitt:*;; I are- 

port, and so near, startled my daug 
and 1 could perceive i! 
fright had thrown herself into Mr. 
chell's arms * 
man Lame up, and as 
having disturbed us, affirming thai ~_ 
was ignorant of our being so 
therefore sat down by my 
ter, and, sportsman like, 
he had killed that morning, she wa 

foing to refuse, but a private look 
or mother r lo correct 

the mistake, and accept his present, tl 
me reluctance. My wife, u 
discovered her pride in a whisper, ol 

iphy had mi 

ell ns her sister I 

[aire I su ■ . with 

more probability, thai her affections were 



I KEF/ELD. 



n 



by mo 

ICTC, 

lutin- 

ftet vem placed n- 

.II.ihI, will, 
.nihil 

line a 



and pa 

Mii.lU 

inting 

with | 

sed vi-: h linlc 

I u.nl 
Mi 1 I .... - 

- K..|un loi 
.1 u-. M i 
'. 

itild not avoi 
of hti 
t lit- 11(1 

boor, ih 

the ball. On 

..ii ..i .i m« . ..in 

return i" the bo< 

- 
nothing Inn liiyli hfi . 






THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



by slipping OUl .in oath ; but that ap| 

Of their dis- 

n (though I ,ira nnc 

ng is perfeclly unfashion 
ThCD liner.-. . threw a veil oret 

My 

[heir superior 

plishments with envy; and what 

1 to lip-top 

tling. But the condescension 

of the ladles was still > their 

iplishments. Oneof them observe I. 

that had Mi.- < llivia leen a Utile more of 

ill, it would greatly improve her; 

thai a single 

I in town would make her little 

i quite another tiling. My wife 

mvmlj *h ; adding, that 

there was n. .tiling -lie more ardently 

wished tin" to pw b single 

winter's polishing. To this I couM nol 

replying, iliat Iheir breeding was 

I tli.it 

old only serve to 

then poverty ridiculous, and 

hey had no 
■ 

II, "do they nol deserve 

SO much in their 

\s fir my part," 

"my fortune is pretty 

i 1 pleasure are my 

settlement of 

jive my charming 

mid be tiers -, ana 

i sour I wa I return 

would If to the benefit." 

.■r to the world .is 

.it lint tins was the fashion- 

ilenee "f the 
imt I made an effort to 
suppress my resentment. " - 

family which you now condescend 
your company has been 
villi as nice a sense of honour as 
you. Any attempts to injure that may 
be attended vsith very dangeious conse- 
: only posses- 
cut, an.l of tint li-i treasure 
we must be particularly careful." 
%Oon sorry for Ihe warmth with which I 
. this, when the youne. genile- 
m»n. .: ire lie com- 

I, though he di-apptoved 



my suspicions. " A- to yoni present 
hint," continued he, "1 protest not!" 

ither from my heart than 
thought. No, by all that's tempting 
virtue that mil stand a regular sic ■■ 
never to my taste; for all my amours are 
carried by a coup-dc-main." 

The two ladies, who aff. 
ignorant of the n 

I with this last • 
and b ry discreet and - 

dialogue upon virtue : in this, mi 
the chaplain, and I, soon joined ; Di 
Squire himself was at lost ' 

excesses We talked of the pleas" 

ranee, and of the 
mind unpolluted with guilt. 1 v. 
well pleased, that my little 

kepi ui' beyond the usual time to be 

edified by >" much gi 
Mr. Thornhill even wet 
demanded if I had any • 
prayers. 1 joyfully embraced thi 
and in this ni.innei the night 
sl comfort. 1 
ll the company began to think 
ning. The ladies seemed very un 
willing to part with my daughter*, 
whom they had conceived a parties 
.in, and joined in a request to ha* 
isureoftheir company home. 
S(|iiire seconded the pi 
wife added her enti ^irls, I 

■ I upon me 
In this perplexity. I made I 
excuses, which my daughters as i 
removed ; so that at last I « 

i peremptory refuse], '■ 

had ni. thing but sullen looks and sT 
answ. le day ensuing. 

CHAPTER X. 

The Family -endeavour to ce/e with their BeH 
The Nutria of the Av*, when they atUm 
tm iifpear mtwe their Ci' t 

begu to find that .ill my la 
and painful lectures upon temperance 
nent were e 

us liy our Lend lhs1 

move 
Our v 
filled id fflj 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



»9 



n was dreaded as an a, 

■ oon, .ind the fire 

within. My 

thai working 
after d Iden theii 

i-ni ihc convinced in*.- that the hands 
never lookc-i ,.s when they did 

nothing. 1- ■ i sli my 

• r flourishing 
SpOD rate'" l.irubo- 

laions, 
woe cist oft* as i 

" ran upon high 
life, at v. with pic- 

tures, talc, Mlrt«HIIIIM. nd the niii5ic.il 
glasses. 

nve bome all this, had 
|>sy come to raise 
ly sibyl 
v girls came 
licce to 
cross h To say the 

truth, I wi! • M.-lni I>cihl* always wis*-, :m,l 
CM '• ' •' help gratifying their request, 
in happy. I 
5 ; though for 
UV I must be ob- 

serve never went without money 

tnemscNct, am ys generously 

let them h< ich, to keep in their 

pocit never 

to change it After they had been closeted 
fortune teller for some time, 
I k*c- 'heir return- 

ing, thai they had I some- 

thaag great >y girls, how have 

the fortune- 
teller given thee a pennyworth?" — "I 
protest papa," soys the girl, " I believe 
■atedala* 

for thl red, that I 

..-'. to 



my i) 

h*tr- 

replk 
■An in. 

I 
to have for roar r 
lyww 
boat, t o. 



.i Lord soon 

ihc Squuc." 

«l Only a 

' 

If the money." 



This curiosity of theirs, however, was 

1 with very serious effects- we 

now began to think ourselves designed by 

the stars to something exalted, and already 

anticipated our nature grandeur. 

is been a thousand tunes obst 

and I must observe it once more, that the 
hours we pass with happy prospects in 
view, arc more pleasing than those crow ned 

with fruition. In the- 6 

I the dish to our own appetite; in the 

latter, Noture cooks it for us. It is 

J impossible to repeat the train of agreeable 

reveries we called up for our entertainment. 

upon our fortunes as 
more rising ; and, as the whole parish 
1 that the Squire was in love with 
I my daughter, she Was actually a I 
| him ; for t! ito the 

i passion. In thisagreeable interval my wife 
had the most lucky dream in the world, 
which shetook careto tell uscvery morning 
with great solemnity and exactness. It 
was one olgbl a coffin and cross-bones, the 
reaching weddiiv. 

another time she imagined her daughters' 
pockets rilled with farthings, acertaii 
of their being shortly stuffed with 
The girls themselves had their ■ 
They felt strange kisses on their lips ; they 
saw ring! in the candle; purses bounced 
|M fnc, and true love-knots lurked 
in the bottom of every teacup. 

aids the end of the week we re- 
I iVoni the two ladies, in which, 
with their compliments, they hoped to 
out family at church (he Sunday 
following. All Saturday morning I could 
e. in consequence of tin-, iwv wife 
and daughters in close conference together, 
and now anil then glancing al DM with 
looks that I" latent plot. To be 

j sincere, I had strong suspicions that some 
absurd proposal was preparing for appear- 
ing with splendour the next day. In the 
Ig Ihey began their operation* in a 
very regular mom, wife under- 

i took to conduct : Alter tea. 

when I seemed in spirits, shr began thus: 
— " I fancy, Charles. CO 
have a great deal of good company at 
our church ; ,; we 

: i ed I, " though you 

B&EB i.Wi\_ \V*V \ 



so 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



you shall have a -sermon whether there be 
or not." — "That is what I expect," 
returned she ; " but I think, my dear, we 
ought to appear there as decently as pos- 
sible, for who knows what may happen?" 
— " Your precautions," replied I, " are 
highly commendable. A decent behaviour 
and appearance in church is what charms 
me. We should l>e devout and humble, 
cheerful and serene." — "Yes," cried she, 
" I know that ; but I mean we should go 
there in as proper a manner as possible ; 
not altogether like the scrubs about us." — 
" You are quite right, my dear," returned 
I, "and I was going to make the very 
same proposal. The proper manner of 
going is to «o there as early as possible, ' 
to have time for meditation before the 
service begins. " — " 1'hoo, Charles," inter- 
rupted she, " all that is very true ; but 
not what I would be at : I mean, we 
should go there genteelly. You know the 
church is two miles off, and I protest I 
don't like to see my daughters trudging 
up to their pew all blowzed and red with 
walking, and looking for all the world as 
if they had been winners at a smock race. ' 
Now, my dear, my proposal is this: there 
arc our two plough horses, the colt that 
has been in o-.ir family these nine years, 
and his companion Blackberry, that has 
scarcely done an earthly thing for this 
month ra>t. They are both grown fit and 
lazy. \Vhy should not they do something 
as well as we ? An 1 let me tell you, when ' 
Moses has trimmed them a little, they 
will cut a very tolerable fisure."' 

To this proposal [objected that walking 
would lie twenty tines more genteel than 
snch a paltry c Mivpvance, as Wacklicrry 
was w.dl-oyed, an I the coll wanted a tail ; 
that they had never been broke to the 
rein, but had a hundred vHous tricks ; and 
that we had but one saddle and pillion in 
the whole hoa.e. All these objections, 
however, were overruled ; so that I was 
obliged to comply. The next morning I 
perceived them not a little busy in col- 
lecting -ueh matei ials a» might I* necessary 
for the expedition; but, as I found it would 
be a busine>* of time, I walked on to the 
church before, and they promised speedily 
to follow. I waited near an hour in the 
reading desk for their arrival ; but not 



finding them come as I expected, I was 
obliged to begin, and went through the 
service, not without some uneasiness at 
finding them absent. This was increased 
when all was finished, and no appearance 
of the family. I therefore walked back by 
the horse-way, which was five miles round, 
though the footway was but two, and, when 
got about half-way home, perceived the 
procession marching slowly forward to- 
wards the church ; my son, ray wife, and 
the two little ones exalted on one horse, 
and my two daughters upon the other. I 
demanded the cause of their delay ; bat 
I soon found by their looks they had met 
with a thousand misfortunes on the road. 
The horses had at first refused to move 
from the door, till Mr. Burchell was kind 
enough to beat them forward for about 
two hundred yards with his cudgel. Next, 
the straps of my wife's pillion broke down, 
and they were obliged to stop to repair 
them before they could proceed. After 
that, one of the horses took it into his 
head to stand still, and neither blows nor 
entreaties could prevail with hint to pro- 
ceed. He was just recovering from this 
dismal situation when I found them ; but 
perceiving everything safe, I own their 
present mortification did not much dis- 
please me, as it would give me many op- 
portunities of future triumph, and teach 
my daughters more humility. 

CHAPTER XI. 

Thr Family still rtsolvt to hold up thrirHradt. 

Miciiaf.lmas-eve happening on the 
next day, we were invited to burn nuts 
and play tricks at neighbour Flambo- 
rough's. Our late mortifications had 
humbled us a little, or it is probable we 
might have rejected such an invitation with 
contempt : however, we suffered ourselves 
to be nappy. Our honest neighbour's 

Sonse and dumplings were fine, and the 
imb's-wool, even in the opinion of my 
wife, who was a connoisseur, was excellent. 
It is true, his manner of telling stories was 
not quite so well. They were very long, 
and very dull, and all about himself, and 
we had laughed at them ten times before : 
however, we were kind enough to laugh 
at them once more. 



\R OF WAKEF 



:t 



party, 

.•I the 

:'. My 
Wife. I t'j !••!:: in (he 

sh<- » 1 n the meantime. 

when cockles suc- 

inimands fol- 
hey sal down 
v ]>erson may 

hich the '.■< 
I tinder I he i r h.un 

'lie great beauty o 

I >. nn«l 

c thai 

m»trht tleifcn a baiU'l-Mnger ; when, con- 

■ 

• 1 1 1 ' I . 

xnii •! the 

were crncd . but being lold 



■ 




II 












tilth a * 









Ihc la ■■! no hurl, they were 

ied iIi.k 
iosi lolled . 
were vastly lorry : but h 

thing could 
exceed their com; my daugh- 

ters : their i 

j were warm, but now ihey were ardent? 

) Tliey | 

acnuaintaw 

Eilarly attach 
n,i Wilhclmina A 
give (lie whole name) took a gfi 
■| 

uself, Is fon. I ol 
ith anecdotes of lo 

igbta of the Garter. I mu 
• hnn the concha 

" All thai I 

. " i- this, ill it il n 
It0< be true : bnl 
.n. tii.n the 

in .on is- : I all 

mm**, bat Si 

swore he was hers io the last drop of his 

■• u ell," replied our Peere 

■ . ilml the ' M me 

rod I believe her 
Grace " 
me. This yoi end upon as 

let-de- 
chambi . 

1 have menl 

of Mi Bur- 

|| Willi 

our Pei 



:_• 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



Skeggs ; " for he seldom leaves anything 
out, as he writes only for his own u 
ment. Bat can your Ladyship favour me 
Willi a sight of them?" — ' Fudge !" 

" My dear creature," replied our Peeress, 
" do you think I carry such things about 
me! Though they are very fine, to be 
ure, and 1 think myself something of a 
e — at least I know what pleases my- 
self. Indeed, I was ever an admirer of 
all Dr. Burdock's little pieces ; for, except 
what he docs and our dear Countess at 
Hanover Square, there's nothing comes 
out but the most lowest stuff in nature ; 
not a bit of high life among them." — 
" Pudge I" 

" Y'Hir Ladyship should except,' 
the other, "your own thing! in the Lady's 
Magazine. I hope you 11 say there's 
nothing low-lived there! But I suppose 
we .'ic to have no more from that quar- 
ter'! "-" Fudge ! H 

" Why, my dear," says the lady, "you 
know my reader and companion has left 
me, to be married to Captain Roach, and 
as my poor eyes won't suffer me to wute 
myself, I have been for some lime looking 
out for another. A proper person is no 
easy matter to find ; and, to be sure, thirty 
pounds a year is a small stipend for a well 
bred girl of character, that can rend, write, 
and behave in company : as for the chits 
about town, there is no bearing them about 
one."—" Fudge !" 

" Thai 1 know," cried Miss Skeggs, 
"by experience. For of the three com- 
panions I had this last half year, one of 
them refused to do plain work an hour in 
the day; another thought twenty-five 
guineas a year too small a salary ; and I 
was obliged to send away the third, be- 
cause I I an intrigue with the 
chaplain. Virtue, my dear Lady Blor- 
ney. virtue L worth any price ; but where 
is that to be found *" — ' Fudge I" 

My wife had been, for a long time, all 
attention to this discourse, but was par- 
ruck with tl rl of it. 

Thirty pounds and tweiitv-hve guineas a 
year, made fifty-six pounds five shillings 
English money, all which mi in a manner 
: a begging, and might easily he 
secured in the family. She for a moment 
studied my look* for approbation ; and, to 



own a truth, I was of opinion, that two 
such places would fit our two daughter! 

Besides, if the Squire In 
real affection for my eldest daughter, tlui 
would be the way to make her evei 
qualified for her fortune. My wife, there- 
fore, was resolved that we should ni 
deprived of such advantages for want i 
assurance, and undertook to harangue f 
the family. "1 hope," cried she, ' yo 
ladyshipswill pardon my present presump 1 
lion. It is true, we have no right to pre- 
tend to such favours ; but yet it i» I 
for me to wish putting my children lb i ward 
in the world. And, I will be bold to say, 
my two girls have had a prettygood educa- 
tion and capacity ; at least the •. 
can't show better. They can read, write, 
and cast accompts ; they und' 
their needle, broadstitch, cross and change, 
and all manner of plain work ; they can 
pink, point, and frill, and know something 
of music ; they can do up small clothe*, 
and work upon catgut ; my eldest can cut 
paper, and my youngest has a very 
manner of telling fortunes upon the cards. 
—"Fudge!" 

When she had delivered this pretty 
of eloquence, the two ladies looked at each 
other a few minutes in silence, with 
of doubt and importance. At In. 
Carolina Wilhelmina Amelia Skeggs con- 
descended to observe, that the young ! 
from the opinion she could form of them 
from so slight an acquaintance, seemed 
very fit for such employments. " But a 
thing of this kind, madam," cried she. 
addressing my spouse, requires n tho- 
rough examination into characters, and a 
more perfect knowledge of each other. 
Not, madam, n continued she, " that I in 
the least suspect the young ladies' virtue, 
prudence, and discretion ; but there is 
form in these things, madam — there is 
form. " 

My wife approved her suspicions very 
much, observing that she was very 

herself, but referred her 
all the neighbours for a cluv . 
this hi: declined .is unnecessary, 

alleging that <mr cousin ThomhuTi 
mendation would be sufficient; am 
this wc rested our petition. 






WW 

tLrJttU A/, rn ntorr 

■I home, the 
■ schemes of future 
>unL Deburah exerted much 

IWl L'irU was 

-e, and most 

ig good company. 

ciui preferment was 

lie hi ! tin i \y shown u-. too many 

up the 

ink we 
I nii'l.- an exo "l it." 

■ 

well !" 

i e» of taste i 

nun 

ll. fV-»a!r- | 'I things 

icn ctctt dar : ind i\ ladies of Quality 

MlmiiM Amelia M.cj. has my kiiiii 
L B 

■ L' llOW 
I I''. I II 

V v*-m • In nil- 

■ Wf » 

a pfc' if any 

{ un'-KHMlr tl» 

aotkst 

oca. Tlua wa# oo 
i- now to b' 



an ooc 

...i, .1 . I wi- ikened, my 
antagonist g zth, till at last i' 

to part with him. 
'he fair happened on tl 
day, I had intentions . 
but my wife persuaded me dial I h 

i upon 
i ". my 
dear," said the, " ont ion M.- 
erect boy, and cm buy 

• purchasing. He i 
• ut and hi{ 
them till he gets aTiargain.'' 

I bad .-Mm'-- opinion "t" nr 
deuce, I wai willing enough to enlru 
with tlus commission : and ih 
infi I perceived hi 

ir, brushing his buckli -. 

hat with piss. '1 be business of 
the toilet being o- ' .it bul illa- 

tion of teeing him rnoi 
the coll, with a ileal boj I" 
bring home grocerii- in. II 

■.■■.it m 

ghuunfg; which, tliL.n^h grown too 

uuch too •_■■ throw ii 

urcen, 

and his sistcij had lied hi.- hail » 
riband. We .ill follow) 

i from the door, baw line 

him, "• I luck I good luck!" i 

■ ..• him n.i longer, 

when Mr. Thorn- 

nmtulale ni 

- thai he ovi i 

- Willi 

■ .11. 

■mil- seemed 

come alone. Anothei 

same family followed, with a • 
daughters, importing tli 

■1 such pleasing a<- 
Mr Thornhill of u- all 

. u^ inquiries they hoped to lie i 

now see it is nocn- 

Gunilii 

gel-, in 










THE VICAR 0} 






To this piece of humour, for 
i it for wit, my daughters 
rith a loud laugh uf pi-. 
I 

II) ['in !icr liand in 
messenger seven- 
h ilfpenny. 
was to be our visiting day. The 

rial came wni Mi. Burchell, who 
ly little 
pngeroread each, 
wife undertook to lea 

letters at a 
my daughters also a couple 
■ light keep M 

□ they 

M y wift v fond of a 

ngthe mod h 

he by. \\ . ii.fl still a regard 

bl Mr Burchell, though 1 • i — kite rude bc- 

i was in lome measure displeasing ■, 

■ - > t » 1 we now avoid oommunl 

bjl .11 1- 

1 1 hough we seldom follow eafl 

i.tugh to ask it. 
rrom the two 1 
i. .i n-1 observed, that an 

highly 

ill apply i" 
"Whatever my own conduct may have 

■'»t the 
I have made 
■. 1 -in. u|. I in con- 
that will." 

might draw 

■ 

er minil nil. 
I upon it he ' 

i ! never 

s . I 

ivould 

I live, 



and i he box at Ins bock." 

■ the deal 
which he had strapt round I 
like a pedlar. 
Moses ! well, my 

brought us from the fairl"— "I hour 
brought you 
sly look, at 

"that we know; hut where is the h. 
— " 1 have sold him," 
three i llings and 

. my good 
returned she ; " I 
them oil. Between 

rls five (hillings and i« 

work. Come. let us have 
then."—" 1 have brought buck no mi 
I have laid 
out in a bargain, and here it 
out a bundle from his breast . " bei 
a gross of green spectacles, 
silver rims and shagreen cases." — ' 
of gi. les ! " repeated n 

you have | 
with the er.lt, and brougl: 
nothing but a gross of green paltry 

he I 
I had 
them a dead bargain, or 1 should 
have brought them. The 

will sell for double the money." 
" A' nlver rims," cried my 

wife, in a passion : " 1 dare swear 

'.I It.'t above half the mo 
rate "I broken lilver, live shillings 
ounce.' 1 — " You need be undei I 

out selling the 
for they are nut 

iVe 'hey are only 

I. " no more silver than 

Enn."- 
jve parted with the colt, oil* 
got a 

rain lake such tiun. 

should n i at all.'' 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



*5 



i bud them I 

' 
again fig, my dear." cried I ; 

we will keep 
les, you 

irtunate Moses was 

'. that he had been 

r, who, 

in easy i ■• ■ >ked the cir- 

(uni,: • ifhU deception. Hesoldthe 

ind walked the fair in 
r. A reverend- 1. ■ 
i him to a lent, under pri 

con- 
e met another man, very 
well drcsv ■ 

tying that lie 
uld dispose of them 
of the value. The first gentle- 
to be my i 
I uy them, ami cautioned 
good an offer pa 
1 >«rough, and they 

and so 
led to buy the two 
•el ween us." 

■ HI. 

Mr Burrkdll I '■•■hfhas 

thl .'. ;,v. 

icropts 

■een disaster 

u soon as projected. I 

ike the advantage of 

Eppointment 
ee, my 
'. "how littl 
ipose upon I 

-uch as are 
with none Kit the 
I, and 
I 

idei the rich bavii 

fable that yoi 
ir the good of the com- 

i lnl.l, 



"a Giant and ) Dwarf "ere friend-. 

kepi to .i bargain, 

that they would never foi sake each other, 
"1 ventures. The first battle 
they fought was with two Saracens, and 
the Dwarf, who was very courageous, dealt 
one of the champions a i 
It did the Sa ra c en very little injury, 
lifting up Ins (word, fairly struck off the 
poor Dwarf's arm. He was now in a 
worn] plight; but the Giant,coming I 

ihort time left the tWO 
Saracc n the plain, and the I I 

cut off ' uVi lu-ad out of 

They then travilh d on another adventure. 

This was against three bin 

■ arrying away n dl 
in distress. The 1 1 me so 

fierce now as before ; but for all that 
the first blow, which was returned by 
another that knocked ou it the 

Giant was icon Up with them, and, had 
they not Red, Would certainly have killed 
them every one. They were all very joy- 
ful for this victory, and the damsel who 
was relieved fell in love with the > 
and married him. They now travel! 

ithcr than I can tell, till thev met 

with a I robbers. The Giant, 

for the , i now; but 

the Dwarf was not fat behind. The battle 

ml and long. Where* 

all fell before him; but the I 

had like to have been killed mon 
once. At la-t the rleto 

•it the- Dwarf lust I 
The Dm irf it an arm 

and an eye. whfli 

hod, ' My little be 
is glori 
more, and lb II foi 

• 
this tine grown wiser, 'no, l dechu 

I'll fight Ho I. 

that yon get all the bono 

but all the blows fall qpo 

our attention 
dispute between nn 
upon mv daughters' nit' 






i6 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD, 



Med her with great ardour; and I 
stood neuter. His present dissuasions 
seemed but the second part of those which 
were received wuh so ill ■ gi.icc- in the 
morning. The dispute grew nigh ; while 
poor Deborah, instead of reasoning 
stronger, talked louder, and at last mi 
obliged to take shelter from a defeat in 
clamour. The conclusion of her harangue, 
however, m highly displeasing to us all: 
die knew, shesaid, of some who had their 
cict reasons for what they advised ; 
but, for her part, she wished such to 
stay away from her house for the future. 

' un," cried Burcbell, with looks of 

Ei sure, which tended to inllaine 
er the more, "as for secret reasons you 
arc right : 1 have secret reasons, which I 
■ to mention, because you are not 
able to answer thou of which 1 make no 
secret: 'but I find my visits hereare become 
inniMcsoine; I'll lake my leave therefore 
Ud perhaps come once more to take 
■ final farewell when I am quitting the 
country." Thus Hying, he look up his 
hat, nor could the attempts of Sophia, 
looks seemed to upbraid his pre- 
icy, prevent his going. 
When gone, we all regnrded each other 
for some minutes with confusion. My 
wife, who knew herself to be the cause, 
to hide her concern with a forced 
smile, and an air of assurance, which I was 
willing to reprove: "How, woman, " cried 
I to her, "is it thus we treat strangers! 
Is it thus we return their kindness? Be 
assured, my dear, that these were the 
and lo me the most oil- 
ing, that ever escaped your lips I" — 
"Why would he provoke me then!" re- 
lic; "lnil 1 know the motives of his 
advice perfectly well. He would prevent 
my girls, from going to town, that he may 
have the plcasureofmy youngest daughter's 
company here at home. But, whatever 
happens, she shall choose better company 
than such low-lived fellows as he." — 
i call him?" 
cried I; "it is ve we maymis- 

take this 01 ter, fur he seems, 

upon some , the most finished 

gentleman I ever knew. Tell me, Sophia, 
my girl, has he ever given you any secret 
" — "His con- 



versation with me, sir," replied mi 
ter, " has ever been sensible, 
pleasing. As lo ought else— 
Once, indeed, I ret have 

him say, he never knew a woman 
could find merit in a m.-in that • 
poor." — "Such, my dear," cried I, 
common cant of all the unfortunate 
But I hope you have been taught t 
properly of such men, and that it • 
even madness to expect happiness ( 
who has been so very bad an econo 
his own. Your mother and I hav 
prospects for you. The next i 
which you will probably spend in 
will give you opportun 
more prudent choice." 

Wnal Sophia's reflections 
this occasion 1 cannot p 
mine: but 1 was not dlspK 

in thai we i< 
whom I had much to fear. ' 'ur 
of hospitality went to my • 
little; bull quickly silenced that n 
by two or three specious re 
served to satisfy and reconcile me to 

The pain which conscience 
the man who has already done wr- 
soon cot over. Conscience is a cov 
and those faults it has not strength ti 
to prevent, it seldom has justice enoug 
to accuse. 

CHATTER XIV. 

Frnh Mgrtificaliena, or n DfmpNitratifn I 
lrnni*t£ Ciif.i>nili>'i *iet} h rral Bl*:>. 

The journey of my daughters to 

having kindly promised to i' 
conduct himself, and inform us by I 
of their behaviour. But it was though 
indispensably necessary that their i 
ance should equal the greatness 
expo t.itions, which could not 
without expense. \ 
in full council what were the 
methods of raising money, or, 
properly speaking, what we 
conveniently sell. The deliberati 
soon finished : it v.as found that 
maining horse was Utterly as 
plough without his comp* 
equally unfit for the wanting 

eye : it was therefore determined ill 




tny worldly » 

ning, at 

! 

callc-1 me back to advise me, in 
■■■• all my eyes about me. 
in the u 

f, pul my horse through all his 

hi- lime had no bidden 

I, and after 

ile examined the 

m blind of one 

tool J I Ig to say to 

rood < 

il take 
, a third per- 
i Igall, an I 
know by h 

mdered 

ick, that was 
kennel 

I l>egan to have I 

be poor animal my- 
' ashamed at the 
of every customer : for though 
levc all the fellows 
ct< ' that the number 
presumption 
v. upon 
nself to be of 

Wig situation, 

I alio business at the fair, came 



nil. by the appearance of a youth, who, 
entering the room, respectfully said some- 
thing softly to the old stranger. " Make 
no apologies, my child," said the old 
man ; " to do good is a duly we owe to 
all our felh".'. I wish 

it were more ; but five pounds will relieve 

?>nr distresSj and you are welcome." 
he modest youth shed tears of gratitude, 
and yet his gratitude was acarce equal 
t" mine. I could have hugged the good 
old man in my arms, his benevolence 
pleased me so. He continued to read, 
and wc resumed our conversation, until 
my companion, after some time, recollect- 
ing that he hai I in the 
fair, promised to be soon back ; adding, 
that he always: desired to have as much 
of Dr. Primrose's company as poniblc, 
The old gentleman, hearing my name 
mentioned, seemed to look at me with 
attention for some lime ; and when my 
friend was gone, most respectfully de- 
manded if I was any way related to the 
great Primrose, that courageous monoga- 
i ho had been the bulwark of the 
Church. Never did my heart I 

rapture than at thai moment "Sir," 

Cried I. " the applause of so good a man 
as I am sure you are, adds to that happi- 
ness in my breast which your benevolence 
Yen behold before 
you, sir, that Dr. Primrose, the monoga- 
mist whom von have been pleased to call 



28 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



me by your familiarity, that I must beg 
you'll accept my friendship, as you already 
nave my esteem." — " Then with gratitude 
I accept the offer," cried he, squeezing 
me by the hand, "thou glorious pillar 
of unshaken orthodoxy ! and do I behold 

" I here interrupted what he was 

going to say ; for though, as an author, I 
could digest no small share of flattery, 
yet now my modesty would permit no • 
more. However, no lovers in romance 
ever cemented a more instantaneous 
friendship. We talked upon several sub- I 
jects : at first I thought he seemed rather 
devout than learned, and began to think 
he despis A all human doctrines as dross. , 
Yet this no way lessened him in my . 
esteem, for I had for some time begun 
privately to harbour such an opinion my- . 
self. I therefore took occasion to observe, ' 
that the world in general began to be I 
blameably indifferent as to doctrinal 
matters, and followed human speculations | 
too much. " Ay, sir," replied he, as if i 
he had reserved all his learning to that I 
moment, " Ay, sir, the world is in its 
dotage ; and yet the cosmogonv, or crea- ' 
tion of the world, has puttied philo-' 
sophcrs of all ages. What a medley of 
opinions have they not laoached upon the 
creation of the world ! S;mchoniathon, | 
Manetho, Berosus, and Ocellus I.ucanus, 
have all attempted it in vain. The latter 
has these words, Anarchoti ara kai attlu- 
tn ion to p.itt, which imply that .ill things 
have neither beginning nor end. Manetho ' 
also, who lived about the time of Nebu- . 
chadon-Asser — Asser being a Syriac 
word, usually applied as a surname to the 
kings of that country, as Teglat Phael- 
Asser, Nation- Asser— he, I say, formed a 
conjecture equally absurd ; for, as we 
usually say, tk f.< friblion kubtrnrt/s, which 
implies that books will never teach the ' 

world ; so he attempted to investigate 

But, sir, I a»k pardon, I am straying from 
the question.' — That he actually was ; 
nor could I, for my life, see how the 
creation of the world had anything to do 
with the business I was talking of; but 
it was sufficient to show me that he was a 
man of letters, and I now reverenced him 
the more. I was resolved, therefore, to 
bring him to the touchstone ; but he was j 



too mild and too gentle to contend for 
victory. .. Whenever I made an observa- 
tion that looked like a challenge to con- 
troversy, he would smile, shake his head, 
and say nothing ; by which I understood 
he could say much, if he thought 
The subject, therefore, insensibly i 
from the business of antiquity, to _ 
which brought us both to the air : same, 
I told him, was to sell a horse, and to/ 
luckily, indeed, his was to buy one for 
one of his tenants. My horse was soon 
produced ; and, in line, we struck a bar- 
gain. Nothing now remained but to pay 
me, and he accordingly pulled oat a 
thirty pound note, and Did me change it 
Not being in a capacity of complying with 
this demand, he ordered his footman to 
be called up, who made his appearance ia 
a very genteel livery. " Here, Abraham," 
cried he, " go and get gold for this ; you'll 
do it at neighbour Jackson's, or any- 
where." While the fellow was gone, be 
entertained me with a pathetic harangue 
on the great scarcity of silver, which I 
undertook to improve, by deploring also 
the great scarcity of gold ; so that, by the 
time Abraham returned, we had both 
agreed that money was never so hard to 
be come at as now. Abraham returned 
to inform us, that he had been over the 
whole fair, and could not get change, 
though he had offered half-a-crown Tor 
doing it. This was a very great disap- 
pointment to us all; but the old gentle- 
man, having paused a little, asked me if 
I knew one Solomon Flamborough in my 

Earl of the country. Upon replying that 
e was my next door neighbour : " If 
that be the case, then," returned he, "I 
believe we shall deal. You shall have a 
draft upon him, payable at sight ; and, 
let me tell you, he is as warm a man as 
any within five miles round him. Honest 
Solomon and I have been acquainted for 
many years together. I remember I 
always beat him at three jumps ; but he 
could hop on one leg farther than I." A 
draft upon my neighbour was to me the 
same as money ; for I was sufficiently 
convinced of his ability. The draft was 
signed, and put into my hands, and Mr. 
Jenkinson, the old gentleman, his man 
Abraham, and my horse, old Blackberry, 



' IELD. 






pre.' 
rcha*r- 

i 

I I til! ■ 

i man, 

a the 

v mor- 

No 
turning 

their 

I Ihe 

Inform 

I l.lh'V 



*0 



i ii- most, was I" 

humbli 

to am 

' 1IAPTER JCV 

■ wur. 
i'ii s i evening i nd b j 

hmily 
in the iu ighbourhood hut in 

I o ourselvt - 

1 ■ or out Uttlc 

II in .i letter-case, wnii 
on the green. Ii wh qnickli 
belong hell, with whom I 

en, .mil, ' 
[aiued tome hints upon differ* 

irly engaged out 

' I he 
ta be sen! to the 

' 
ili.. i In.- wis the In-. 1 inform 
10 ili:/ note 

i' . hilt 

.. who said she was -ure th.it ... .ill 
■ guilty "i' -ii 

lie family, and at their joinl 

■ : — 

yon as to tlii- person from whom 
lues : one at leail the friend ofinoo- 
ing se- 
duced. I .. • truth, th.it 
you have some intention o( bringing two 
- 

I would neithei 
simplicity im] , not virtui 

tarninan 
tint th ■ 111 be 

1 
it not aim ii guill 



HHV 






3° 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



admonition of a friend, and seriously re- 
flcci on the consequences of introducing 
infamy and vice into retreats where peace 
and innocence have hitherto n 

Our doubts were now at an end. There 
seemed, indeed, something applicable to 
both sides in this letter, and its censures 
might as well be referred to those to whom 
written, as to us; but the malicious 
meaning was obvious and we went no 
farther. My wife had scarcely patience to 
hear me to the end, but railed at the writer 
with unrestrained resentment. Olivia was 
equally severe, and Sophia seemed per- 
fectly amared at his baseness. As for my 
part, it appeared to me one of the vilest 
instances of unprovoked ingratitude I had 
ever met with ; nor could I account for it 
in any other manner, than by imputing it 
. desire of detaining my youngest 
daughter in the country, to have the more 
frequent opportunities of an interview. 
In this manner we all sat ruminating upon 
net of vengeance, when our other 
little boy came running in to tell u> that 
Mr. I'.urchcll was approaching at the other 
end of the field. It is easier to conceive 
than describe the complicated sensations 
winch are felt from the pain of a recent 
injury, and the pleasure of approaching 
iiicc. Though our intentions were 
only to upbraid him with his ingratitude, 
yet it was resolved to do it in a manner 
that would be perfectly cutting. For this 
purpose we agreed to meet him with our 
nma] smiles ; to chat in the beginning 
with more than ordinary kindness, to 
amuse him a little ; and then, in the midst 
of the flattering calm, to burst upon him 
like an earthquake, and overwhelm him 
I sense of his own baseness. This 
being resolved upon, my wife undertuok 
to manage the business herself, as she 
had some talents for such an under- 
taking. We law him approach : he en- 
drew a chair, and sat down. " A 
line day, Mr. Burchell." — " A very fine 
day, Doctor; though I fancy WC -.hall have 
some rain by the shooting of my corns." 
— " The she >ur homs ! " cried 

my wife, in a loud fit of laughter, and then 
asked pardon for being fond of I 
Dear madam," replied he, " I pardon 
nh all my heart, for I protest I 



should not have thoughi 
not told me." — " Perhap 
my wife, winking at us; " ano 
say you can tell us how many j 
an ounce." — " I fancy, madam. 
Burchell, " you have been re 
book this morning, that ounce of 
so very good a conceit ; and yet, 
I had rather see half an oun 
standing." — "I believe you might, 
my « ife, still smiling at us, thi 
laugh was against her ; " and yet 
seen some men pretend to m 
that have very little."— "And no 
relumed her antagonist, "ynu have kni 

->et up for wit that had noi 
quickly began to find that my v 

likely to gain but little at this bi 

so 1 resolved to treat him in a style 
more severity myself. " Both wit a 
understanding," cried I, "are trifles. *mV 
out integrity ; it is that which gives 
to every character. The ignorant peuatf 
without fault, is greater than the pi 
pher with many; foi what is genius 
courage without an hcail ? 

" ' An honest man's the noblest work of GodV 



" I always held that hackneyed m, 
lined Mr. Bu 
iv a man of genius, and a In 
desertion of bis own superiority. As t 
reputation of books is raised, ni 
freedom from defect, but the greatness 
their beaut.' men 

Jrized, not I- 
ut the sire of those virtues they are 
scssedof. The scholar ma;, 
the statesman may have prid( 
champion ferocity : but shall we pn 
these the low mechanic, who labi" 

through life without censure 
applause? \Ve mi II prefer 

tame correct painting- of the Fli 
school to the erroneous but sublime 
mations of the Roman pencil." 

" >ir," replied I >bser 

vation is just, when there are shining 
Hies and minute defects ; but 
appears that great vices are op^ 
the same mind to as extraordinary 
such a character deserve* conti 
■apt," cried he, " llu 
some such monsters as you describe. 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



3« 



great vice joined to great virtues ; yet, in 

one in ice : on the 

have ever perceived, that where 

•\a affections 

werei: indeed Providence seems 

friend in tins particular, thus 

the understanding where the 

heart is corrupt, and diminish the power 

where he (rill to do mischief. 

This rule seems to extend even to other 

tie vermin nice ari 

. cruel, and cowardly, whilst 

ith strength and power 

mnd well," re- 
st it would be easy this 
man," and I fised 
n him, "whose 
head 

Ir," continued I. raising 
e this 
; him in tii- 

curity. 1 1" you know 

■ 

" that pocket-book is mine, 
found it." - 

' Nay, 

no full in the 

face : I is letter?"— 

le ; "yes, it 

id how 

tngrate- 

r " " — 
replied he, with 
basely 
. . break open thii 

Id hang you 

i lo is to 

•voir .e's that you have 

making open the lock of 

o hang you all up 

I This piece of um - 

such a pitch, (hat 

grateful wr 

--■ my dwelling with thy baseness I 
begone, and nevei again 1 

i punishment 
ih thee is 



tin;; the clasps with the utmost composure, 
left us, quite astonished at the serenity of 
trance. My wife was particularly 
enraged that nothing could maid 
angry, or make him seem ashamed of his 
villanies. "My dear," cried I, willing 
it had been raised 
too high among us, " we are not to be 
surprised that bad men want shame : they 
only blush at being detected in doing good, 
but glory in their vices. 

" Guilt and Shame, says the allegory, 
were at first companions, and, in the be- 
ginning of their journey, ••• kept 
together. But their union was soon 

to be disagreeable and inconvenient to 

both. Guilt gave Shame frequent un- 

-. and Shane ofl I the 

secret conspiracies of Guilt. Aftci 
disagreement, therefore, they .it I 
consented to part for ever. Guilt boldly 
walked forward alone, to overtake 
that went before in the shape of an exe- 
cutioner ; but Shame, being naturally 

timorous, ictumed back to keep company 
with Virtue, which in the begin* 

they had left behind 
my children, after men have tr.o. 
through a few stages in vice, Sham 

licm, and returns b tUDOO 

the few virtues they have still remaining." 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Tkt Family mt A rl. ivhiii ii nffruJ vilM ilill 

Wuatfve.r might have been Sophia's 

the rest of the famil 
consoled lot Mi. Bnrchcll's absence 1 
landlord, whose 

■ -:nme moo ind longer. 

Though he had be, tted in pro- 

curing my daughters the ami 

vn, as he designed, he took every 
opportunity ; them with those 

liitlc recreations which our retirement 

WOtlld admit of. He usually c.ime in the 

morning; and, while my son and I f I- 

-broad, he sat with 

the family at home, and amused them by 

-ing the town, with c ■ 

I. He 
• nil'! repeal all the observatloi 

had all the good things of the 







THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



before the 
ray into ihe feM books. The inter- 
vals between at employed 
in teaching my daughters piquet, Mi- 
ni selling my two little ones to box, 
' e then sharp, as he called it : but 
ihe hopes of having him for a son-in-l.iw 
tne measure blinded us to all his im- 
I[ must be owned, that my 
wife [aid a thousand schemes to entrap 
him ; or, to speak more tenderly, used 
every art to magnify the merit of her 
iter. If the cakes at tea cat short 
and crisp, they were made by Olivia ; if 
the gooseberry wine was well knit, the 
were of her gathering: ii was 
her fingers winch gave the pickles their 

peculi ml, in the composition 

.>f ,t puduing, it was her judgment that 

rl ihe ingredients. Then the poor 
in would sometimes tell ihe Squire, 
the thought him and Olivia ex- 

i would bid both 

\\ in. I ■ Uest These 

cunning, which she thought 

which everybody saw 

-ing to our bene- 

who gave every day some new 

Cof his passion, which, though they 
ax) not arisen to proposals of marriage, 
yet we thought fell but little short of tl ; 
ami in- was attributed sometimes | 

to native bashtulness, and sometimes to 
Ic. An oc- 
ciu ici. , whii Ii bappeni 
after, put it beyond s doubt that he dc- 

of o U r family j my 
1 1 as an a! 

ami daughti 

ough's, 
unily had lately got thi 

lied the 
i took likencs en shil- 

i head. Astl is famil] and "iirshad 
Iry m point of taa 

I inarch 

I. notwithstandin 
rid i said much, h 

have our picture-- ilone I 
tag, therefore, engaged the limner, 

to show the nipei I 
taste in the attitudes. As for our neigli- 



l.imily, there were seven of 
ami they were draws wil 
— a thing quite out i 

to have something in a brightei 

after many debate 

unanimous resolution of being draw 

r, in one large historical I 
lhis would be chi 
would serve for all, an.] it woi 
nitely more genteel ; for all famil 
taste were now drawn in the same m 
Aswedid not immediately recollec 
torical subject to hit usj wewerecoi 
each with being 
historical figures. My wife 
represented a 

was desired not to be loo I 
diamonds in herstomnci 
two little ones were t" 
her side- ; while I, in mj 

o present her with I 
\\ histoi 
drawn . 
of flow 

w iih gold, and a whip in hci 
Sophia \\a- to be a shepherdi 
many sheep as the painter could | 
nothing; at 

Willi a hat and v 

so much pleased the- Squire, that he 

sisted on being put in as one of thefamilyi 

: Ale.vande; 

.u i dr. ia'a fcei. This 
us all as an 

introduced into the family, nor could 

. 

in, in less th 
dayslhew In plcted. '1 

was large, and, it must be owned, 
not spare hi i i which i 

gave him great encomiums. We were a! 

El erformanccj 
ut an unfortunate circumstance win 
not occurred till the picture 

us with dii mnj . It 
very large, that . 

tO flX It. IIOW We .dl , 

ceivable; but ce 
greath 



,: of WAKh FIELD. 



Si 



he can- 
v»» • I - 

One 

'»'»f. mother 

reel in a boi- 
v it could 
obi. 1 ' mazed how it ever 

.h it excited ili* ri'li 
«omc, sed more mi 

SUggc-ti ••:'■ in many. The Sq 

united with our- ■ 
rreat to ipe Dvy 
tUlotM wln>pers began to circulate at our 
r tranquillity was con- 
I by persons who came 
M friends to tell us what was said of us 
by enemies. These report! we 
reveled with becoming 

■nee again, therefore, enteral into 

a consult i' ' mating the malice 

n( >ur rn.-m.^, and at lad ciine to .1 pcaO- 

mt»Mi whic'i '■- i ' io much cunning 1,. (rive 

sfaciion. It wai 

>1 object ■ I 

r esses, my w 

hrr el l<-»t daughter. If this was not found 
UltK.rnt !j i I '•• r Iti'n I 1 a de.-laraiiiin, it 

1 would by no 
means gne my cmi-cni, till 1 >liviag.iv.\- me 

S*» occasion, if he did not j 

hough I did not 
not entirely 



I I 1 I 



, thai Mr. 
1 see us. my girls took 

' fs' V ' C 

I |iutting her 

Mm. from whi nee thi ] 

My 

1 I ii, by "!■ 

r a very £" "f it in 

Spank- 



ing, she proceeded to remark, that they 

rtnnei were always sure 

" Bnl I leaven 

help, " , ils that have 

none ! ' . tfr. I ham- 

hill ? <ir wh.it signiBes all the virtu 
all the qualifications in the world, 

•1, Wh.il is 
she? but, What bat she? is .'II the 

"Madam," returned he, "I highly ap- 
is well as the no 

ind if I were a king, it 
should be otherwise. It should then, in- 
deed, be fine times with the girls without 
fortunes : our two young ladies should be 
the first for whom I would provide." 

"Ah, sir," returned my wife, "you are 
pleased to be facetious: but I wish I were 
a queen, and then I know where my eldest 
daught.r ihoul I look for a husband, 
now that you have put it into my 
seriously, Mr. Thornlnll, can't von 1 
mend me a proper husband foi her T She 
nineteen years old, well grown and 
iucated, and, in my humble opinion, 
r parts.' 1 
" Mi lam," replied he, "if I were to 
. 1 would find out a person possessed 
of every accomplishment that can make an 

angel happy, Dnewitb -mine, 

tj ; such, madam 

, y opinion, the proper hnsb 
— " A but do you know 

of any such person ?"- " "1," re- 

turned he, ' it if x any 

person that deserve* to be her husl 
she's too great a tre 

session I B oil, 

I speak what 1 think — she's an angel I" — 
"Ah. Mr. I'lionihill, you only flatter my 
poor girl : but we have been thinking of 
marryine; her to one nf your tenants, whose 
ad, sod who w 
you know whom I mean, — 

■ Williams; a warm man. Mr I 
hill, abl d who 

(which 

your a; 

madarr I he, " my a| 

"-'ever. 

' sacrifice so n 



34 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



the blessing ! Kxcuse mc, I can never 

..: .if Mich .1 piece of in 
And 1 have my reasons.*' -"Indeed, sir," 

I lebonha "ifyou havcyourrc 

old be gUd 

to know those reasons. — " Excuse me, 
madam," returned lie, "they lie too deep 

for discovery" (laying his hand upon ins 

bosom); " they remain buried, ril 

After he wai gone, upon a general con- 
sulun 1 not tell wh.it to make 
teniimentt. i Ilivia considered 
them I of the most exalted pas- 
HOfl : bat 1 was not quite so sanguine: it 
seemed to me pretty plain, that they had 
& love than matrimony in ihem ; yet, 
whatever they might portend, it was re- 
'e the scheme ■■! Farmer 
\\ tlliauu, who, from my daughter's first 
in the country, had paid her 

addresses. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

V any Virtu/ found lo rrsiit the Power of 
iiui pleating Tem//>it: i, i 

Illy Studied my child's real happiness, 
iduity "l Mr. Williams pleased me, 
as he was in easy circumstances, prudent, 
i liul very little en- 
couragement toievive his former passion ; 
i evening or two he and Mr. 
iil met ai our home, and surveyed 
lot sinne time with looks of 
iwed his landlord no 
ind little regarded his indignation. 
I ilivia, on her side, acted the coquette to 
tion, if that might be called acting 
lerrea] character, pretendin;; to 
il! her tenderness on her new lover. 
Mi. I hornhill appeared quite dejected at 
this preference, and with a pensive air took 
. though I own it puzzled me I 

him in h.i much pain ai be appeared 

i it in In- power so easily to 

daring an honour- 

tlever uneasiness he 

! i.. endun isily be per- 

I greater. 

After .lews between he* 

:al, she 

md there in- 

rief. rt wasin such a situation 

ne evening, after she had been 



le time supporting a ficl 

BOW see, my child." said I. 
nfidence in Mr. ThornhiH's 
was all a dream : lie permits t lie m 
another, every way his inferior, ih 
knows it lies in his power lo - 

If by a candid declaration. "- 
returned she; "but he has his rea- 
sons for this delay: I know he has 
sincerity of his looks an 
me of his real esteem. A - 
will discover the gene: 

. and convince you thai 
of him has been more just than • 
— "Olivia, my darling, "retun 
scheme that has been hitherto pm 
compel him to a declaration has be. 
posedand planned by yourself; noi .. 
in the least say that I have constrain. 
But you must nut suppose, my de 
I will ever In- instrumental in 
honest rival to be the dupe 
placed passion. Whatever lime ] 

to bring your fan 
. explanation shall be gi 

ation of that term, if he i 
I. -■-. I must .il - ii ti Ij -.1 
Williams -hall I . 

The character which 1 have hilhei 
ported in life demands this rroi 
my tenderness as a parent shall nc 
fluence my n in. 

then, you i 

think propel . and in • 
care to let Mr. Thcrnhill know the 
time mi which I design delivering 
to another. Ifhercall; loves you, 

w ill readih lat tU 

i- l.ut one melhod alone t>> 
losingyon forever." ThisproposaJ 
she could not avoid considering as \ 
just, was readily agreed in. she 
newed her most ] 

ing Mr. Wil ■ iseof the oil 

sensibility: and al tin 
Mr. ThornhiH's presence, il 
was fixed upon for her nvi| 

rival 

pi.iccedings seemed I 
I r. ThornhiH's anxiety: biitwh 
i Ilivia really felt e;ave me some unea 
In this struggle between prudence and pal- 
s' .jiiite forsook her, and 
f opportunity of solitude was soue 



f 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



3S 



■ad spent in tears. One week passed 
■way; bat Mr. Thornhill made no efforts 
to restrain her nuptials. The succeeding 
week he was still assiduous ; but not more 
open. On the third, he discontinued his 
visits entirely, and" instead of my daughter 
testifying any impatience, as I expected, 
she seemed to retain a pensive tranquillity, 
which I looked upon as resignation. For 
my own part, I was now siucerely pleased 
with thinking that ray child was going to 
be secured in a continuance of competence 
and peace, and frequently applauded her 
resolution, in preferring happiness to osten- 
tation. 

It was within about four days of her in- 
tended nuptials, that my little family at 
night were gathered round a charming fire, 
telling stones of the past, and laying 
. schemes for the future : busied in forming 
a thousand projects, and laughing at what- 
ever fully came uppermost. "Well, Moses," 
cried I, "we snail soon, my boy, have 
a wedding in the family: what is your 
opinion of matters and things in general?" 
— "My opinion, father, is, that all things 
go on very well ; and I was just now think- 
ing, that when sister I.ivy is married to 
Farmer Williams, we shall then have the 
loan of his cider-press and brewing-tubs 
for nothing." — " That we shall, Moses," 
cried I, " and he will sing us ' Death and 
the Lady,' to raise our spirits into the 
bargain. — "He has taught that song to 
our Dick," cried Moses; "and I think he : 
goes through it very prettily." — " Docs he ! 
so!" cried I ; "then let us have it : where , 
is little Dick? let him up with it boldly." : 
— " My brother Dick, cried Bill, my j 
youngest, "is just gone out with sister Livy: | 
bot Mr. Williams has taught me two songs, | 
and I'll sing them for you, papa. Which 
song do you choose, 'The Dying Swan,' or 
the' Elegy on the Death ofa Mad Dog!'" ' 
—"The elegy, child, by all means," said ] 
I ; " I never heard that yet : and Deborah, 
my life, grief, you know, is dry; let us have 
a bottle of the best gooseberry wine, to 
keep up our spirits. I have wept so much 
at all sorts of elegies of late, that without 
an enlivening glass I am sure this will 
overcome me; and Sophy, love, take 
your guitar, and thrum in with the boy a 



AN ELEGY ON THE DEATH OF 
A MAD DOG. 

Good people all. of every sort, 

Give ear unto my song. 
And if you find it wondrous short. 

It cannot hold you long. 
In Islington there was a man, 

Of whom the world might say, 
That still a godly race he ran, 

Whene'er he went to pray. 
A kind and gentle heart he had, 

To comfort friends and foes ; 
The nuked every day he clad. 

When he put on his clothes. 

And in that town a dog was found. 

As many dogs there be, 
Both mongrel, puppy, whelp, and hound, 

And curs of fow degree. 

This dog and man at first were friends ; 

But when a pique began, 
The dog, to gain some private ends, 

Went mad, and bit the man. 
Around from all the neighbouring streets 

The wond'ring neighbours ran, 
And swore the dog had lost his wits. 

To bite so good a man. 

The wound it seem'd both sore and sad 

To every Christian eye ; 
And while they swore the dog was mad, 

They swore the man would die. 
But soon a wonder came to light. 

That show'd the rogues they lied : 
The man recover'd of the bite — 

The dog it was that died. 

"A very good boy, Bill, upon my word ; 
and an elegy that may truly be called 
tragical. Come, my children, here's Bill's 
health, and may he one day be a bishop ! " 

"With all my heart," cried my wife : 
" and if he but preaches as well as he 
sings, I make no doubt of him. The most 
of his family, by the mother's side, could 
sing a good song : it was a common say- 
ing in our country, that the family of the 
Blenkinsops could never look straight be- 
fore them, nor the Hugginsons blow out a 
candle ; that there were none of the Gro- 
grams but could sing a song, or of the Mar- 
jorams but could tell a story." — " How- 
ever that be," cried I, " the most vulgar 
ballad of them all generally pleases me 
better than the fine modern odes, and 
things that petrify us in a single stanza, — 
productions that we at once detest and 
praise. — Put the glass to your brother, 
Moses. —The great fault of these elegiasts 
is, that they •*• >n despair for griefs that 



3 6 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



give ihe sensible part of mankind very little 

Cuin. A lady loses her muff, her Ian. or 
er lap-dog, and so the silly poet runs 
I -ify the dil i 
" That may be the mode," cried Moses, 

H in sabUmer compositions: bnl the Kane- 
lag h songs tint come down to us are per- 

familiar, and all east in the same 

mould : ' olio meets Dolly, and they hold 

tlogue together; he gives her a 

: to put in her hair, and she presents 

him with I uid then they go 

_-r to church, where they give good 
advice to young nymphs and swain, to 
gel married as fast as they can." 

I 1 very good advice too," cried I; 

I am told there is not a place in the 
\ where advice can be given with set 

propriety as there : for as it per- 
suades us to marry, it also furnishes us with 

. and surely that must bean cxccl- 
...irkct. my boy, where we arc told 
what IK want, and supplied with it when 
warning." 

"Ye irned Moses, "and I 

know but of two such markets for wives 
in Europe, — Ranelagh in England, and 
Fontarabia in Spain. The Spanish mar- 
ket is open once a year; but our E n g li s h 
wives are saleable every night." 

" You are right, my boy," en 
mother; " Old England is the onlj 
in the world fur husbands to get wives." — 
"Am I for ■ ivei to manage their husk 
interrupted I. "It is a proverb a 
that if a bridge were built across the sea, 
all the ladies of the Continent would come 
over i- in from ours ; for there 

are no such wives in Europe as our oun. 

i us have one bottle more, Deborah, 

\ Mi ses, give us a good song. 

\\ hit thanks do we not owe to Heaven for 

thus I tranquillity, health, and 

! I think myself happier now 
than the greatest monarch upon earth lie 
li fireside, nor such pleasant 
tboutit Yes, Deborah, we are now 
Ig old ; hut the evening of our life 
is likely to be happy. We arc descended 
from ancestors that knew no stain, and we 
shall leave a good and virtuous race of chil- 
dren behind us. While we :; 
be our support and our pleasuie net 
when we die, they will transmit our honour 



untainted to posterity. C 

r a song: let us have achoru- 
where \> my darling Olivia I 
cherub's voice is always swei 
concert." Just as 1 spoke ! 
running in. " O papa. papa, she i 
from us, she is gone fit i sister 

Livy is gone from us forever I"—' 1 I 
child I " — " Yes, she is gone off with til 
gentlemen in a post-chaise, and i 
tlieni kissed her, and said he would diefoi 
her: and she cried very much, and v 
coming back ; but he persuaded her agun, 
and -he went into the chaise, anJ 
• Oh, what will my poor papa do when he 
I am undone !'"— "Now, then," 
cried I, "my children, go and be D 
able ; for wc shall never enjoy one- 
more. And oh, may Heaven's eve:' 
fury light upon him and his I— thus to lob 
mc of my child ! And sure it will, 
taking back my sweet innocent that I \ 
leading up to Heaven. Su< 
my child was possessed of '. But all oi 
earthly happiness is now over ! '. 
children, go and be miserable ai 
mous ; for my heart is broken withii 
— " Father,' 1 cried my son, "is this 
fortitude?" — "Fortitude, child*— yes. ye 
shall see I have fortitude I Bring n 

I'll pursue the traitor-- while tie 
is on earth I'll pursue him. Old as 1 1 
he shall find I can sting him yet. 1 
lain— the perfidious villain I " I had 
tins time reached down my pistol 
my poor wife, whose passions were not 1 
strong as mine, caught me in bet 

" My dearest, d< md !" 

she, "the Bible is the only wear* 
is tit for your old hands now. 
that, my love, and read our angm 
patience, for she has vilely de< 
I " Indeed, sir," n 

Eause, "your rage is too violent i 
rooming. V. u should be my n 
I comforter, and you increase her pain, b 
ill suited you and your reverend charac 
thus to curse your greatest enemy : yoa 
should not have cursed him, villain at I 
is." — " I did not curse him child, did IV 
— " Indeed, 

I lien may I leaven forj 
and him if I did ' And now, my 
see it v. as more than hutnai, 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFTELD 



■ur enemies : 

I be i i me for all ihe good 

bath ir r all thai He hath 

■ t — i r is not a small 

from these old 

fas, that hive no' nany years, 

M»ct i my darling! — M 

Heaven forgive me! what 

I about to say ! —you may remember, 

my love, how good she was, and how 

charming- till this vile moment all her 

ore was to make us happy, I lad she but 

Put she is gone, the honour of our 

' iminated, and I must look 

oat m - i" other worlds than 

■W them go 

hap- iier awayt If he 

I her. she may vet be innocent." — 

Id ; " he only 

'ier his angel, and 

! wrpt very much, and leaned upon his 

■, and they drove oft" very fast. " - 

i'il creature," cried my wife, 
i could scarcely speak for weeping, " to 
I u> thuv She never had the least con- 
upon her affections. The vile 
ttnmpet has basely deserted her parents 
without any provocation, thus to bring 
t fvav hairs to the grave; and I must 
low." 

i hat night, the first of 
I real miV spent in the bit- 

impl.vinf, and ill-supported 
i mined, how- 
1 out our betrayer, wherever 
fear was* tad reproach his baseness. The 
artf mnmi lourwrctched 

! to give life 
and efc»eifnlness to H all My wife, as 
before, altempied to ease her heart by re- 
fwnv illthal 

i ftfl «Um of our family again darken these 
ktannlrsadc-rs. I will never call herdaogh- 
ItrsBore. No. let tlie strumpet lr. 
bt* »ile selocer : she i us to 

lie shall never more deceive 



.ttalkthushardly: 

'lilt is as great as 

roan: b«t ever shall this house and Ibis 

aeart ha open to a p.ior returning repentant 

Tbe sooner she returns from her 

is. the more welcome shall she 

lime the very best 



be to 



may err ; art may persuade, and G 
! out its charm. The first fan ll 
child of simplicity, but every other, thcotT- 
spring of guilt. Yes, the wretched creature 
shall lie welcome to this heart and this 
house, though stained with ten thousand 
:ken to the music 
of her voice, again will 1 hang fondly on 
her bosom, it I find hut repentance there. 
My son, bring hither my Bible and my 
staff: I will pursue her, wherever she 
is ; and though I cannot save her from 
shame, I may prevent the continuance of 
iniquity." 

CHAPTER XVlir. 

The Purjui/ c/a Fmt in j Lcil Child 

It ('.•■ 

THOUGH the child could not describe 
the gentleman's person who handed his 
sister into the post-chaise, yet my suspicions 
fell entirely upon our young landlord, 

character for such intrigues was hut 
too well known. 1 therefore directed my 
steps towards Thnrnhill Castle, resolving 
to upbraid him, and, If possible, to bring 
back my daughter: but before I hud 
reached his seat, I was met by one of my 
parishioners, who said he saw a young lady 
resembling my daughter in a post-chaise 
with a gentleman, whom by the description 
I could only guess to be Mr. Burchcll, 
and that they drove very fast. This infor- 

i. however, did by no means satisfy 
me. I therefore went to theyoungSquire's, 
and, though it was yet early, insisted upon 
seeing him immediately. Mr soon ap- 
peared with the most open familiar air, and 
seemed perfectly amazed at my daughter's 
elopement, protesting, upon his honour, 
that he was quite a stranger to it. I now 
therefore condemned my form, 
and could turn them only on Mr. Bui 
who, I recollected, had of late several pii- 
vate coi th her ; but the appear- 

ance of another witness left me no room, 
to doubt his villany, who averred, that 
he and my daughter were actually gone 
towards the Wells, about thirty miles off, 
where there was a great deal of corri 
Being driven to thai slate of mind in which 
we all are more ready to act i 
than to reason right, I m I with 

myself whether these accounts; might nol 






I 



3» 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



have been given by persons purposely 
placed in ray way to mislead me, but re 

I to pursue my daughter and her 

I deluder thither. 1 walked along 
With earnestness, and inquired of several 
by tile way; but received no accounts, till, 
entering the town, I was met by a person 
on horseback, whom I remembered tn have 
seen at the Squire's, and he assured me 
that if I followed them to the races, which 
were but thirty miles farther, I might 
depend upon overtaking them ; for he had 

then dance there the night before, 
tad tli'- - whole assembly seemed charmed 
With my daughter's performance. Early 
the next day, I walked forward to the races, 
and about four in the afternoon I came 

the COone. The company made a 
very brilliant appearance, all earnestly em- 
ployed in one pursuit, — that of pleasure: 
DOW different from mine, — that of reclaim- 
ing a lost child to virtue I I thought I per- 
ceived Mr. Bunnell at some distance from 
me ; but, as if he dreaded an interview, 
upon my approaching him he mixed among 
a crowd, and I saw him no more. 

I now reflected that it would be to no 
purpose to continue my pursuit farther, and 
J to ictiirn home to an innocent 
family, who wanted my assistance. But 
the agitations of my mind, and the fatigues 
I had undergone, threw me into a fever, 
the symptoms of which Iperceived before 
" came off the course. This was another 
unexpected stroke, as I was more than 
seventy miles distant from home : however, 
I retired to a little alehouse by the road- 
side ; and in this place, the usual retreat 
of indigence and frugality, I laid me down 

fatiently to w.ut the issue of my disorder, 
languished here for nearly three weeks; 
but at last my constitution prevailed, 
though 1 was unprovided with money to 
defray the expenses of my entertainment. 
It is possible the anxiety from this last 
• circiirmtancc alone mi^ht have brought on 
a relapse, had I not been supplied by a 
traveller, who slopped to take a i 
refreshment. This person WM M Other 
than the philanthropic bookseller in St 
Paul's Churchyard, who has written so 
many little books for children : he called 
himself their friend, hut he was the friend 
of all mankind. He was no sooner 



i at 

5 



alighted, but he was in haste lo be gone 
foi he was ever on business of the i 
importance, and was at that time actual! 
compiling materials for the history of on> 
Mr. Thomas Trip. 1 immediately rccol 
lected this good-natured man's red pii 
face ; for he had published for me against 
the Deuterogamists of the age ; an ■ '. 
him 1 borrowed a few pieces, to be paid at 
my return. Leaving the inn. therefore, 
I was yet but weak, I resolved to retu 
home by easy journeys of ten miles a day, 
My health and usual tranquillity were 
almost restored, and I now condemned 
that pride which had made me refractory 
to the hand of correction. Mar 
knows what calamities are beyond hi» 
patience to bear, till he tries them : as in 
ascending the heights of ambit Km, whh 
look bright from below, every step we rii 
shows us some new and gloomy prospect i 
hidden disappointment ; so in our descent 
from the summits of pleasure, though the 
vale of misery below may appear at first 
dark anil gloomy, yet the busy mill 
, attentive to its own amusement, m 
' we descend, something to flatter and lo 

please. Still as we approach, the darki 
I objects appear to brighten, and the men 
| eye becomes adapted to its gloon 
lion. 

I now proceeded forward, and had 
walked about two hours, when I pt i 
what appeared at a distance like a wag 
which I was resolved to oveitak. 
when I came up with it, (bond it to W x 
strolling company's cart, thai w 
their scenes and other theatrical furniture 
to the next village, where they were to 
exhibit The cart was attended only by 
the person who drove it, and one of the 
company, as the rest of the players a 
follow the ensuing day. "Go 
upon the road," says the proverb, 
shortest cut." I therefore entered into 

m with the poor player; and as 

ine theatrical powers m)self, 
1 di«sertcd on such topics with my usual 
freedom : but as I was pretty much un- 
acquainted with the present st.ite of t 
stage. I demanded who were the pi 
theatrical writers in vo^ue - who 
Drydens and Otways of ihe day] — "I 
fancy, sir," cried the player, " few of our 



/ KEF/ELD. 



39 



modern dramatists would think then 

ired, by being compared to the 

you mention. Dryden'l and 

manner, sir, are quite out of 

r laste has gone back a whole 

'. ; Fletcher, lien [oBSOB, and all the 

ikespeare are the only lhing3 

icd 1, "is it 

ile the present age can be pi 

hat antiquated dialect, that obsolete 

•vcrcharged characters, 

nd in the works you mention?" 

-turned my companion, "the 

E think nothing about dialect or 

it is none of 
ss ; they only go to be amused, 
es happy when they can 
ne, under the sanction of 
- Shakespeare's name."— "So 
c ried I, "that our modern 
dramatists are rather imitators of Shake- 
speare than of nature." — "To say the 
:rncd my companion, "1 don't 
they imitate anything at all ; 
: , does the public require it of 
not trie composition »>f the 
piece* bat the number of stars and il 

lucid into it, thai elicits 
applause. I have known a piece, with 
DC jest in the whole, shrugged into 
rity.andanother saved, by the poet's 
gripes. N 
Uww<" igreveand r arquhar have 

fit in (hem for the present taste; 
uch more natural. " 
equipage of the itr 
- arrived at the vill 

en apprised of our ap- 
proach, and was come out to gaze at us ; 
companion observed, that strollers 
always have more spectators without doors , 
than within. '. i the impro- i 

«.f my being in such company, till 
igather about me. Ithi 
-heller, as fasi as possible, in the first 
it offered ; and being 

. was accosted by 

led gentleman, a h 

other I was the real chaplain 

psny, or whether it was only to 

be my masquerade character in the play f 

him of the truth, and 

that I did not belong, in nny I0TT| to the 

Com p any, he was condescending enough 



to desire me and the player to partake in 
a bow! of punch, OVO which ; 

at earnest],* • 
it I tel 1 ■ 
mind, Ibr nothing less than a ■ 
man at least ; but was 
in my conjectures, "hen, upon asking 
what there was in the house fol 

I thai lh< player nnd I should sup 
with him at his house; with Wh 
after some entreaties, we weie prevailed 
on to comply. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Tkf drscrifitioH of a prrwiH itiirvHttnt- - 
tlu fmtnt Ge^frnmtHt, and Affreiuiuiv* of 
tht toil o/onr fl ail tin. 

Till;. houM where we were to be enter- 
tained lying at a small distance from the 
village, our inviter observed, that as the 
coach was not ready, he would conduct us 
on foot ; and we soon arrived at one of the 
most magnificent mansions 1 had si 

kit of the country. The apartment 
fattO which we were shown was pel I 
elegant and modern : he went to give 

fbl supper. While the pl.isel, 
a wink, observed that w, 

luck. Our entertainer toon returm 

elegant supper was brought in; l«" OT 
three ladies in easy dishabille were intro* 
and the conversation began 
Polities, howevi 
the subject on which qui entertainer i 
expatiated ■, fat he inserted that 1 
was at once his boast and Ins tenor, After 
t h was removed, he asked me if I 

en the la^i Monitor, to winch, re- 

plying in the negative, "Wh 

'■ 
sir," re t ur ne d 1. "Th . very 

strange I "replied my en t ' Saw, 

I read all the polil 
Daily, the Public, the I i 
Chronicle, the London Evening 
Whitehall Evening, the 

hate each other. I love them all. 
Liberty, sir. liberty is the Briton's b 

l-mines in I 
reverence its guardians."— "Then, il 
lie honed." cried I, " J e the 

king'" — "Ves," returned 
"when he does what we would have him; 



4° 



V OP WAKEFIELD. 



1 he goes on -is he has done " 
I'll never trouble myself more with his 
; I think, only, 1 
could have directed some Ih 

t think there ha- been i sufficient 
number of advisers : be should advis 

I w illing to give ' 

and then we should have things done in 
another guc» manner, " 

"I k i 1, "that such intrudin 

advisers were fixed in the pillory. It 
should be the duty of honest men to assist 
the weaker side of our constitution, that 
sacred power that has for some years 
been every day declining, and loci 
due share of influence in the stale. Bui 
these ignorants -.till continue the same cry 
ind, if they have any Weight, 

basely throw it in 

■"II- "do I 

live to see one so base, so sordid, as to be 
an enemy to liberty, an 1 a defender of ty- 
tft of Heaven, 
that glorious privilege of Unions! " 

.n it be possible," cried our enter- 
" lli.it there should be any found 
Uocates for slavery! Any who 
are for meanly giving up the privileges o. 
us! Can any. sir, be so abject ?" 
" N >, -n," replied 1. "1 are for liberty.' 
( riorums liberty ! 
thai theme of modern declamation! 1 
Would hive all men kings ! 1 would be 
|fj myself. We have all naturally 
d right lo the throne : we are all 
originally equal. This is my opinion, and 
was once the opinion of a set of 
men who were called Levellers. They 
to erect themselves into a com- 
munity, where all should be equally free. 
But, alas I it would never answer : for 
there were some among them stronger, 
and some more cunning, than others, and 
these became masters of the rest ; for, as 
syourgroon a horses, be- 

cause he is a cunninger animal than they, 
so surely will the animal that is cunninger 
or stronger ihm he. sir upon his s'> i 
in turn. Since, then, it is entailed 
humanity to submit, and some arc b 

command and others to obey, tl 

is, a* there must be tyrants, 
.■in in [he 

With us, or in the same village, or, St ill 



fail her off, 

for my own part, u 1 n 

face of a tyrant, the l.i 

am 1 
The generality of manki 
way of thinking, and have unanm. 
created one king, whose electi< 
diminishes the numlier of tyrants, an 
tyranny at the greatest dislain. 
greatest number of people. Now, the 
great, who were tyrants themselves 
the election of one tyrant, are na:: 
averse to a power raised over them, and 
whose weight must ever lean heaviest on 
the subordinate orders. It is the interest 
of the great, therefore, lo diminish '. 
P'.'wcrasmuch as possible; be>. 
ever they take from thai is naturally re- 
stored to themselves ; and all they have 
to do in the stale is to undermine the 
single tyrant, by which they resume their 

Erimeval authority. Now, the stale may 
c so circumslanced, or its laws m 
so disposed, or its men of opulence so 
minded, as all to conspire in carrying on 
this business of undermining mon 
For, in the first place, if the circumsl 
of our state be such as to favour the ac- 
cumulation of wealth, and make th< 
lent still more rich, this will increase 
ambition. An accumulation of v 

! however, must necessarily be the 
quencc, when, as 
DOW in fioni external commerce thai 

internal industry ; fbl < 
merce can only be managed lo adv., 
by the rich, and thi 
lime all the emoluments arising f. i 
I industry; so that the rich, wil 
WO sources of wealth, where 
poor have but one. Kor this n 
wealth, in all commercial slates, i» ' 
to accumulate ; and all such have hi 
in time become aristocratioaL Agar 
very laws also of this country may <: 
bute to the accumulation of wealth : as 
when, by their means, the nalui.il tii 
bind the rich and r* 
and it is, ordained that the ricl 

! marry with the rich ; or when the I 
are held unqualifu 

■ rs, merely from a He' 1 

object of a wise man's ambition ! bv I 



■ ."ill. Thus 

man generally gathers 

It of the poorest of the 

I the polity abounding in ac- 

bc compared to a 

. i ach orb with a vortex 

own. Those, however, who are 

it mill's vortex, 

ira, the rab- 

• hose souls and whose 

Km are adapted to servitude, and 

ulierty except the 

II be a large 

ie people without the sphere 

n't influence; namely, 

men 

I the very rabble ; those 

-sessed of too large for- 

'louring man 

too poor to set up 

etas. In this middle 

f to be found 

n, and virtues of M 

■ be the true 

and may be called 

't mav happen that 

<-r of mankind may lose all 

ice be in 

of Ihe rabble: 

' icnl for qualifying 

. give hi* voice in 

.11 was 

ipon forming Ihe consli- 

H that preat numbers of 



behind, the walls of the town will be but 
a ,mall defence to its inhabitants. What 
they may then expect, may lie seen by 
turning our eyes to Holland, Genoa, or 
Venice, where the laws govern the poor, 
and the rich govern the law. I am then 
for, and would die for monarchy, sacred 
monarchy : for if there be anything I 
amongst men, it must be the anointed 
Sovereign of his people; and everv di- 
minulion of his power, in war or in peace, 
is an infringement upon the real liberties 
of the subject The sounds of Liberty, 
Patriotism, and Britons, have already done 
much ; it is to be hoped that the true sons 
of freedom will prevent their ever doing 
more. I have known many of these pre- 
tended champions for liberty in my time, 
vet do I not remember one that was not 
hi his heart and in his family a tyrant." 

My warmth, I found, had lengthened 
this harangue beyond the rules of good 
breeding ; but the impatience of my en- 
tertainer, who often strove to intemipl il, 
could be restrained no longer. " What ! " 
cried he, " then I have been all this while 
entertaining a Jesuit in parson's clothes ! 
But, by all the coal-mines of Cornwall, 
out he shall pack, if my name be Wilkin- 
son." I now found I had gone too far, 
and asked pardon for the warmth with 
which I had spoken. "Pardon!" re- 
lumed he, in a fury : " I think such nrin- 
ciules demand ten thousand pardons. 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



seems my entertainer was all this wliile 
only the butler, who, in his master's ab- 

. bad a mind to cut a figure, and be 
for a while the gentleman himself; and. to 
say the truth, he talked politics as well »s 
mntry gentlemen do. But nothing 
could now exceed my confusion upon seeing 
the gentleman and his lady enter ; nor was 
their surprise, at finding such company and 
good cheer, less than ours. "Gentlemen," 
cried the real master of the house to me 
ami my companion, "my wife and I are 
your most humble servants ; but I protest 

- so unexpected a favour, that we 
almost sink under the obligation." How- 
ever unexpected our company might be lo 
them, theirs, I am sure, was still more so 
lo us, and I was struck dumb with the 
apprehensions of my own absurdity, when 
whom should I next see enter the room 
but my dear Miss Arabella Wilmot, who 
was formerly designed lo be married lo my 
son George, but whose match was broken 
off, as already related. As soon as she saw 
me, she flew to my arms wiih the utmost 

{" My dear sir.' 1 cried she, " to what 
. accident is it that we owe so nnex- 

■I a visit ? I am sure my uncle and 
aunt will be in raptures when they find 
they have the good Dr. Primrose for their 
guest." I'pon hearing my name, ihe old 
gentleman and lady very politely stepped 
up, and welcomed me with most cordial 
hospitality. Nor could they forbear smil- 

trpon being Informed of the nature of 
my present visit : but the unfortunate but- 
ler, whom they at first seemed disposed to 
turn away, was at my intercession forgiven. 
Mr. Arnold and his lady, to whom the 
house belonged, now insisted upon having 
the pleasure of my stay for some days; and 

■ ir niece, my charming pupil, 
mind in some measure had been formed 
under my own instructions, joined in their 
entreaties, 1 complied. That night I was 
shown to a magnificent chamber ; and the 
next morning early Mid Wilmot desired 

Ik with me in the garden, which was 
decorated in Ihe modem manner. After 
some time spent in pointing out the beau- 
ties of the place, she inquired with seeming 
unconcern, when last I had heard from my 
son George. — "Alas! madam." cried I, 
"he has now been nearly three ycarsabscnt, 



without ever writing lo his friends or I 
Where he is I know not ; perhaps 1 sli 
never sec him or happiness 
my dear madam, we shall m \ 
■acta pleasing hours as were once 
by our fireside at Wakefield, My 
family arc now iii>pt-isirir; ver\ 

fioverty has biought not only want 
amy upon us." The good-natured 
fall a tear at this account ; but a 

C assessed of too much 
are a more minute detail of our sufferinc 
It was. however, some consolation lo : 
to find that time had made no alto 
her affections, and that she had r 
several matches that had been made ho 
since our leaving her part of Ihe c> 
She led me round all the exten 
ments of Ihe place, pointing to the i 
walks and arbours, and at the same 
catching from every object a hint for ! 
new question relative to my son. In ih 
manner we spent the forenoon, till the I 
summoned us in to dinner, where wi 
the manager of the strolling company th 
1 mentioned before, who was come to i 
pose of tickets fi'r the Fair Penitent, whic 
was to be acted that evening: the part i 
Horatio by a young gentleman who \ 
never appeared on any stage. He ! 
to be very warm in the praise of the 
performer, and averred that he never : 
any who bid so fair for excellence. Ae 
ing, he observed, was not learned in 
day ; "but this gentleman," control 
"seems born to tread the stage. Hi 
his figure, and attitudes are all admimbh 
We caught him up accidentally in"i 
ney down." This account in some me 
excited our curiosity, and, at the entirati 
of the ladies, 1 was prevailed upon to j 
company them to the play-how 

j was no other than a Kim. As Ihe 
parry with which I went WM bnoMl 
the chief of the place, we were 
with Ihe greatest respect, and pla 
the front seal of the theatre, where we> 
for some time with n>"> 
sec Horatio make his appearance. 

, new performer advanced at I 
parents think of my sensnr 
own, when I found it \i 
son! He was going to I' 
in,; his eyes upon the audience, he 



THE VICAR Of- WAKRFIELD. 



41 



or.^i Miss Wilmot an ood at 

ilcs and immoveable. 
The actors behind ihe scene, 
ascribed this pause to hi 
siicm mncehim; but i 

of roi lood of tears, 

! don't know 
in thisoccisi 
tkey »acoR I i much rapidity for 

M iss Wilmot, 
ihling voice, 
lo her 
Mi. Arnold, 
olio wu as yet a stranger to our extra- 
mr, being informed tint 
tb> nrw nr- - my son, sent his 

coaxh. and I him; and as 

We paanauled in hi* refusal to appear again 
•poo the Mage, the players put another in 
li i 1 him with us. 
him thckindi 
^^^^hvcrrvcl him with my usual trans- 
it false 
MM9U" nt Mis ;ception was 

mite • ', and yet I 

I part. 
i>d seemed I 

lookr : loud at 

ning At intervals 
J>r • •hi! I 

pf attention to 






rv 



"ittHt. 

Am Id po- 

Ktctj afcnl to ■--■ 

■n for mv son's baggage, which he at 

i inform 

ill the 

this earth thai lie 

" cried 

I p.'ttr I find 

yaa ■ > ike no 

llonllt r :•! I 

•orH 

"b«! travelling afl 

to aecvr* h ideed, oflaK 



desisterl from the pursuit."— "1 

sir," cried Mrc. Arnold, "that the account 

of your •, the 

irt of them I have often heard from 
my niece; but could the company prevail 
for the ! Id he an addi 

" — "Madam," replied mv MO, "I 
promise you the pleasure you have in hear- 
ing will not be half so great as my vanity 
in repeating them ; yet in the whole narra- 
tive 1 can scarcely promi ilvcn- 
tnre, as my account is rather of what I am 
than what I did. The first misfortune of 
my life, which you all know, was great ; 
but though it distressed, it could not sink 
me. N ver had a better knack 
at hoping than I. The less kind I found 
Fortune at one time, the more I expected 
from her another; and being now II 
bottom of her wheel, every new revolution 
might lift, but could not depress me. I 
proceeded, therefore, towards London in 
a fine morning, no way uneasy about lo- 
morrow, but cheerful as the birds that 
carolled by the road; and comforted iny- 

ith reflecting, that London was the 
mart where abilities of every kind 
sure of meeting distinction and reward, 

" Upon my arrival in town, sir, my But 
care was to deliver your letter of recom- 
mendation to our cousin, who was himself 
in little better circumstani.es than I My 

heme, you know, sir, was to be usher 
at an academy; and I asked his advice on 
the affair. Our cousin received the pro- 

with a true sardonic grin, 
cried he, 'this is indeed a very pretty 
career that has been chalked i 
I have been an usher at a boarding - 
myself; and may I die by an anodyne ne-ck- 
[her be an under-tumkev 
in Newgate. 1 was up early and late : I 
was browbeat by Ihe master, hated for my 
., worried by the 
ithin, and never permitted to stir out 
to meet civility abroad. But are you sure 

re fit for a school? Letmeexaniuic 

little Have you been bred appren- 
-?'— 'No.' — 'Then you 
won't do for rOD dress the 

boys' hair?'— 'No ' — 'Then you » 
II ire you had the 
pox?'— "No '—'Then you won't do f, it a 
school. Can you We tniee. wv a, \>eAY — 



44 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



'No.' — 'Then you will MVM do 

' Have you go) .1 good itomchT' 

— ' Yes.' — 'Then you will 1 .y M means do 
for a school. No, sir: if you arc for a gen- 
11, elf seven 
yearsan apprentice to turn a culler's wheel : 
iiut avoid a school by any means. Yet 
come.' continued he, ' I see you are a lad of 

Sirit and some learning : what doyou think 
commencing author, like me? You have 
read in books, no doubt, of men of genius 
starving at the trade. At present I'll show 

J "ii forty very (lull fellows about town that 
ve by it in opulence ; all honest i 
men, who go on smoothly and dully, and 
write history and politics, and are praised : 
men.sir.who, ha I they been bred cobblers, 
would all their lives have only mended 
shoes, but never made them." 

" Finding that there was no great degree 
of gentility affixed to the character of an 
usher, I resolved to accept his pro 
and having the highest respect for litera- 
ture, hailed the aiilnjita mater of Grub- 
street with reverence. I thought it my 
glory to pursue a track which Drydcn and 
Otway I rod before me. I considered the 
goddess of this region as the parent of ex- 
cellence ; and however an intercourse with 
the world might give us good sense, the 
poverty she entailed I supposed to be the 
nurse of genius ! Big with these reflections, 
1 sat down, and finding that the best things 
emaincd to be said on the wrong side, I 
olved to write a book that should be 
new. 1 therefore dressed up three 
aradoxes with some ingenuity. They 
vere false, indeed, but they were new. 
The jewels of truth have been so often im- 
ported by others, that nothing was left for 
me to import but some splendid things that 
at a distance looked every bit as well. 
Witness, you powers, what fancied impor- 
tance sat perched upon my quill while I 
was writing ! The whole learned world, 
I made no doubt, would ri-c to oppose my 
n i : but then I was prepared to op- 
pose the whole learned world. Like the 
ine, 1 sat self-collected, with a quill 
pointed a^inst every opposer." 

" Well said, my boy, cried I : " and 
what subject did you treat upon! I hope 
you .li.l not pass over the importance of 
imy. but I interrupt: goon. You ^ 



published yourparadoxes; well, and* 
did the learned world say to 

"Sir," replied my son, "the learn 
world said nothing to my paradoxes; a 
thing at all, sir. I 
employed in praising his friend 
self, or condemning his enemies; ai 
fortunately, as I had neither, I suffer 
crudest mortification, — neglect. 

"As I was meditating, one day. in a 
coffee-house, on the fate of my par 
a little man happening ti 
placed himself in the bcu j and 

after some preliminary discourse, finding 
me to be a scholar, drew out a bundle of 
proposals, beggiug me to subscribe to a 
new edition he was going to give I 
world of Propertius, with notes. This de- 
mand necessarily produced a reply 1 
had no money; and that concessit 
him to inquire into the nature of r 
pectations. Finding that my expei' 
were just as great as my purse, — 'I see,' 
cried he, 'you arc unacquainted with the 
town : I'll teach you a part of it. Look 
at these proposals, — upon these very pro- 
posals I have sub<i-k'l vei y oosfo 
for twelve years. The 
man returns from his travels, a Cri 
arrives fromjamaica, or a dowager from het 
country seat, I strike for a subscri 
I first besiege their heart' with Battel 
then pour in my proposals at the breach. 
If they subscribe readily the first time, I 
renew my request to beg a dc 
if they let me have that. 1 smite them once 
more for engraving their coat of ai 
the top. Thus,' continued he. ' I 
vanity, and laugh at it. But, between oui 
selves, I am now too well known : I sh 
lie glad to borrow your face a bit A n> 
man of distinction has just returned fi 
Italy ; my face is familiar to his pon 
if you bring this copy of verses m\ 
it yon succeed, and we divide the s| ■ 

"Bless us, George," cried I, "and 
the employment of poets now! Uo men 
of exalted talents thus stoop to beggary? 
Can they so far disgrace their calling, as to 
make a vile traffic of praise for brc 

"Oh no, sir," returned he, "a true poet 
can never lie to base; for wherever there 
is genius, there is pride. The creatures 





I now 

The re 

equally a cow 

who are un- , 
...it it. 
. proud to stoop 
to such indignities, and yet a fortune loo I 
humble to hazard a second attempt for 
fame, I was now obliged to take a middle 
, and write for bread. But I was 
Tied for a profession where mere 
v alone was to ensure success. I 
impress my lurking passi 

illy consumed that time 
in after excellence which takes up 
in, when it should have been ■ 
■ Ageouslv employed in the .1,1' 
mediocrity. 
■ e come forth 
il publications, un- 
nd unknown. The public were 
acre r em ployed ll 

liar- 
mony of my periods. Sheet alter sheet 
rn off to oblivion. My essays 
•rrre buried among the essays upon li 

-. and cures fur Hie bite of a 
while Philautos, Philali 
I Philanthropes, all 

\ii I. 
. I began to associate 
author! like 

each <■' we found in 

npts was in- 

I round that no 

.'_- mt My 

lad entirely dried 

t. 1 could i 

revl ii-» wnte with •atisfaction ; for excel- 

i, an.l 

, reflections, 
u I m ;una bench in St. 

JuBo'i Park, a young gentli 

Itarti-ii lie ac- 

•rualsn 

other with 

I being 

paaran laid of a repulse. But 

my ►- Dished ; for Ned 

i very good- 



"What did yon .-ay, George?" inter- 
rupted I. " Thurnhill, was not that Ins 
name ? It can certainly be no othe 
my landlord." — "Ill.ss me," cried Mr* 
Arnold, " li Mr. Thornhill so near a neigh- 
bour of yours? He has long been a i 
I in our family, and we expect a runt 
him shortly." 

" My friend's first care," continued my 
son, '" was to alter my appearance by a vci y 
fine suit uf his own clothes, and then I was 
admitted to his table, upon thi 
half friend, half underling. My business 
wa- to attend htm at auctions, to put him in 
spirit! when he sat for his picture, to 
the left hand in his chariot when ii"i 
by another, and to assist at tattering n ktf>, 
phrase was, when he had a mind for 
a frolic- Besides this, I had twenty 
little employments in the family. I was to 
By small things without bidding: to 
carry the corkscrew godfather to 

all the butlcr'sehildren ; losing when Iwas 
bid; to be never out of humour; always to 
be humble, and, if I could, to be very happy. 

" In this honourable post, however, I 
was not without a rival. A captain of 
marines, who was formed for the place by 
nature, opposed me in my patron's affec- 
tions. Ills mother had been laundress to 
a man of quality, and thus he early ac- 
quired a taste for pimping and pedigree. 
A- this gentleman made it the study of his 
life to be acquainted with lords, though he 
mussed from several forhis stupidity, 
yet he found many of them who were as 
dull as himself, that permitted his I 
itics. As flattery ma hi; trade, he prac- 
tised it with the easiest address imagin- 
able ; but il came awkward and stifl 
me : and aj my patron's desire 

of flattery increased, so, every hour, being 
better acquainted with hisdefects, 1 became 
more unwilling to give it. Thus, I was 
OUCe more fairly going to give up the field 
to ihe captain, when my friend foul 
casion for my assistance. This was nothing 
IBB to fight a duel fur him with a 
gentleman, whose sister it Was 

be had used ill. 1 readily complied with 

[uest; and though I see you arc 

my i: luct, vet. as it was a 

debt indispensably due hta, \ 

could not refuse. 1 undcduuV Ct« 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



disarmed my antagonist, and MOB 

>ure of finding, that the lady 
|y ii woman of the town, and the 
jl!yandasharper. This 

aid widi the warmest 
f gratitude; but, as mj 
wax to leave town .% he knew 

no other method of serving mi 
commending me to his ancle. Sir V 
Mil, and another nohleman ol 
disliiv: I a post under the 

anient When ne was gone, my firM 
care was to carry his recommendatory let- 
fa s uncle, a man whose character for 
every virtue mi nnfa enal, yet ju^l I was 
received by his servants with the root I 
pitablc smiles ; for the looks of the domes- 
tic evertransmitthe master's benevolence. 
ihown into a grand apartment, where 
Sir William soon came to me, I dc! 
my message and letter, which he read, and, 
after pausing some minutes, — ' Pray, sir.' 
cried he. 'inform me what you have done 
for my kinsman to deserve this warm re- 
commendation! 1'ut I suppose, sir. I guess 
your merits: you have fought for him; 
i you would expect a reward front 
me for being the instrument of his vices. 1 
. that my present I 
I may be some punishment for your 
but still more, that il may be some 
tance.' The | 
iliently, be- | 
cause I knew it was ju>t. My whole e\- ' 

I •_-, lay in my letter 
to the great man. As the doors of the 

1 eggan, 
all ready to tlinisl in some ■ 

Nerval, 
irie. Every 

of the owner, Ah, thought I to 

•ery great must ' of nil 

these things be. who carries in his head the 

•lie stire. and n hose h 

alf the wealth of a kingdom ' 'urehis 

must be unfathomable! — During 



these; eanlaslerj* 

himself: a 

maid. Am 

must be he ..as 

nlet-dc-i Ii 
lordship actually n 

the 

learn by linued he,'i 

— But just at that:, 
him a card, and, will 
notice, he went out of the re- i 
me to digest my ov i at In* 

I saw no more of him, till toll 
man that 1 £oiDg 

coach at the door. Down I immoi 
followed, and joined my voice to that i 
three or four more, who came. 
ii for favours. His Ii i 
ever, went too fast for us. and wasf 

n ilh large strides, 
hallooed out to know if I was to have I 
reply- He was, by this n, an 

muttered an answer, h»lf of - 
heard, the other half was Inst ii 
of his chariot-wheels. I stooi 
time with my net k sti 

;e of one that was listei 
the glorious soun> 
I found myself alone at hu 

"My patience," continued my son, 
now quite exhausted : stung 

tnd indignities I had met with 
willing to cast myself away, ar 
wanted the gulf to receive me. 1 
myself as one of those Mle thit 
Nature designed should be t' 

scanty. I h» 

left, U 

should nnt deprive me. but inort 

sure ■ ■! this, 1 was resolved ti 

and spend it while I had it 
irrences for 

that Mr i Irispe's • ffi i 

open to give me a wii 

this ''tTice. Mr. I s all 1 

£$p a year, foi 

give in return i 

perrr.! 

America as slaves. Iwasha] 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



47 



here I ■ ny fears in 

. (for it 

ipearancc of one) with the de- 

i.iitic Here I found a 

creatures, all in circum- 

• arrival 

'-pitome 

impatience. Each uniractable 

lame with Fortune wreaked her 

own hearts: Ijiii Mr. 

ui a, and all ourmur- 

lle deigned to regard 

air of pcculiarapprobation, and 

was the first man who, for a 

Iked to rne with smiles. 

lie found I was fit 

He paused 

properest means 

I id slapping his forehead 

it, assured me that there 

in embassy talked of from 

Ivaniatothcl luckasaw 

lid use his inl 

y. 1 knew in my 

v lied, and yet his 

pleasure, there w. is some- 

nl in the sound. I fairly 

my half-guinea, one half 

o be added to his thirty 

unils, and will, [lie other half 

next tavern, to be 

V than he. 

iut with thai resolution, 
door by the captai, 
ad formerly some little 
and he agreed to be my 
of punch. 

■iv cir- 
be astuted me that I was upon 
Alofrui'i. in listening to the 

■ 

Take 

>w for 

in her as a 

ii land, all 
i the I 'vitcl 

units 

. Ic-r- 

inlit whether 



the Dutch would be willing to learn English. 
He affirmed, with an oath, th.it [hi 
' fond of it to distraction ; and upon that 
affirmation 1 agreed with bis > i 
embarked the next day to leach the Dutch 
English in Holland. The wind was (air, 
our voyage short; and after, having paid 

my passage with half my move-.,!. 

found myself, fallen as from the si 

str an ger In one- "i the principal streets of 

I lam. In 1 1 1 is. situation I was un- 
willing to let .\oy time pass unemployed in 
teaching. I 

' two or three of those 1 mat whose appear- 

ance a I promising, but El 

- -ible to make ourselves mutually un- 

• I. Ii was ii"i till tins, very in 

I I recollected, that in order to teach the 

Dutchmen English, it was necessui 
' they should fust teach me Dutch. Ho* 
to overlook so obvious an objection 
K amazing : but certain it is 
looked it. 

'• This scheme thus blown up. 1 had 
some thoughts of fairly 
England again, but falling tutu company 
with an ln.li student, who was returning 
from I.ouv.nii, our conversation tinning 
upon topics of literature, (for, by the way, 
it may be observed that I always forgot 
inncss of my circumstances when I 
could converse upon such subjects, I from 
him I learned that there were not two men 
in his whole university who understood 
Greek. This amazed me. I instantly re- 
solved to travel to Louvain, and there live 
by teaching Greek : and in this de-sign 1 
i by my brother studen 
lie hints that a fortune might 
by ii 

■ boldl] fol vt morning. 

I the burdc n i 

for I paid then lot my lodgings to the 
Dutch, as I travelled on. When I 
to Louvain, I was resolved not logo sneak- 
ing to the lower professor 
dcred mv talents to the Principal himself. 
I went, bad admittance, and offered him 

my service as a master of the Greek 

S which I had been lold • 

craluni in his university. The Principal 
luhl of my i 
of these 1 off i vawv 



■■■■ 



43 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



ing a part of any Greek author he should 
fix upon into Latin. Finding me perfectly 
ll in my proposal, he addreasod DM 
thus: ' You see me, young man; I never 
learned Greek, and I don't find ilut I have 
ever missed it. 1 have had a Doctor*! Cap 
and gown without Greek; I have ten 
thousand florins ■ year without Creek; I 

eat heartily without Greek : and, In short,' 
led lie, 'as I don't know Greek, I 
do not believe there is any good in it.' 

" 1 Wafl ROW tOO far from DOTM to think 
of returning; so 1 resolved to go forward. 
I had some knowledge of music, with • 
tolerable voice, and now turned wl. 
my amusement into a present means 
si-tence. I passed among the harmless 
peasants of Flanders, and among men of 
the French as were poor enough lo I 
merry ; for 1 ever found them sprightly in 
proportion to their wants. Whenever I ap- 
proached a peasant's house towards night- 
fall, I played one of my most merry tunes, 
and that procured me not only a lodging, 
but subsistence for the next day. I once 
or twice attempted to olay for people of 
fashion, but they always thought my per 
furmance odious, and never rewarded mc 
even with a trifle, This was to me the 
more extraordinary, as, whenever I used, 

i better days, to play for company, when 
is was my amusement, my music 
never failed to throw them into raptures, 

and the ladies especially ; bul as it was BOW 

my unly means, it was recei v ed with eon- 
tempt— a proof how ready the world is to 
underrate those talents by which a man is 
supported. 

" In this manner 1 proceeded to Paris, 
»ith no design but just to look about me, 
and then to go forward. The people of 
Paris are much fonder of strangers that 
lave money, than those that have wit. As 
I c< »uld not boast much of either, I was no 
great favemiitc. After walking about the 
four or five days, and seeing t! 

sides of the best house , I was preparing 

to leave tins retreat of venal hospitality, 
when pissing through one of the principal 

. whom should 1 meet but out o 
iii you first recommended me. "I lis 
meeting was very agreeable to me. ml 1 

: .ising to hint. He in- 
into the nature of my; journey to 



and informed me of his own bu 
there, which was to col le'.' ucilali, 

,. and antiques of all I 
gentleman in London « 
into taste and a large fortune. I * 
more surprised at si 

upon for this office, as lie himself had often 
assured me he knew nothing of the mutter. 
Upon asking how he had been tar 
art of a cognoscento so very sudde 

I me that nothing was more easy. 
The whole secret consisted in a str. 
herence to two rules: the one, alv. 
observe the picture might have been 
if the painter had taken mot 
the other, to praise the works • > 
Perugino. 'But,' says he, 'as I once 
you now to be an author in Londi 
now undertake to instruct you in the art I* 
picture-buying at Paris.' 

" With this proposal I very i 
. as it was a living, and now 
ambition was to live. 1 
his lodgings, improved my dress 
assistance ; and, after some lime, accou 
panied him to auctions of picture-, 
ijhsh gentry were expected lo ' 
chasers. I was not a little sui 
intimacy with people of the b. 
who referred themselves to Ins jin 
. picture or medal, as to 
erring standaid of taste. lie mi 
gooduseofmyai-jii.inee upon theae I 
sions; for, when ask. 

Id gravely take me aside and asJ 
shrug, look wise, return, an 
company that he could give no 
upon an affair of so much impo 
Yet there was sometime 
more important assurance. I 
have seen him, after giving hi 
the colouring of a pictui 
enough, very dclil 
brown 
by, and rub it ovei t : 

then ask if he ha 

" When he had finished his coin: 
in Paris, he left me strongly i< com men 
to several men of distinction, 
very proper for a travelling tui 
some time, I was employed in that 

gentleman . 
Paris, in order to set him forwai '■ 



r^ra 



T/fE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



*d 



lie the 
JW<a»g gen'. • but with a 

pruvuo, that lie should always be permitted 
If. Mi pupil, in fact, 
o»lc: Lit of guiding in money 

coot- ml. Hcwasheir 

if about two hundred thousand 
by an uncle ID Ihi 
i In, guardians, to qualify lum 
at of it, ha I 
apprr . attorney. Thus ■ 

■Mhttprc' ailing passion: all his questions 
on the fund were, how money might be 
uicu, »'.ieh was the least exp 
whether anything 
would lum lo account 
whan deposed of again 
canouim on the way as could be - 

enough to V ■ 

them was to be pa 
• I thai he had been told 
they i rth seeing. He ueva 

paid a Ull that he would not obsei 
imutngly expensive travelling was! and 

, though he was not yet twenty-one 

When arrived at Leghorn, as we took a 

walk t'» look at ih shipping, he 

i i he passage by sea 

home This he waa info rm ed 

ww but a trifle compared to his returning 
by Und . he was there-fore unable to with- 
■ttnif the temptation ; so paying me the 
taull part of my salary that was due, he 
look leave. Led with only one 

once more 
spue ' ' large ; but then, it was 

tued 10. Howei 

tkill in roiun c juld avaU me nothing in a 
eawntry where every peasant was a 
mi » 'i than I : but by this time 1 had 
aaanlrrd ano'.h'.r latent, winch ana 
■y parpoac as well, and this was a skill in 
II the foreign universities 
aaJ convent* there are, upon certain days, 
philosophic*! theses maintained 
emi , for which, if 

tk* c! •'.cnty, 

dinner, 
and ; manner, 

of the 



picture. M\ remark*. 

few: 1 found tii.u monareby » 

government for lii 

commonwealths for the rich, 1 lound that 

in general wen in ever* 
another nam 

man is so fond of libert) 

be desirous of subjecting the will of 

individuals in society to his own. 

M Upon my arrival in l'-ngl.ind, I resolved 

tirsl to yon, and then to 

enlist as a volunteer in the In-' 

that was going forward ; but on my journey 

down, my resolutions ■ led by 

ng an old acquaintance, who 1 ' 
belonged lo a company of comedians that 
weregoing to make a summer campaign in 
intry. The d not 

much to disapprove of me for an ass. 

ill, b iwever, apprised me of the im- 
portance of the task at which I aimed ; that 

the public was a many-headed mo 

and thai only such as had very good heads 
could please it: that actu i to be 

learned in a day; and that without some 
traditional shiugs, which had Keen on the 
stage, and only on the stage, these hum lied 
years, 1 could never pretend lo please. The 
Bed difficulty was in fitting rne » ittl 
as almost every character was in keeping. 
I was driven for some time from one cha- 
racter to another, till at hut Hoi alio was 
fixed upon, which the presence of the 
present company hi I ed me 

from acting." 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Tht xhart ie'itmu.iHce tffnf'iihi/amoHftt /At 
ijia'fif, mJkiek u tonal vuly iviti'i midluml 

y\ ■ lon'l aoconnt was loo long to be de- 
livered rt of it was 
begun that night, and he 

I aflei Jinner the next day, v. hen the 
appearance of Mr. ThornliiU'ser-uipageat 
the door teemed to make a nail 6 in the 
general satisfaction. The baUer, (■ io was 

now become my friend in the busily, in- 
formed me, with B whisper, that the Squire 
had already I ovenurcs to Mia* 

Wilmoi, an. I that her aunt and uncle 
seemed highly to the match. 

Upon M ;, beseemed, 

ud me, to start i 
but 1 readily imputed tAialVisuT^u^.-ixA 



S" 



TELt>. 



not displeasure. However, upon out ad- 
.; lo salute him, be returned out 

greeting « ill indour; 

served 
imoiir. 
After tea he call de to inquire 

after my daughter: but upon my informing 
him that my inquiry was ansuccessiul, lie 
■eenud greatly surprised; adding that he 
had been since frequently at my house in 
order lo comfort the rest of my family, 

whom be ki'i perfectly well. 1 Iu then 

asked if 1 communicated her misfortune to 
Wilmol '"'t my - in ; and upon my re- 
plying that 1 had ii"l told them as yet, he 

j approved my prudence and precuu- 

iesiring me by all means lo keep it 
a secret: "For at best," cried lie, "it is 
but (fivnlgin 'i infamy; and per- 

i .ivy may not be so guilty as we 
Ml imagine." We were here interrupted 
by a servant who came to ask the Squire in, 
to stand up at country-dances: so that he 
lel't me quite pleased with the interest he 
seemed to take in my concerns. His ad- 

-, however, to Miss Wilniot were 
too obvious to be mistaken : and yet, she 
seemed not perfectly pleased, but bore 
them rather in compliance lo the will of her 
aunt than from real inclination. I had even 
the satisfaction to sec her lavish some kind 
looks upon my uufortunate son, which the 
other could neither extort by his fortune 
nor assiduity. Mr. Thornhill's seeming 
composure, however, not a little surprised 
me: we had now continued here .: 
nt the pressing instances of Mr. Arnold; 

ICO day the 

Wilmol showed my son, Mr. Thornhill's 
friendship seemed nobly to m- 

,ini. 
lie hid formerly made lis the most kind 
-: to serve the 
-ily was not 

me. The morning I 

■ :<•, Mr. 1 I 
i if real pleasure, to 
inform me of apiece of si 

•imenls 

1 

but one hi 



togetan abatement of the 

lis Hilling pi 
the young gentle i. 
reward I'Ut the pleasure ol having serve 

.end; and as loi the bundled 
to be paid, if you are uual , 
yourselves, 1 will advance 
shall repay meat your leisure." 1 
a favour we wanted words to expr< 
sense of: I readii ic my 

for the money, and K-tihedismuca 
gratitude as it 1 never intended to | 

>rgc was to depait for town the ne 
day, to .^ecure his cm .n put 

suance of hi 
who judged it highlj 

ch, lest in the meantime ., 
should step in with more a 
proposals. The next morning, th< 
our young soldier was early prepared I" 
his departure, and seemed the 

us thai v 
Neither the fatigues and dangers hi 
going to encounter, nor the 
mistress — for Miss Wilmol actuall) 
him — lie was leaving behind, any way 

1 his spirits. Aflcr hi 
leave of the rest of the company, 1 g»r 
him all I had, m; 

.," cried 1, "thou art goinp to fig 
for thy country : re-men,', 
grandfather fought for 
when loyalty among Unions was a l 
'jo. my boy, and imitate him in all ' 
misfortunes, if it was a misfoi' 
with Lord Falkland. Gi 
if you fall, though dist.n 
unwept by those that love you, llii 

Eredous tears are those with which Heaven 
! the unburied head of a soldier." 
The next morning 1 took have oi ihr 
good family, that had been kind enough 
to entertain mc so long, not \x i i 
expressions cf gratitude lo Mr. Tb 
f"t his late bounty. 1 left : 
lent of all 

ed towards home, ■ 
finding my daughter mon 
sigh lo Heaven to spare .. 

is now come within al ■ 
miles of home-, having I 

'ii ace- 



'IELD. 



5' 



I held dearest upon earth. But the 
Mninjou, I pot op at * little pui.lic- 
rod asked lor tlie 
,'inpany over a pint of wine. 
!>« de Ins kite!. icfa was 

• >m in the house, and dialled 
i n.l tlie news of the country. 
We happened, among other topics, to talk 
- I I nhili, who, the host 

urt-i me, was hated as much as his uncle 

down 
■ the country, was loved. He went on 
observe, that he made it his whole 
t '.he daughters of such as 
i to their houses, and, after 
_ fectniuhi or three weeks' posse 
tsronl tXiem out ' and alo.n- 

iimi 1 to the world As we continued our 
daowv? in this manner, his wife, who 
had been out to p returned, and 

perceiving thai her husband was enjoying 
a ple> was not a sharer, 

tar asked him, in an angry tone, what he 
lo which he only replied, in an 

rttctl way, by drinking her health. 

"Mr. !■ she, "you u 

very ill, xni I'll bear it no longer. 
three parti left for ine to 

da> arid the found left unfinished, while 
ywedo nothing but soak with the guests 
all day Ion . if a spoonful of 

biraor were to cure me of a fever, I never 
a drop." I bow found what she 
be »t. liately poured her 

with a 
v good 
not so 
■.ie value of the liquor 1 am 
annot help it when the 
m going out of the If the 

mm oi to be dunned, all 

! Warden l<s upon my back : h 
sat that gl>is as budge after them h 
There, rww, above stairs, wc have a young 
■ > like up herlodg- 

[ bare < 
saoeto 

it, and I 
kw>. ii." — "What 

'■ the host; "if 
I nt u'i" it know 

«,' reyU d the wife, "but I know ih.it 
I aat awe the h/s been here ■ fortnight, 
! hare not c cross of her 



money." — " I suppose, my dear," cr 

"we shall haTC il all in a lump."--"In ,i 

lump ! " cried the other i " I hope « 
ind thai I am reach 

this very nfrht, or out she tn 

cried the husband, "she is agent] rwotnan, 
and deserves more respect." — " As I 
maltcr of that," returned the he 
"gentle or simple, out she shall pack with 
Gentry may he good things 
where they take; but, for my part, I never 
saw much good of them at the sign of the 
Harrow." Thus saying, she ran up a nar- 
row flight of stairs that went from the 
kitchen to a room overhead ; and i soon 

y the loudness of her I 
and the bitterness of her reproaches, that 
no money was to be had from her 1 
I could hear her remonstrances very dis- 
tinctly : "Out, I say; pack on 1 tl. : 
ment! tramp, thou infamous strumpet, M 

' I'll give thee a mark thou won't be the 
for this three months. What! you 
my, to come and take up an honest 
without CTO - your- 

self with! Come along, I say!" — "i ih, 
dear madam," cried the stranger, " pity me 

] — pity a poor abandoned creature, for one 
ind death will soon do the rest!" 
1 Distantly knew the voice of my poor 
ruined child Olivia. 1 flew to her rescue, 
while the woman was dragging her along 
by her hair, and I caught the dear forlorn 
wretch in my arms "Wcl.omc, any way 
welcome, my dearest lost one — my trea- 
sure— lo your poor old father's bo 
Though tlie \ i l.ethec, tliereisyct 

one in the world that will never forsake 
thee; though thou hadst tenthousandcrimes 
to answer for, he will forget them all !" — 
"Oh, my own dear — " for minutes she 
could say no more— "my own dcares 
papa! Could angels be kinder? 
do I deserve so much? The villain, I hate 
him and myself, lo be a reproach to so 
much goodness! You can't forgive Be, 
1 know you cannoL" — "Yes. my child, 
bom nv. Iran I do forgive (hcci on 

pent, and we both shall yet be happy, 
shall see many ple.uanl days yet, »"/ 

Olivia." — "Ah! never, sir, never The 

rest of my wretched hie mint be Infamy 
•broad, and ihanie at hflBWi &*, AfcsA 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



papa, you look much paler than you used 
to Jo. Could such a tiling at 1 am give 
you so much uneasiness? Surely you have 
too much wisdom to lake the miseries of 
my guilt upon yourself." — "Our wisdom, 
young woman," replied I. — " Ah, why so 
cold a name, papa?" cried she. " Tin .- is 
H time you ever called me by so cold 
a name." — "1 ask pardon, my darling," 
returned I j " but 1 was going to obscive, 
that wisdom makei but a slow defence 
against trouble, though al last a sure one." 
The landlady now returned, to know ii we 
did not choose a more genteel apartment ; 
to which assenting, we were shown a 
room where we could converse more freely. 
After we had talked ourselves into some 
degree of tranquillity, I could not avoid 
desiring some account of the gradations 
Out led her to her present wretched situ- 
ation. "That villain, sir," said she, "from 
the first day of our meeting, made me 
honourable, though private .proposals." 

" Villain, indeed I ' cried 1 : "and yet it 
in some measure su rprises me, how a person 
of Mr. Uurclicll's good sense and seeming 
honour could be guilty of such deliberate 
baseness, and thus step into a family to 
undo It 3 

" My dear papa," returned my daughter, 
labour under a strange mistake. 
Mi. llurchcll never attempted to deceive 
Instead of that, he took every oppor- 
tunity of privately admonishing me against 
the artifices of Mr. Thomhill, who, I now 
find, was even worse than he represented 
him."—" Mr. Tnombill I" interrupted 1 ; 
"can H bet" — "Yea, UT, "relumed she,"it 
was Mr. Thornhill who seduced me ; who 
employed the two ladies, as he called them, 
but who in I raeaof 

v.n, without .decoy 

us up to London. Their artifices, you may 
remember, would have certainly succeeded, 
but for Mr. LSurchcll's letter, who directed 
those reproaches at them which we all 
applied to ourselves. How he came to 
have jo much influence as to defeat their 
intentions still remain-- a secret to me; but 
I am convinced he was ever our warmest, 

■'iimiwnw, my dear." cried I ;"but 
now I find my first suspicions of Mr.Thom- 
hill's baseness were too well grounded : 



but he can triumph in security ; lot be 
rich, and we are poor, but Id 
child, sure it was no small tern] i 
could thus obliterate all the impressions 
neb an education and so virtuous a d! 
position as thine?" 

" Indus'. 
his triumph to the desire 1 had ol I 
him, and not myself, happy. 1 kt 
the ceremony oj our marriage, winch w, 

tely perfornx 
no way binding, and th.it I had nul 
trust to but his honour."- — " ^ bal 
Icrruplcd I, " and were you indeed 
by a priest in orders?"— "Indeed, 
were, ' replied she, "though we were bo' 
sworn to conceal his name."—" Why thi 
my child, comctomy aratsagain ; ondn 
you are a thousand 'times moi 
than before; for you are now I 
all intents and purposes ; nor can all t 
laws of man, though written upon 
of adamant, lessen the force of that sa 
connexion." 

" Alas, papa !" replied she, " l 

I attainted with his villanies : he has 
been married already by the sai. 
six or eight wives more, whom, like me, 
he has deceived and abandoned." 

" Has be so? " cried 1 ; " then we must 
hang the priest, and you shall b 
against him to-morrow." — "But, sir, 
turned she, " will that be right, when I am 
sworn to sccresy?" — "Mydear," I replied, 
" if you have made such a pron 
cannot, nor will I tempt you to break it 
liven though it may benefit the publ 
must not inform against him. In nil hum; 
institutions a smaller evil is allowed to pi 
cure a greater good ; as, in politics, a pi 
vince may be given away to secure a km| 
dom ; in medicine, a limb may be lopj 
off to preserve the body: but in r- 
the law is written, and inflexii 
do evil. And this law, my child, is right 
for otherwise, if we commit a smaller evl 
to procure a greater good, certain gui, 
would lie thus incurred, in expecta; 
contingent advantage. And though the 
advantage should certainly d 
interval between commission and advan* 
tage, which is allowed to be guilty, may 
be that in which we are called av 
answer for the tilings we have don.. 






THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



53 



man actions is closed for 
ever. But I internist you, my dear; go 

g," continued 
td what littli n 1 was 

to b-i I sincerity. '1 hat very 

two unhappy 
., he had de- 
: prosti- 
1 loved hirn loo tenderly to bear 
such rivals in hi» affections, an. I -: 
forget my infamy in a tumult of pie 
W iih 1 danced, dressed, and 

! . bttl still was unhappy. '1 h 

ted there told me every 

:ii of the p 

n ly contributed to increase my melan- 

:is I had thrown all their power 

iway. rims each day I grew ninre 

i-c, and he more insolent, till at last 

lia-1 the assurance to offer me 

ict of his acquaintance. 

. .ir, how his ingratitude 
mel My uwwer to this proposal 
I madness. I desired to pari 

he offered me a purse ; 

I flung it at him with indignation, and 

from him in a rage, thai for a while 

tne insensible of the miseries of my 

situation. But I soon looked round me, 

•> myself a vile, abject, guilty thing, 

I lo apply to. 

.i tint in t^ r coach h.ip- 

I ice, it being 

n at a 1 1 Stance from 

ted I wasset 

dmm l il. my 

unkindness 

have been my ill The 

■ bat 1 havi pas cl with 

painful 

are much ;but mine 

•in theirs, for mine are mixed 

>e patience, my child," cried I, "and 
II yet be better. 

morrow I'll 

' the family, from whom you will 
■man I 
loves 
;. Olivia, an I it." 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

QJT<n<ei are «-.w/.> / i rabaW, wkrrr tkttt it Let* 

Tmf. pezl morning I took my daughter 
behind me, and set out on my return home- 
As we travelled along, I strove, by every 
persuasion, to calm her sorrows and fears, 
and to arm her with resolution to bear the 

ce of her offended mother. I took 
every opportunity, from the prospect of a 

imlry, through which we passed, to 
observe how much kinder Heaven was to 
us than we to each other ; and that the 

tunes of Nature's making were very 
few. I assured her, that she should never 

ire any change in B -. and 

lli.ii. during my life, which yet might be 
long, she might depend upon a guardian 
and mi instructor, I armed hei 
censure of the world, showed her that books 
iweet unreproachine companions to 
the miserable, ami thai, if they could not 
bring us to enjoy life, ihey would at least 
teach us to endure it. 

The hired horse that we rode was to be 
put up that night at an inn by thl 
within about five miles from my house; 
and as I was willing to prepare my family 
for my daughter's reception, 1 determined 
to leave her that night al the inn, anil ta re- 
turn for her, accompanied by my daughter 

. early the next morning. It was 
night before we reached our appointed 
stage ; however, after seeing her provided 
\uth a itment, and having or- 

dered the host ire proper refresh- 

I he, and proceeded towards 
home. And now my heart caught new 
ns of pleasure, Ihe neaier I ap- 
proached tl: 

a bird that had been frighted from lu 

nesl, in\ I outwent nv, 

hovered round my [illlc fifastdfl with all 
1 called up 

the many fond thing! I had 

anticipated ihe welcome I was to receive. 

I already fell my v embrace, 

it the joy of my little 

milted but slowly, the night a 

The labourers of the day were ail 

retired to rcsl; the lights were out in every 

cottage ; no sounds were heard but of the 

' cock, and the deep-mouthed 




THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



watch-dog, at hollow distance. I ap- 
eh ibode of pleasure, and, 

1 u .is within a furlong of the place, 
our honest mastiff came running to wel- 
come me. 

It was now near midnight that I came 
to knock at my door : all was still and 

silent . my heart dilated with unutterable 

hen, to my amazement, I saw 
the house bursting out in a blaze of fire, 
and every aperture red With conflagration. 
I gave a loud convulsive outcry, and fell 

rn the pavement, insensible. This 
mcd my son, who had, till this, been 
asleep; and he, perceiving the flames, 
instantly waked my wife and daughter; 
and all running out, naked, and wild with 

C apprehension, recalled mc to life with their 
Y Hut it was only to objects of 
new tenor: for the flames had, by this 
time, caught the roof of our dwelling, part 
after part continuing to fall in, while the 
family stood, with silent agony, looking 
on, as if they enjoyed the blaze. I gaxeu 
upon them and upon it by turns, and then 
looked round me for my two little ones; 
but they were not to !>•• iisery! 

" Where," cried I, "whew are my little 
ones!"—" They are burnt to death in the 
flames," said my wife, calmly, " and I will 
die with them." That moment I heard 
the cry of the babes within, who were just 
awaked by the fire, and nothing could 
have stopped me. " Where, where are 
my children!" cried I, rushing through 
the llamcs, and bursting the door of the 
Chamber in which they were confined! — 
"Wherearcmjrlitlle onett n — " I [ere, dear 
papa, here we are," cried they together, 
while the Soma wen fust catching the bed 

i hey lay. 1 caught them both in 
,y arms, and snatched them through the 
re as fast as possible, while, just as I 

. the roof sunk in. " Now," cried 
ling up my children, " now let the 
flames burn on, and all my poss 
("ill). Here they are; I have saved my 
treasure Here, my dearest, here are our 
treasures, and we shall yet be happy." We 
Mated our little darlings a thousand times j 
they clasped us round the neck, and seemed 
re our transports, while their mother 
laughed and wept by turns. 

<od a calm spectator of the 



flames ; and, after some time, began 
perceive that my arm to the shoulder 

icd in a terrible manner. I 
therefore, out of my power to give my sol 
any assistance, either in attempting I 
our goods, or preventing the flames s | 
ing to our corn. By this time the 
bours were alarmed, and came running 
our assistance ; but all they could do 

ectators of the calamity. 

My goods among which were the noti 
I had reserved fur my daughters' fortum 
were entirely consumed, except a box witl 
some papers that stood in the kitchen, ai 
two or three things more of little con; 
quence, which my son brought aw ay in i' 
beginning. The neighbours contributed, 
however, what they could to lighten 
our distress. They brought us cl 
and furnished one of our outhouse 
kitchen utensils ; so that by daylight 
had another, though a wretched dwelliii; 
to retire to. My honest next neigh 
and his children were not the least at 
duous in providing us with ever 
necessary, and offering whatever coi 
tion untutored benevolence could si. 

When the fears of my family hr. 
sided, I know the cause 

long stay began to take place: I 
therefore informed them of every parti- 
cular, I proceeded to prepare them for the 
reception of our lost one ; and though we 
had nothing but wretchedness now to im- 
part, I was willing to procure her a wel- 
come to what we had. This task would 
have been more difficult but for oui I 
calamity, which had humbled my 
pride, and blunted it by more poignant 
afflictions. Being unable to go for my 
poor child myself, as my arm grcv 
painful, I sent my son and daughter, who 
soon returned, supporting the wretched 
delinquent, who had not the com 
look up at her mother, whom no in! 
tions of mine could persuade to a ; 
reconciliation ; for women have a 
stronger sense of female error than men. 
" Ah, madam," cried her mother, " this is 
but a poor place you are come to after so 
much finery. My daughter Sophy and I 
can afford but little entertainment to per- 
sons who have kept company or,! 
people of distinction. 









55 



i, the 
upi net in) stood pale and trembling, 
: but I could 
t of her dis- 
fore, assumine; a degree of se- 
r, which was 
bilowed with instant submission, " 1 
iuu, that my word-, may be 
once for all : 1 have here 
. back a poor deluded wan- 
the re- 
r tenderness. The real hard- 

hercfore, increase them by dis- 
ich other. If we live 
ly together, we may vet be con- 
as there are enough Of lis to shut 
curing world, and keep 
in countenance. The kindness of 
•cd to the penitent, and 
s be directed by the example. 
i. wc are mm, is much more 
«■ a repentant sinner, than 
- who have suppoi 
ng rectitude. And this 
le effort by which 
rt-hill path toper- 
,-lf a greater i virtue 

I a hundred acts of justice." 

',111. 

\*m* to* M/ Guilty c*h t* l*H£ *nJ cowfiUttly 

cd to 
axk» ienl as 

U> rr-: ' 

■Mad 

■ my family 
tl were lavt 

Cimusing the 
to case the heart. 
O t« — 1 11 < 

lime In 

l*%»aii veiling. Honest 

vfcfaot his friendship. 

his addresses 

him in 

nek i >s totally ■■ 

future aolk-.t ecmed 



, came every day. 



onlyp 

did :i"t restore to cheerfulness. She now 
lost that unblushing innocence which once 
taught her to respect herself, and to seek 

taken strong possession of her mind ; her 
beauty began to be impaired with her con- 
stitution, and neglect Mill mOR contributed 
to diminish it. Every tender epithet be- 
I on her sister brought a pang to 
her heart, and a : , ye; anil as 

one vice, though cuicd, ever plants others 
where it hi 

though driven out by repentance, 1- 

I lousy and envy behind. I s!ro\e a thoii- 

1 sand ways to lessen her care, and even 

my own pain in a concern for hers, 

collecting such amusing passages of his- 

ong memory and some reading 

, could suggest. " Our happiness, my dear," 

1 would say, "is in the power of One who 

cm bring il about a thousand nnJbi 

, that mock our foresight Ifexample 
pessary to pi 11 give yon a 

-lory, my child, told us by a grave though 
nan. 
Matilda Ml married very young to a 
ilitai) nobleman of the , 
and herself a widow and an 
i at the age of fifteen. As she stood one 
day caressing her infant ion is the open 
window of an apartment which hung over 
the river Voltunia, the child with a sud- 

li aped Gram bet anni Into the 

flood below, and disappeared in a mo- 
mother, struck with instant 
! making an cITort to save him, 
plunged in after; but far from being able 
infant, she herself with great 
ped to the opposite shore, just 
hinder- 
ing the country on that side, who Imme- 
diately made her their prisoner. 
"As : 

Bach and Italians with the D 
inhumanity, they were going nt on 
perpei I 

by appetite and cruelty. Thi 
. however, was oppose, I 

Igh their retreat re 
tile u" 

him, anil brought ! native 

Ogjlt bvs cje.-. 



THE VICAR OF If A KEF/ f I P. 



her merit, soon oiler, his heart. They 

I i he rose to the highest posts j 

they lived long together, and were happy. 

Hut the fch Mier can never lie 

called permanent : .-.Iter on interval of 
i] years, the troops which he com- 
manded having met with a icpulse, he was 
I to take shelter in the city where he 
hod lived with his wife. Here they suffered 
a siege, and the city at length was taken. 
I s can produce more various 
noes of cruelty than those which the 
1 reach and Italians at that time exercised 
ther. It was resolved by the 
i this occasion, to put all the 
h prisoners to death ; but particularly 
the husband of the unfortunate Matilda, as 
ncipally instrumental in pro- 
|g the siege. Their determinations 
hi general, executed almost as soon 
lived upon. The captive soldier was 
led forth, and the executioner with his 
(word stood ready, while the spectators 
in gloomy silence awaited the ratal blow, 
ided till the general 
- judge should give the 
■ this interval of a 
Lion that Matilda came to take 
IWell of her husband and dc- 
oring her wretched situation, 
' late, that had saved her 
from | ' v a premature death in 

ilturua, to be thi 

: ,1. Who 

was a young man. was struck with surprise 

at her beauty, and pity «l he 

with still :.ii>>nger emotions when he heard 
her mention her former dangers. He was 
her son, the infant for whom she had en- 
countered so much danger, lie acknow- 
ledged her at once as his mother, and fell 
at her feet. The rest may be easily siip- 

ness that love, friendship, and 
l confer on each, were united." 

tthjj manner I would attempt to 
.lighter : bill -lie listened With 
ilunt-s 
1 1 the pity she once had for 
th-isc of another, and nothing gave her 
case. In company she dreaded contempt ; 
Me the only foul 
e colour of her • I 
We received certain information that 



Mr. Thornlnll was going to be mail 
Miss Wilnnit, rot "liom 1 always sus- 
I he had a I , though he 

took every opporuiiniv before DM to 
express his contempt both of her person 
and fortune. This news on! 
increase poor Olivia's affliction : such a 
flagrant breach of fidelity was more than 
her courage could support. I was re- 
solved, however, to get more certain in- 
formation, and to defeat, if possible, the 
completion of his designs, by sending my 
son to old Mr. \N ilmols, with instru 
to know the truth of the report, and to 
deliver Miss Wilmot a letter, intimating 
Mr. Thomhill's conduct in my family. 
My son went in pursuance of my 
tions, and in three days returned, assuring 
us of the truth of the account ; but that 
he had found it impossible to deliver ihe 
letter, which he was therefore obliged to 
leave, as Mr. Thomhill and Mist W 
were visiting round the country. They 
were to be married, he said, in a few days, 
having appeared together at church ihe 
Sunday before he was there, in great 
splendour, the bride attended 1 
young ladies, and he by as many gentle- 
men. Their approaching nuptials filled 
the whole country with rejoicing, 
they usually rode out together in ihe 
grandest equipage that had been seen in 
the country for many years. All the 
friends of both families, he said. 
there, particularly the Squire's uncle. Six 
William Thomhill, who bore so good a 
character. Me added, (hat nothing but 
mirth and feasting were going forward ; 
that all the country praised the young 
bride's beauty, and the bridegroom's fine 
pessen, and that they were immensely 
fond of each other; concluding, tl 
could not help thinking Mr. Thomhill 
one of the most happy men in the 
" Why, let him, if he can," retUl 
" but, my ton, observe this bed of stnv 
and unshcltering roof; Iderin 

walls and humid floor; my v 
thus disabled by fire, and my ■ 
weeping round me KM 
come home, my child, lo all i, 

even here, yon see a mi 
would not for a thousand woi 
situations. Ob, my children. 






THE VICAR OF WAKEFfELD. 



57 



tmti tot 1- mmune will 

wmt hearts, noble com- 

E,cm. you would 

tl At wun lost all men have 

aaea taaghl to call life a passag . 
ekroachcs the travellers. The similitude 

when we o 
rU: the g ->l arc joyful and serene, like 

home; 
0* vkked but b v. like 

BwiBii i iti j into exile, 

i 
■wiyi. sister, inter- 

n;(nl what I had further Id observe. I 
WV her moilier support her, and after 
1 daart time she recovered. She ap- 
from tiiat time more culm, BOO I 
I a new degree of 
deceived me: 
is the languor of 
rr.jojiii resentment. A supply of 
ent us by my kind 
Mnahiooerv seemed to diffuse new cheer- 
talnc- of the family, nor 

I seeing them once more 
it esse, 1 1 would have 
i itions, 
ilule melan- 
daftly, n tlicm with 

UV/r «1»>1 not feel Thus, once more the 
the song was de- 
■uatcd. and cheerfulness condescended 
to t>yt ' little habitation. 

I H UTER XXIV. 

Ing the sun arose with 
peculiar wi the season, - 

i in the 

here, while we sat, 

my young, at my request 

)wmi'' "icert on the 

. in this place my 

A t'ir.l lad *T, and 

idness. 

Kut that nwlanc ' ited by 

sounds 
of tormony te heart instead of 

corro 1 

is, and 

ter as before. 

dy air yout 



papa v . of; your sister Sophy 

has already Do, child ; it 

will please your old father." She com- 
plied in a manner so exquisitely pathetic 
as moved me : 

When lovelv woman stoop* lo fully, 
And I'm. I . i j lata thai men l^ir.,v. 

Iiarm can soothe her melancholy 7 
Wh.it art cm wash her guilt away! 
The only art her fftiilt to cover, 

To hide her shame from every eye, 
To cive rcoentancc to her lover. 
And wring hi* bosom, is — to die. 

As she was concluding the Inst si 
to which an interruption in her voice from 
sorrow gave peculiar softness, the appear- 
ance of Mr. Thonihili at a 
■-' alarmed us all, but particularly 
increased the uneasiness of my eldest 
daughter, who, desirous of shunning her 
betrayer, returned to the house with her 
In ■ kiv minutes he was alighted 
from his chariot, and making up to the 
place where 1 was still sitiing, inquired 
(Aet my health with his usual air of 
familiarity. "Sir," replied I, "your pre- 
sent .assurance Onlj to aggravate 
i eness of your character; and there 
was a time when I would have ch . 
your insolence for presuming thus to 
■ Iiefore me. But now you are safe ; 
for age has cooled my passions, and my 
tins them." 
" 1 vow, my dear sir," returned he, " I 
am amazed at all this ; nor can 1 under- 
stand what it means ! I hope you don't 
think your daughter's late excursion with 
me had anything criminal in it *" 

" cried I ; "thou art a wretch, a 

Eoor, pitiful wretch, and every way a lias | 
ut your meanness secures you from my 
anger I Yet, sir, I am descend- .-.1 fi 
family that would not have borne this ! — 
i, thou vile thing, to gratify a mo- 
mentary passion, thou hast mode one 
creature wretched for life, and j»»ll u I .-■ 1 ,i 
family that had nothing but honour lor 

"If she or you," returned he, "arc 
resolved to be miserable, I cannot hi 
But you may still be happy; and what- 
ever opinion you may have formed i 
you shall ever find me ready t. 1 

00010 in i 
short time j and, what is nyire, *lvs ma.<{ 



58 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



keep her lover beside . lot I 

shall ever continue to have a true regard 
for he 

I found alt my passions alarmed at tins 
new degrading proposal ; for though the 
mind may often be calm under great in- 
iiitle villany can at any lime get 
within the soul, and sting it into rage. — 
1 my sight, thou reptile ! " cried I, 
" nut continue to insult me with thy pre- 
sence. Were my brave son at home, he 
would not suffer this ; but I am old and 
disa filed, and every way undone." 

** I find," cried he, " you are bent 
obliging me to talk in a harsher manner 
than I intended. But as I have - 
you what may be hoped from my friend- 
ship, it may not be improper to represent 
what may be the consequences of my 
resentment. My attorney, to whom your 
late bond has been transferred, threatens 
bard ; nor do I know how to prevent the 
course of justice, except by paying the 
money myself; which, as I have been at 
some expenses lately previous to mv in- 
tended marriage, is not so easy to be done. 
And then my steward talks of driving for 
the rent : it is certain he knows his duty; 
for I never trouble myself with affairs of | 
that nature. Yet still I could • 
serve you, and even to have you and your 
daughter present at my marriage, which 
is shortly to he solemnized with Mica 
Wilmot ; it is even the request of my 
charming Arabella herself, whom I hope 
you will not reft 

"Mr. Thomhill," replied I, "hear me 
once for all : as to JFDoi marriage with i 
any but my daughter, that I never will 
consent to ; and though your friendship I 
could raise me to a throne, or your re- 
sentment sink me to the grave, yet 
I despise both. Thou hast once wofully, 
irreparably deceived me. I reposed my 
heart upon thine honour, and have found 
•ncs Never more, therefore, ex- 
pect friendship from me. Go. and possess 
what fortune has given thee — heftuty, 
riches, health, nnd pleasure. Go, and 
leave me to want, infamy, disease, and 
sorrow. Yet, humbled as I am, shall 
mv heirt < > ; and 

i thou hast mj 
■naif ever have my cont.. 



" If 

lence ; 
and M 

fittest ii or me." — Upon 

which 

M> I IT present it 

this interviei 

prehension. My daughter* . 
that he was gone, t 
of the result of our confer, 
when known, alarmed them i 
the rest. But as to my- yarded 

the utmost stretch of his malevol 
he had already struck the blow, and 
DOW I stood prepared to I 
new effort, like one of those 
used in the art of war, 
thrown, still presents a point to receive 
the enemy. 

We soon, however, found that I 
not threatened in he very next 

morning his steward came to demai 
annual rent, which, bythetrainofacc 
already related, I was unable lo pay. 
The consequence of my incapacity was 
his driving my cattle that evening 
their being appraised and sold tin 
day for less than half their value, 
wife and children now therefore en 
me to comply upon any terms, rather 
incur certain destruction. They 
begged of me to admit hi 
more, and used all their little el 
to paint the calamities I was 
endure, — the terrors of a pi 
rigorous a season as the present, with 
danger that threatened my health from 
the late accident that happened 1 
fire. But I continued inflcxible. 

" Why, my treasures," cried I, 

u thus attempt to persuade me to 
the thing tli htj My duty has 

taught me to forgive him ; but mj 
science will not permit me to IP] 
Would you have me applaud i 
what my heart must internally con' 

I you have me tamely sit down and 
our infamous betrayer ; and, to 
avoid a prison, continually suffer the more 
galling bonds of mental confuu i 
No, never ! If we are to be take- 
this abode, only let us hold to the 
and wherever we are thrown. 
retire to a charming apartmcv 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



59 



can look round our own hearts with 

with pleasui 

Banner we spent that evening. 

ie*t morning, as the snow had 

-'.-.it abundance in llie night, 

.1 was employed in clearing i: 

ig a passage before the door. 

He lifl not been thus engaged Ion) . 

uining in, with looks all pale, 
i hat two strangers, whom lie 

ln*» I 

tu»«i.'- the house. 

■ as he spoke they came in, and ap- 
proaching the bed where I lay, after 
pnrviously informing me of their etnploy- 

..incss, made me their pn 

prepare to go with them to the 

I, which was eleven miles off. 

. friends," said I, "tbl 

•either in which you have come to take 

sae to a prison ; and icularly 

is time, as one of my 

arms has lately been burnt in a terrible 

■ t, and it has thrown me into a 

at clothes to cover 

me. and I am nnw too we.ik and old to 

l deep snow ; but, if it 

mutt be so " 

■ .incd to my wife and children, 

•.'.. :ed them to get together what 

were left us, and to | 

. for leaving this place. I 

estreated them to be expeditious; and 

daift/tt my son to assist his eldest sister, 

«r.r>, from a consciousness that she was 

the cauxr of all our calamities, was fallen, 

tad had lost anguish in insensibility I 

coco. who, pale and 

trrmi d little 

oacs in her arm - . • her bosom 

ig to look round at the 

•tr&ugcrs. i my youngest 

daug ' departure, 

tad a hints to use 

dissa' hour wc were ready 

CHAPTER XXV. 

X» r-'—t>- . rtchtj il irrmi, in! 

ting it, 

Wl y thi* peaceful neigh- 

•aerhood, I ..lowly. My 

tiio • nfcebled by a slow 

fartc, which had begun for some days to 



undermine her constitution, one of the 
officers who had a horse kindly took her 
behind him ; for even these men cannot 

> divest themselves of humanity. 
My ion led one of the little ones by the 
hand, and my wife the other, while I 
leaned upon my youngest girl, whose tears 
fell, not for her own, but my distresses. 

>t from niv late dwelling 
about two miles, when we saw a crowd, 
running and shouting behind us, consisting 
of about fifty of my poorest parishioners. 
These, with dreadful imprecations, soon 
seized upon the two officers of justice, 

•rearing the* would never see their 
minister go to gaol while they had a drop 
of blood to shed in his defence, were 
to use them with great severity. 
The consequence might have been fatal, 
hid I not immediately interposed, aud 
with some difficulty resetted the officers 
from the hands of the enraged multitude. 
My children, who looked upon mydelivcry 
now as certain, appeared transported with 
joy, and were incapable of containing 
their raptures. But they were soon un- 
deceived, upon hearing me addn. 
poor deluded people, who came, as they 
imagined, to do me service. 

" What ! my friends" cried I, " and is 
this the way you love me ! Is this the 
manner you obey the instructions I have 
given you from the pulpit! Thus to lly 
in the face of justice, and bring down 
ruin on yourselves and me! Which is 

ingleader! Show me the man that 
us seduced you. As sure as he 
■!l feel my resentment. Alas ! 
my dear deluded flock, return back to the 
duty you owe to God, to your country, 
and to me. I shall yet perhaps one day 
see you in greater felicity here, and con- 
tribute to make your lives more happy. 
But, let it at least be my comfort, when I 

Een my fold for immortality, that not one 
ere shall be wanting." 
They now seemed all repentance, and, 
melting into tears, came one after the 
other to bid me farewell. I shook each 
:,y by the hand, and leaving them 
my blessing, proceeded forward without 
meeting any further interruption. Some 
I hours before night, we reached the town. 
I or rather village, tor tt coos»\eo- V 



6o 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



few mean houses, having lost aJI its former 
opulence, and retaining no marks of its 
ancient superiority out the gaol. 

OB entering, we put up at an inn, 
where we had such refreshments as could 
most readily be procured, and I supped 
with my family with my usual etweifil 
After seeing them properly accommodated 
for that night, I next attended the sheriffs 
officers to the prison, which had formerly 
been built for the purposes of war, and 
partment, *: 

Kion to 
h felons and debtors at certain hours 
in the four-and -twenty. Besides this 
every prisoner had a separate cell, where 
he was locked in for the night. 

I expected, upon my entrance, to find 
nothing but lamentations and I 
sounds of misery ; but it was \ ery different. 
The prisoners seemed all employed in one 
common design, that of forgetting thought 
In merriment or clamour. I was apprised 
of the usual perquisites required upon these 
occasions, and immediately complied with 
the demand, though the Utile rr 
had was very near being all exhausted. 
This was immediately sent away for liquor, 
and the whole prison was soon filled with 
I uighier, and profancness. 
" How," cried I 10 myself, "' shall men 
so very wicked be cheerful, and shall I be 
melancholy? I feel only the same con- 
finement with them, and I think 1 have 
more reason to be ha | 

to be- 
come cheerful ; but chterfulness was never 
E produced by eff - itself pain- 

As I was sitting, therefore, in a 
corner of the gaol, in a pensive posture, 
one of my!' ers came up, and, 

sitting by roe, entered into conversation. 
It was my Bo nsfn l rule in life never to 
avoid the conversation of any man who 
seemed to desire it I for if good, I might 
' if his instruction ; if bad, he might 
be assisted by mine. I found this to be a 
in, of strong unlettered sense, 
but a thorough knowledge of the t 

more properly sneaking, 
on the wrong side. 1 1 e 
asked • ' taken care to | 

myself with a bed, which was a < 
stance I liad never once attended to. 



"That's onfortai lie, "as you 

are allowed here nothing hut straw, and 
I large and cold, 
be somethir . 
gentleman, and, as I have been one myself 
in my time, part of my bed-clothes are 
heartily at your M I 

I thanked him, professing my surprise 
at rinding such humanity in a gaol in mis- 
fortunes ; adding, to let him see that I was 
a scholar, " That the sage ancient seemed 
' to understand the value of com; 
, affliction, when he said Ttm itvswir aire, 
and, in fact," continued 
I. "what is the world if it adonis only 
solitude?" 

" You talk of the world, sir," returned 
my fellow-ptrisoncr ; "the world is in its 
dotage; and yet the CO! r crea- 

tion of the world has punled the \ 
sophers of every ape. What a medley of 
opinions have they not broai bed tit 

•ii of the world 
Manetho, Berosus, and Oceli 
have all attempted it in vain. The Utter 
has these words, Anarfhoti era / 
httaien to pun, which in 
pardon, sir," cried I, "I. 
much learning; but I think I have heard 
all this liefore. Have 1 not had the plea- 
sure of once seeing you at Weill 
fair, nnd is not your name Kphraimlenkm- 
son?" At this demand he only sighed. 
" I suppose you must recollect," resumed 
• DofltM Primrose, from whom you 
bought a horse ? " 

He now at once recollected me ; ' 
gloominess of the place and theapj i 
ing night had prevented his d: 
my feature; before. " Yes, sir," re: 
Mr. Jenkinson. "1 remember yon per- 
fectly well ; I bought a horse, but forgot 
to pay for him. Your neighl 
borough is the only prosecutor I am any 
way afraid of at the Deal 

- to swear positively against me as 
a coiner. I am 1 •• 
deceived you, or indeed any r 
see," continued hi . 
"what my tricks I 

"Well, sir," replied I, <lee«i 

in offering me assistance when you 

endeavours to soften, 01 ' 



rur. vrc.-iR of ii-akef/eld. 






jh'a evidence, ami I will 
aim fur thai purpose the 
irluiuly ; noi the least 

ly with m\ : 

. you need be 
iboul that" 

" all the return 

lean make shall be yours. You shall have 

auiv than half my bed-clothes to-night, 

ll take care to stand your friend in 

. where I think I have some 

1 hirn, and could no! 

ri»c-d at the present youthful 

■r at the time 1 had 

wen ! • : .it least sixty. 

'.ercd he, "you are little ac- 

th the world ; I had, at that 

! ?.ir, and have learnt the art 

'.-very age from seventeen 

had 1 but bestowed 

1'iis in learning a trade that 1 

Ijre m le irel. I might 

man at this day. But, 

.!! 1 may be 

-, when you (east expect 

Wc were now prevented from further 
conversation by the arrival of the gaoler's 
aerva.-' me to call over the pri- 

! lock up for the night. A 
tfiowalao, with a bundle of straw for my 
bed, atftssadedi who led me along a dark 
aarrvw passage, into a room pa-. • 

one corner of 
idtheclothi 

which done, 

h, bade 

After my usual medita 

my Heavenly 

If down, and slept 

tranquillity till moming. 

kPTER xxvr 

firU, tkry lk**U 'nvar<i as as.'/ *i f ~nii/t. 

Tks next in akened 

Wy r. 

my t» ■ ngthofevery 

Tbii*^ d iunted them. 

I 6ei 

1 had never slept with great I 

v eldest 
tfjc^l inong them. 



They informed me thai 

-s and fatigue h I I h-r 

fever, and it waa judged proper to leave 
her behind. Ml 
my son to procure a room or 1 1 
the family in, as near the pri 
veuieiitly could be found. He ob 
but could only find one apartment. . 

red at a small expense f"i Ins m 
and sisters, the gaoler, with human if 
-entnig to let him and his two little 
thers lie in the prison with DM, A lis I 
wasth. red for them in a corner 

of the room, which I thought answered 

very conveniently. 1 woswillin 

I ly to know whether my little chil- 
dren chose to lie in a place which seemed 
i them upon entrance. 
U." cried 1, "my good boys, how 
like your bed? 1 hope you arc 
iid to lie in this room, dark as it 
appears T" 

." say- Dick, "I am not 
to Ik an y w her e, where you a. 
"And 1." says l'.ill. irho Wai > 
fouryears old, "love era I that 

.a." 
After this I allotted to each of the family 
what they were to do. My daughter was 
particularly directed to watch her declining 
sister's health ; my wife was to attend me ; 
my little boys were to read to me : 
as for you, my son," continued I, " it is 
, by the labour of your hands we must all 
hope to be supported. Yooi 
day-labourer will be fully sufficient, with 
proper frugality, to maintain us all, and 
comfortably too. Thou art now sixteen 
years old, and hast strength ; and it 
given thee, my son, for very useful pur- 
poses ; for it must save from famine your 
helpless parents and family. Prepan 
j this evening, to look out for v 
to-mor: ring home every night 

what money v<>u earn for our Bapi 

Having thus instructed him, and s 
the rest, I walked down to the o i 

where I coald enjoy mora air and 
Bnl 1 was not long there when the 

and brutali 

I me on every side, drove mi 
apartment again. Mere I sat for 
'imc pondering upon the strange. 






THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 






mankind m open .inns a-ainst them, were 
labouring lo make themselves a future and 
a tremendous enemy 

Their insensibility excited my highest 
compassion, and blotted my own imint- 
ness from my ntind. It even appeared a 
day incumbent upon me to attempt to 
reclaim ilu-m I resolved, therefore, once 
more to return, and, in ipitc of their con- 
tempt, lo give them my advice, and con- 
Xier them by my perseverance. Going, 
erefore, among them again, I informed 
Mr. Jenkinson of my design, at which he 
laughed heartily, but coniimtnicatcd it to 
the re^t The proposal was received with 
the greatest good humour, as it promised 
to afford ■ new fund of entertainment to 
persons who had now no other resource 
lor mirth but what could be derived from 
ridicule or debauchery. 

I therefore read them a portion of the 
service with a loud, unaffected voice, and 
found my audience perfectly merry upon 
the occasion. Lewd whispers, groans of 
contrition burlesqued, winking and cough- 
ing, alternately excited laughter. How- 
ever. I continued withmy natural solemnity 
to read on, sensible that what I did might 
mend some, but could itself receive no 
contamination from any. 

After reading, I entered upon my cx- 

>n, which was rather calculated at 

to amuse them than to reprove. I 

t no other motive 

but their welfare could induce me to this ; 

wis their fellow-prisoner, and now 

thing by preaching. 1 was sorry, 

I '..ir them so very profane 

cause they cot nothing by it, but might lose 

deal ■ " For be assured, my fin 

ii are my friends, bo« • 
te World may disclaim your i 
ship, — though you swore twelve thousand 

Then what signifies calling 

. and court- 

lil friendship, since you find how 

iu ? lie has given you 

I line, you find, but I mouthful of 

oaths and an empty belly ; an<l, by the 

best accounts I have of him, he will give 

thing that's good hercafiei. 

" If used ill in our dealing 

man, we naturally go el Were 



it not worth your while, then, jut! 

how you may like the usage of and her 

master, who gives you fa! It least 

to come to him ? Sun 

all stupidity in the world. Ins must I 

greatest, who, alter robbing a house, tuns 

lo the thief-inkers for protection 

yet, how are you more wise ? You are 

all seeking comfort from one that lias 

already betrayed you. applying to 

malicious being than any thief ti 

them all; for they only decoy and then hang 

you j but he decoys and hangs, and, what 

is worst of all, will not let you loose after 

the hangman has done." 

When I had concluded, 1 received the 
compliment of my audiem 
whom came and shook me by the hand, 
■Wearing thai 1 was a very honest fellow, 
and that they desired my further acquaint- 
ance. I therefore promised to repeal my 
lecture next day, and actually com 
some hopes of making a reformation here; 
for it had ever been my opinion, that no 
man was past the hour of amendment, 
every heart lying open to the shafts of re- 

if the archer could but take a | 
aim. When I had thus satisfied my mind. 
I went back to my apartment, v here my 
wife prepared a fiaigal meal, while Mr. 
Jenkinson begged leave to add his dinner 
to ours, and pait.ike of the pleasure, as he 
was kind enough to express it, of my con- 
on. He had not yet seen my 
family j for as they came to my apartment 
by a door in the narrow passage all 
described, by this means they avoided the 
common prison, Jenkinson at tl. 
interview, therefore, seemed not a little 
Uracil with the beauty of my \oungest 
daughter, which her pensive air i 

to heighten ; and my little ones did 
not pass unnoticed. 

"Alas, Doctor," cried he, "these chil- 
dren are too handsome and too go 
such a place as this ! " 

" Why. Mr. Jenkinson," 
"thank Heaven, my children are 

tolerable in morals ; and ii t' 
it matters little for the test." 

"1 ." returned my k 

prisoner, " tliat it niu great 

comfort to have all this little fiunilj 

you." 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELO. 



6} 



'A com/or'. Mr Jenkiruont" replied 

'. and I 

.'.11 the 

i ingcon seem 

wiy in this 

my happiness, and that 

,n^ them." 

i he, " ih it 

:ulpable ; for I 

I see here [looking .it m 

;h tie had b 

ig him 
c him. 
: help u i 'H- 
| at wb 

the other, " it 
white stock- 
in your hair, 
1 me. 1-ut, no disparage- 
> rxi- 

you in niv time ; 

St." 

I, " that the 

such iuts must be 

and annum 

of cither," returned Mr. 

kiev.n. "Those relations which de- 

- id vices only of mankind, 

leasing our suspicion in life, retard 

Her that distrusts 

.,*.-. i ii*. .e 'if every man that looks 
ro6J> at his 

!■)«•) I n my own expe- 

>illiest 

the fun. I was thought cun- 

: when but 

yrmn old, the ladies would say that 

• perfect little man ; at fourteen, I 

tW world, cocked my hat, and loved 

• I venty, iV .ugh I was per- 

me thought me so 

i-t me. 

fed to turn 

rwn iJ 1 ever 

I. eajr h ernes to 

li fears 

!ju;hatyour 



simple neighbour Fl.imborough, 
| Dr another, generally cm 
him once a year. Vet -till the !. 

ni in went forward without suspicion, :m. I 
iued tricksy 
and ennmnj . poor, without the 

i being honest However," 
Continued he "|.-t me know your 
and what has brought you here ; perhaps, 
1 have not skill to avoid a gaol 
. I may extricate my fri. 
In compliance with his curiosity, I in- 
I him of the whole train of ace! 
is th it had plunged me into my 
present trouble;, and my utter inability to 

Alter hearing my story, a 
some minute,, he slapped his forehead, as 
if he had hit upon something material, and 
took In ring, he would try what 

could be done. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

The mine subject continue*!. 
The next morning I communicated to 
my wile and children the scheme I had 
planned of reforming the prisoners, which 
they received with umver-.il disappi 
lion, alleging the impossibility and impro- 
priety of it ; adding that my en.le.i 
u >nl I no way contribute to their amend- 
ment, but might probably disgrace my 
calling. 

use me," returned 1 , "the;e 
lien, arc still men ; and 

a very good title 

enrich 

the giver's bosom ; and though the instruc- 
tion I communicate may not mend them, 
yet it will assuredly mend myself. If these 
wretches, my children, were princes, there 
would be thousands ready to offer their 
y ; but, in my opinion, the heart 
that is buried in a dungeon is as precious 
as that seated upon a throne. Yes, my 
treasures, if I can mend them, I 
perhaps they will not all despise me. l'ci- 
naps I may catch up even one from the 
gulf, and that will be great gain ; for is 
there upon earth a gem so precious as the 
human soul?" 

Thus saying, I left them, and descended 
to the common prl I found, tl\«. 

prisoners very metiy, BcpeC&ao; tvvj M- 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



rival ; and each prepared with some gaol 
trick to play upon the Doctor. Thus, as 
I was going to begin, one turned my wig 
awry, Is if 1 ■ y accident, and then asked my 
p.inl"ii. A second, who stood at some 
distance, had a knack of spitting through 

lb, which fell in showers upon my 
book. A third would Cry Amen in such 
an (fleeted lone, as gave the rest great de- 
light. A fourth had slyly picked my pocket 
Of my spectacles. llul there was one 

1 1 ick gave more universal pleasure 
than all the- red : for, observing the man- 
ner in which 1 had disposed my books on 

(he table before me, he very dexterously 
displaced one of them, and put an oh 

jest-book of his own in the place. How- 
•:M':. I took no notice of all that this mis- 
chievous group of little beings could do, 
but went on, perfectly sensible thai 

liculoiil in my attempt would excite 
mirth only the first or second time, while 
what was serious would be permanent. 
My design succeeded, and in less than six 

•me were penitent, and all attentive. 
It was now that I applaudi 
severance and address, at thus givii 
sibility to wretches divested of ever* moral 
feeling, and now began to think of doing 
then temporal seniles also, by rendering 
their situation somewhat more comf" 
Their time had hitherto been divided he- 
tween famine and excess, tumultuous not 
and bitter repining. Their only employ- 
in^ nl was quarrelling among each other, 
playing at cribbage, and cutting lol 
Stopper*. From this last mode of idle 

y I took the hint of setting such as 

it k nt cutting pegs for tol 
utd shoemakers, the proper wood 
being bought by a general subscription, 

and) when manufactured, told by my ap> 

pobitmi it each earned something 

day— •trifle indeed, but sufficient to 

i him, 

I i I,, .i nop here, but instituted fines 

timent of immorality, and re- 

lor peculiar industry. Thus, in lea 

fortnight I had formed them into 
icialand humane, and had the 
ding myself . 
i"f, wh li! men from their native 

o friendship and obedienre 
; Illy to be I 










legislative power would thus direct the law 
rather to reformation than severity 
it would seem convinced thai the \* 

rimes is not by making punish- 
ments familiar, but formidable, Then, 

instead of our present pris 
find or make men guilty, winch ei 
wretches for the coniini i rime, 

and return them, if rctu nied a I i 
the perpetration of thousands , 
see, asinotli Europe, places of 

penitence and solitude, where the accu 
might be attended by such as coul 
thebl repentance, if guilty, or new m 
to virtue, if innocent. And this, but n 
the increasing punishments, is the way to 
mend a State. Nor can I avoid 
questioning the validity of that right v. hich 
social combinations have assumed, i il 
tally punishing offences of a slight nature. 
In cases of murder, their right is obvious, 
as it is the duty of us all, from the I 
self-defence, to cut off that man who has 
shown a disregard for the life of another. 
t such, all nature rises in arms ; but 
it is not so against him v>ho steals my pro- 
perty. Natural law gives me no right to 
take away his life, as, by that, the horse 
he steals is as mm rty as mine. 

If, then, I have any right, it must I 

I a compact made between us, that he wh 

' deprives the other of hi- bone shall dii 
Hut this is a false compact ; because 

j man has a right to barter his life any moi 

than to take it away, a- it is not his own. 

And besides, the compact is inadequate, 

lid be set aside, even in a court of 

. modem equity, as there is a g ■ 
for a very trilling conva 
far better thai two men should liv. 
that one man should ride. Hut ■ 

is false between two men. 
equally so between ■ husdrt 

, dred thousand; for as ten mill 
circles can never make I square, so i 
united voice of myriads cannot lend I 
Jlest foundation to falsehood. It 
thus that reason speaks and mil 
nature says the same thing. Savag 
are directed by natural law alone, are 
very tender of the lives of each n 

seldom shed blood but to retaliate 

former cruelty 

Our siAon ancestors, fierce as they 



?rse 

ine. 

to 
lore 



hey were 




ew executions in limes of 
govern- 

' C< .111- 

wmity i" the 

baeqat 

i in pro- 
.' ihi: more 
1I1I1 the more exl 

paled 

ry il.iy. .mil hung 

cry invader. 

I canruit Icll whi mini- 

bef of 

utry should 
df !he 

ly pro- 
iminate 

in tilt' 

flit ili.- 
I mouldy : 

'lien, lint po 

I iimish 

ii.. I the 
linn i, 

luxury 

I-..- o too; 
W M t' 

■ 




very little blood will serve to cement our 

security. 

i: XXVIII. 

HtUflHtU aw ., r fhi '■fluff .>/ t'ru- 

I r>r« ,li thin ft 
' 'fittietvti trifling, and nmvorthy 

• line, been confined more than a 

fonnig! ; u • -t line* my arrival 

lima, and I 

greatly longed to sec her. 1 1 

municated IB ne next 

im Tiling the poor girl entered mj 
raent, leaning on Bet si,ter' ? arm. The 

change which I saw in her countenance 
me. The numberless graces that 
once resided there were now fled, and the 
hand i 

every feature to alarm me. Her temples 
;iiik. her forehead was tense, and a 
fatal paleness s.-.t upon her check. 

"1 u 
I; "bat why this dejection, Livyl [hope, 

my loi 

me to permit disappointment tints to nn- 

dcrmine ■ life which I prize as my own 

. child, and we may yet see 

\ ■ or, sir," replied she, 

kind to me, - to my pala 

thai 1 shall Rera have an opportunity of 
. "U promise. Hap- 

ti longer reserved for me 
ind I long to lie rid of a place 
C only found distress. Indeed, 
Mr, I 9 .ild make a proper snb- 

: to Mr. Thonihiil : it may in 

urn to pity you, and it 
« ill en in dying." 

■ :r. child," replied I; "never will 

I to acknow li ughte 

i ptostltutej for though the world may 

IPB, let it 
1 nl i ly. 

not of guilt. My dear, I am no way miser- 
able in llii- place, however dismal i 

.in 1 be assured, thai win' 

me by living, he shall 
never li Bsent to make you more 

' by marrying anothfl 

ter, my 
I tins inter- 
view, sen-ib! 'iUTOf 



66 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD, 



obstinacy in refusing a submission which 

,. thai iht ret) of my family 
to i».' sacrificed to uw peace of one child 

she tlie only one who 1 

added he, " 1 don't 
I il be ju-l thui to obstruct th" 
of nun and wife, which 

enl toa match youcan- 
n. .1 binder, but may rendei unhappy." 

"Sir," replied 1, yon are unacquainted 
with the man that opp I an 

sensible that no submission I con 
hour. I am I- ■!<_! that even ill lli 

1 lii>, no later than last 

tl Bui though my tnb- 

mission and approbation could transfer me 

from belli!- ti rtroent 

be i5 poSP 

I be giving a sanction to adultery. 
While my daughter lives, no other mar- 
of his shall ever lie legal in mj 

Id be the 
ren, from any resentment of my 
iipi putting asuni 
* .i anion. No, > ill lin - be is, I 

lences of bis future debancb- 

Hut now, should 1 not be the most 

cruel of .ill fjthei :iimcnt 

send my child to the grave, 

: myself; and thus, 

4, break my child's heart 

lie acquiesced in the justice of this 
. I. lit could not avoid nbscrvi. 

i .1 tnydaoghter's life was .dr. 
ne long a pi 
However," continued he, though you 

.Miit to the nephew, I hope you 

to laying your case be- 

i irncter 

in the kingdom fo« everything thai is iu-.t 

i ..I. I w niM advise you to 

.ill bis 
; and my life for it, that 
-hall have an :.i 
him for the hint, and in 

|j ; but 1 i. 

in. kily ill - ':n bud 

mini; In BTOvSllOnai however, 
[plied me. 




Tor the three . n 
state of anxiety to knov 
my letter might meet with. I.ui 
meantime was frequently sob 
wile to Mil. i. 
remain here, and every bom rei 

counts of the declini 
iter's health. The third day and the 

f.iinlli arrived, but I received no .. 

letter: the complaints of a stranger 
a favourite nephew were no 
likely to so that the- 

.1 like all my former. My mind, 

however, Mill mi 

menl and bad air l<L;an to make a 
'Ion ill my lie.ihb, and my ;irm 
that had suffered in the lire E 

My childra . sal by mi 

while 1 wjs stretched on my 

to me by turns, or listened and wepl 
instructions. But my daughter's health 
declined faster than mine : even messagi 
fr< .rn her contributed to increase my ap 
prehensions and pain. I lit fifth in 
\\ ritten the letter whi. 
sent to Sir William Thoinhdl, 1 WHS 

■ I with an a. . .unit that -I 
speechless. Now it wai 
was truly painful to me; nv 
bunting from its p near the pil- 

low of my child, to comfort, to stri 

: lasl wishes, and teach 
i.. Heaven 
account can expiring, and yet 

debarred the small comfort ol 

ing by her. My fellow prisoner, 

lime after, came with the last account. 

be patient ! sin- WStS dead '. 

The next morning he returned, an.'. 
me with my two little ones " 
companions, who were using all theii 
cent efforts t- 

. bade me at 
I was now i 

1 1" cried tl 

her? I wish I 

yen, "here 

i 1 

(i iikinson interrupted their hannl 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFfELD. 



<•? 



psalUc by observing, that, now my daugh- 
ter wj >l'l seriously think 
of the rest of my family, and attempt to save 
ray own life, which was every day declin- 
ing for ies and wholesome 
Ided, that it was now incum- 
bent on me to sacrifice any pride or re- 
sentment of my own to the welfare of 
impended on me for support ; 
Sit I was now, both by reason and 

e obliged to try I le my , 

iven be praised," replied I, "there 

u no pride left me now : I should detest 

nt 1!" 1 saw either pride or re- | 

nt lurking there. On the contrary, 

as my oppressor has been once my parish- 

toner. I hope one day to present him up 

an unpolluted loo] at the eternal tribunal. 

IT, 1 have no resentment now ; and 

though be has taken from me what I held 

dearer than all his treasures, though he 

my heart, — 'or I am sick almost 

sick, my fellow-prisoner, 

—yet tiiat shall never inspire me with 

vengeance. 1 am now willing t" approve 

hit marriage: and, if this -11l.nn-.-10n can 

do lum any pleasure, let him know that 

:m any injur)' I am sorry 

llr :00k pen and ink, and 

1 n my submission nearly as I 

:. to winch I signed my 

lumc. My too was employed to carry 

U* kltci to Mr. Thornhill, who was then 

-cat in the country. He went, and, 

imeil with a verbal 

answer. He had some difficulty, h 

to gel • sight of his landlord, as the ser- 

-olcni and -u-picious : but he 

' i m as he was going out 

ncSBj preparing for his marriage, 

1 was to lie in thi llecon- 

;• |it up in the 

lelivered the letter, ' 

.dull had read, lie 

taid that »' 1 was now too late 

and ■an wmrn r y ; that he had heard of our 

uncle, which met with 

for the 

mid be 

to him. lie 

■ a ever, thai as lie had a very 

of the discretion of the two 




young ladies, they might have been the 
most agreeable intercessors. 
" Well, -ir," odd 1 to my fellow-prisoner, 
"you now discover the temper 01 the BUM 
that oppresses me. He can at on 
facetious and cruel : but, let him use me 
as he will, I shall soon be free, in spite of all 
his bolt- to restrain no. lamnowdraw- 
ing to ward! an abode that looks brighter 
as I approach it: this expectation cheers 
my atllictions, and though 1 leave an help- 
less family of orphan- behind me, yet they 
will not be utterly forsaken : some ! 
perhaps, will be found to assist them for 
the sake of their poor father, and sonic 
may charitably relieve them for the sake of 
their heavenly Father." 

Just as I spoke, my wife, whom I had 
a that day before, appeared with 
looks of terror, and making efforts, but un- 
able, to speak. " Why, my love," cried 
I, " why will you thus increase my afflic- 
tions by your own ? What though no sub- 
missions can tarn our severe master.though 
he has doomed me to die in this place of 
wretchedness, and though we have lost a 
darling child, yet still you will find comfort 
in your other children when I shall 
more." — " We have indeed lost," returned 
she, "a darling child. My Sophia, my 
dearest is gone ; snatched from us, carried 
off by ruffians !" — " How, madam," cried 
my fellow-prisoner, " Miss Sophia carried 
off by villains ! sure it cannot be?" 

She COUld only answer by a fixed look, 
and a flood of tears. But one of the pri- 
soners' wives who was present, and came 
in with her, gave us a more distinct ac- 
count : she informed us, that as my wile, 
my daughter, and herself were taking a 
walk together on the great road, alittle way 
■ >ui "!' the village, a post-chaise and pair 
drove up to them, and instantly stopped : 
upon which 1 well-dressed man, but Dot 
Mr. Thomhili, stepping out, clasped in y 
dnughter round the want, and forcing her 
in, bade the poatihon drive on, so that 
they were out of sight in a tnogimt, 

v," cried I, "the - i-eries 

is made up, nor is it in the power ■•! 
thing on earth to . 

I not one left I— not tolc 

—The mania I- The child th 

my heart I— suehadviic.bcavA'jtA waw^jX, 
«\ 



68 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



and almost the wisdom of an angel. — But 

support that woman, nor let her (all.— Not 

c me one !" 

" All- ' my husband," said my wife, 

"you seem to w ant comfort even more 

than I. Ourdislresiesaregreat.bul I 
bear this and mure, if I saw you In; 
They may lake away my children, and all 
the wurld, if they leave me but you." 

My son, who was present, endeavoured 
to moderate our grief; he bade us lake 
comfort, for he hoped that we might still 

cason to be thankful, " My child," 

I, "look round the world, and see 
if there be any happiness leA me now. 1. 

■ ry ray of comfort shut out, while- 
all uur bright prospects only lie beyond the 

'" — " My dear father," returned he, 

"' I hope Iheit II still something thiii will 

interval of satisfaction ; for I 

i lettei from my brother George." — 

" What ul him, child?" interrupted I ; 

ir misery? I hope my 

. exempt from any part of what his 
wretched family suffers?" — " Yes, sir," 

ed he, " he is perfectly gay, cheer- 
ful, and happy. His letter brings nothing 
but g".»,l news ; he is the favourite of his 
to procure him the 
very "'-At lieutenancy that becomes va- 

" An. I no- you sure of all r 

>iu sure that nothing ill 

■"— " Nothi 

. madam," returned nr. 

.1- lettei, which will rii 
the I" re •. an. I if anything can 

. comfort, 1 am sure ili.it will." 
" But are yuu sure," still repealed she, 
"that tht- letter is from hiin-clf, and that 
In- i- I ippyj"— " Vcs. nia.hm," 

In-, " u is certainly hi-, and he 
will inn- day Kc the credil and -npport of 
uur family." — "Then, 1 thank Provi- 
dence," cried the, "thai my last lettei to 

f.'con- 

"I will now 
■ though the hand of 1 1 
upon us in other instances, n his 
able here. I I letter 

hicli « i. ui the bitter- 

I )n in. upon his 

if l.e had ilie heart 
of a man, to see j u tlis father and 



sister, and avenge our cause. But, thanks 
he lu Ilim that directs all things, it has 
miscarried, and I am at rest. "— ' 
cried I, "thou hast done very ill, and, at 
another time, my reproaches might l 
been more severe. Oh ! what a tremen- 
dous gulf hast ihou escaped, that would 
have buried both thee and him in endless 
niin ! Providence, indeed, has here been 
kinder to us than we to ourselves. It has 
reserved that son to be the father anil 
lector of my children when 1 shall be away. 

How unjustly did I complain of being 

stripped of every comfort, when Mill I 
thai he is happy, and insensible of uur 
afflictions ; still kept in reserve to sn 
hi. widowed mother, and to protect nil 
brothers and sisters I But w hat -i-iers has 
he left ? He has no sisters now : the 
all gone, robbed from me, and I am un- 
done." — "Father," interrupted my 
" I beg you will give me leave to read ihi- 
Iclter— 1 know it will please you." Upon 
which, with my permission, he read 
follows : 



my 



HONOUK&O Sik,— 1 have called u IT m 
imagination a few moments from the plea 
sures that surround me, to fix it upon ob- 
jects thai are still mure pleasing, — tl. 

little lire-side at home. My Fancy draw* 

ip, as listening to every 
line of this with great composure, i 
ith delight, winch new 
irming hand of ambition 
But, \ - lie a 

home, I am sure it will 1 
it to hear, that I am perfectly plea-' 
my situation, aiv' 

i Hir regiment is countermanded, and " 
nut |,, Inn- tin- kin 

who professes himself my Ml 

wilh him to all companies when 

acquainted, and, after mj 
1 genei lUy End myself n 

increased ■• 

light with I 
could I forget you know whom, 1 i 
be perhaps successful. Hill n 
still to rc-meii; 

■,i by mosl ■ 
mi. I in ' 

\pected tin 

pleasure of a leti 



THE VICAR OF WAKE! : 



*> 



10 wti ten me. 

i arrant litile bag- 

uli i hem ; yet still, 

mi In bluster 

a liti' lent only to 

sir, that, 
■ 
he as- 13 ever remaining 

V»m dutilul Son. 

." cried I, "what 
' one at 
lost of our family is exempt. 

Heaven be his guard, and keep 

bus happy, to be the support 

of hU mother, and the father of 

theme' . htch is all the patrimony 

Ufa him ! May he keep 

ence from the temptations of 

iductot 111 the paths 

n a noise like that of a tumult 
teemed to proceed from the prill >n 

soon after, and a clanking o\ 

heard along the parage that 

'it. The keeper of the 

1 the heaviest 

•ran*. 1 looked with 09 the 

preached me, but with 

my own ion 

rge ! and do I bc- 

- fettetn dl b 

s! is this the mam 

1 'h that this 

, and let me die ! " 

:" returned 

id voice. " I must 

iled, and let them 

restrain my r a few 

■ i hi ail. I 

have died with the effort. — " ' 

old thee thus, 
■ lp it. In the moment 
I prayed for 
to behold thee 1I111- again ' 
led ; and yet 

I Wit I am old, a very 
old tn e lived to see this day ! To 

Me my children all untimely falling about 
me, while I continue a wretched ml 



midst of ruin I May all the courses 
1 hit ever sunk a soul fall heavy upon the 
murderer of my children ! May he live, 
like me, to see " 

" II "Id, -:t '" replied my son, "or I shall 
blush for thee. How, sir' forgetlu! of 
your age, your holy calling, thus to arro- 
gate tli I leaven, and lling those 
curses upward that must soon doc 1 
crush thy own grey head with destructi' m ! 
No, sir, let it be your care now to fit me 
for that vile death I must shortly suffer ; 
to arm me with hope and resolution ; to 
give 1 ne courage to drink ol lint bttti 
which must shortly be my portion." 

" My child, you must not die : 1 111 

nee of thine can deserve so vile a 

punishment My George could net 

giully of any crime to make hi- ancestors 
ashamed ol' linn." 

"Mine, sir," retumed my son, "is, I 
fear, an unpardonable one. When I re- 
ceived my mother's letter from home, I 
immediately came down, determined lo 
punish the betrayer of our honoiu. 
sent him an order to meet me. which he 
■ answered, not in person, but by despatch- 
ing four of his domestics to sci/e n 
w.uiiried one who first assaulted in 
I fear desperately ; but the rest made me 
their prisoner. The coward i^ determined 
the law in execiilion against me ; 
ire undcnial'Ie : 1 have sent a 
challenge, and as I •rath 
upon the unite, I see no hopes of pudon. 

■n have often charmed me with your 
lessons of fortitude ; let me now, sir, find 
then in your example.'" 

" And, my son, you shall find tlitm. I 
■ \e tins W'uM. and all 

■sure* it can produce From this 

i I Weak from my heart all [hi 
that held it down to earth, and will pw 
o fit us both Yes, my 

ion, I «ill pomt •mi the way, and mj 
shall guide yours in the ascent, for v • 
take our flight together. I now se--, 
an convinced, JTOU cm expeet 110 p 
li.rc -, and 1 can only exhort you to seek 
it at that greatest tribunal "here "r both 
shall shortly answer. Hut. Id 
niggardly in our exhortation, Inn let all 
our fellow-prisoners have share t— < 
gaoler, let them be ocrmitted to sAs.tvJ.'m.-v* 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD 



while I attempt to improve them." Thus 
saying, I made an effort to rise from my 
. but wanted strength, and was able 
only to recline against the wall. The pri- 
soners assembled themselves according to 
my directions for they loved to hear my 
counsel: my son and his mother supported 
me on either side ; 1 looked and saw that 
none were wanting, and then addressed 
them with the following exhortation. 



.. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Tlu equal dealings <y* Providence demonstrated 
with retard la Ike Ihiffr mud the Miserable 
here belau: That, /ram Ike nature a/ /' 
mmd I'ain. Ike xsrrttcked mutt be rep.ti.1 Ike 
balance 0/ tkeir sufferings in Ike life here- 
after. 

" My friends, my children, and fellow- 
sufferers, when I rctlect on the dislnhnn. 11 
of good and evil here below, I find that 
much has been given man to enjoy, yet 
still more to sillier. Though we should 
comine the whole world, we shall not 
find "lie man so happy as to have nothing 
Irish for; but we daily see thousands 
MO by suicide show us they have nothing 
hope. In this life, then, it appears 
that we cannot be entirely blest, but yet we 
pletely miserable. 
" Why man should thus feel pain ; why 
our ivi -hould lie requisite in the 

formation of universal felicity; why, when 
all other systems are made perfect by the 
tion of their subordinate parts, the 
great system should require for its perfec- 
tion parts that arc not only subordinate to 
others, but imperfect in themselves — these 
are questions that never can be explained, 
ami might be useless if known. On this 
subject, Providence has thought fit to elude 
Bed with granting us 

■ to consolation, 

l*i this situation man has called in the 
friendly as- philosophy; and 

1. seeing the incapacity of that to 
riven him the aid of re- 
ligion. The consolations of philosophy are 

nosing, bul it tells 

at life is filled with comforts, if we 

will but enjoy them ; and. Ml the other 

'hat though M.ibly have 

miseries here, life is short and they will 

soon be over. Thus do these consolations 



I destroy each other ; for, if life is a place 
of comfort, its shortness must be n 
and if it be long, ourgrief- are protracted. 
Thus philosophy is weak ; but religion 
comforts in a higher strain. Man i 
1 it tells us, fitting up his mind, and pre- 
' paring it for another abode. When the 
good man leaves the body, and is all a 
glorious mind, he will find he has been 
making himself a heaven of happiness 
here ; while the wretch that has Iieen 
manned and contaminated by his 
shrinks from his liody with terror, and 
finds that he has anticipated the vengeance 
M I leaven. To religion, then, we must 
held, in every circumstance of life, for our 
truest comfort: for if already we are happy, 
it is a pleasure to think that we can make 
that happiness unending ; and if we are 
ible, it is very consoling to think 
that there is a place of rest. Thus, 
fortunate, religion holds out a continuance 
of bliss ; to the wretched, a change fmm 
pain. 

" But though religion is very' kind to all 
men, it has promised peculiar rewards to 
the unhappy : the sick, the naked, the 
houseless, the heavy laden, and tin 
soner, have ever most frequent promises in 
our sacred law. The Author of our religion 
■here professes himself the wretch's 
friend, and, unlike the false ones of this 
world, bestows all his caresses upon the 
forlom. The unthinking have censured 
this as partiality, as a preference without 
merit to deserve it. But they never reflect, 
that it is not in the power even of Heaven 
itself tomake the offer of unceasing 1 
as great a gift to the happy as to the 
miserable. To the first, eternity is but a 
single blessing, since at most it but in- 
creases what they already possess. To 
the latter, it is a double advantage); 
for it diminishes their pain here 
rewards them with heavenly bliss here- 
after. 

" But Providence is in another respect 
kinder to the poor than to the rich ; for 
as it thus makes the life after death 
desirable, so it smoothes the passage 1 
The wretched have had a long fomili 
with every face of terro 
I sorrows lays himself quietly du 
% possessions to regret, and but few ties to 



TlfE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



:« 



re : lie feels only nature's 
I ition, ami lh. 

3 in he has 

, for, after a certain degree of 
r opens 

'i nature kindly t 

given the 

'i i over the happy 

iter felicity in dying, and 

v of pleasure 

I enjoyment. 

irity, my friends, is no 

.dvjntage, and si' in- ta I". one of 

the poor man in thi 

dread} in hi 

ell all the raj mid give, yet 

lition to his 

•mforted ; th.it he had 
■ »s to be miserable, and 
be happy. 
iu sec religion does 



never do: il shows 

M the happy 

liumon 

the same standard, 

i ich and poor the same 

happiness hereafter, and equal hopes to 

il, if the ii 

poor have the ■ 

felicity here- 

though this should be 

nig an 

urotioii 

of the great 

I by inlen-. 

.1 have peculiar i 

vc the 
r.~' rrf mankind: in other respects, they 

life and 
n on the temporal 
advantages they enjoy, is only rep 

The 
living, 
are nol ■ want them, 

nrsnt 

he tlie wnnts 
of nature, c-iit give clastic sweetness to the 



dank I 

throbb 

philosopher from his couch ol 

us that we can resist all these . al 

efti.it by winch «. it-— i -t iin.ni is still the 

greatest pain. i I 

m.in may sustain it ; but torments are 

Iftilj and these no man can endure. 
" To us then, my friends, the pro 

Of h.ippincs.s inheaven should DC peculiarly 
dear ; foi if our reward be in tin- life 
alone, we are then .ill men the 

most miserable. V. . round these 

gloomy w.il'-. . as well as 

to confine us; this light, thai only serves 
to show the horrors of the place ; I 
shackles, that tyranny has imposed, or 
crime made . when I survey 

these emulated locks, and hear those 
groans — oh, my friends, what I glorious ex- 
change would he. n ■ these! Tolly 
through regions unconfined as air — to bask 
in the : eternal bliss— to 
over mdinss hymns of praise— to h:: 
masterto threaten or instill OS, butth 
of Goodness hiniseli lor evei in our eyes! — 
I think of th . dentli be- 
comes the messenger of very glad ti ■! 

i think of > : 

arrow ' 

when 1 think ..i ii. there 

in life worth having; when I think ol 

I awBJ : king- in Ii. 

should groan for such . trot 

wc. humbled as we are, should yearn for 
lh. -in. 
" And shall these thing- be "ins? Ours 

II certain.) be,ifwe but hrj fori 

and, what is a comfort, 

i my temptations thai would i 

our pursuit. I Inlv let us li V ii'l them, and 
.11 certainly be our- ; BJtd. whit is 

still a comfort, shortly too: for ii we look 

back on a pad life, it ap 

.an. and wb 
the rest of life, it will yet be found of less 
duraii.m ; as we grow older, the days seem 
to grow shorter, and our inlimnc) with 
iheperceptionol hi 

.i |oamey*s end ; « 
• tithe heavy burdi 
upon us ; and though dca\.V\, \\\t wvVsj -jis*^ 



THE r/r if! OF WAKEFIELD. 



of the 

the weary traveller with the n 

his horiaoa -till ilics before him; yet the 

time will certainly tad ihortlj 

Wl shall cease from our toil ; when the 

luxuriant grew ooa of the world • 

trod us to iIk- earth ; whea we shall 
thmk with pleasure ol 0U1 

when we shall be surrounded with nil our 
friends, or such as deserved our friendship ; 
when our bliss shall be unutteral. 

still, to crown all, unending." 
CHAPTER XXX. 

HtMltr rreififcti b*£tn to at/vnr. Let ra be 
rhau will at tail change im 

WHEN I had thus finished, and my au- 
dience was retire*!, the gaoler, \\ iinwasone 
of the most humane of h 
1 would not be displeased, as what he did 
; hut his duty, observing, that he must 

e obliged to remove my i mini 

■ i!t that be should he permit 

very morning. I thanked him 

. sod grasping my boy's 

hand, hade him farewell, sod be mindful 
I duty that was before him. 
I again therefore laid ine down, and one 
sat by my b 
ing.when Nfr.Jenkirisofl enta 

ighter ; 
for that she was -ten i about 

urs liefore i 
company, and that tin ■, 
neighbouring village for refreshment, and 
seemed as if returning to town. He had 
news when the 
nolei came, with loo H and 

pleasure, to inform me thai my 'I 

• 1,1 1. \|. . . i mining in a 

moment after, crying out thai hi- 

Sophia wai i ig up a rcfe 

heU. 

dearest 
I, and, with looks almost v. ild 

lion. I ler mothi . 
silence also showed her pleasure, 
papa,' ing girt, "here it the 

ry ; to 
! am indebted 

saure seemed 



even g' 

"Ah I Mr. Burchell." cried I. " 
but .i wretched bal 

in | and WC 
what y 

we have lot i emus 

with r. J ... and repented 

Alter the vile usag- 
tiieii received at my hands, I am almost 

1 to behold your 
you II forgive me, as I u I by a 

v. retch, who, undi 
, has undone me." 
" It is Imp tied Mr. Iluiehell. 

" that I should forgive you, as you i 
deserved my resentment 1 , 
your delusion then 

. I could only pit) 
" It Ma- ever BVJ 
" that your mind was noble ; but I 
find ii so.— But tell me, my 
how thou hast be. 

were who carried thee 
" Indeed, sir," repUe 
villain who carried me ofT, I sm m 
rant. For, as my mamma ntJk- 

it, he came behind us, - 
I could e.dl for help) Ion 

away. I met several "ii the ro 
whom l cried 
disregarded my entreaties, I 

time, the rut' If used every ait I 

hinder me I: 
and thl 

I continued hut silent, he 
lime I had I 
that he had 
I perceive al tome ilisti 

ii Ii, walking alon 
■ 
which * 

out to him bj 

I repeated i: 

n (top ; hiii the b 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



73 



he wax I "themselves, 

loii, stepping out, with oaths and 

i, and ordered him, 
at Ml hut Mr. Burchell, 

red Ilia sword to 
irsued him lor near a quarter of 
; but he ml 

mdc out myself, willing to assist 
my deliverer; but lie soun returned to me 
e postilion, who was re- 
Ceded, was going to make his escape too ; 
ordered him at his peril 
ind drive back to town, 
rig it iiupjssible to resist, he reluc- 
. ; died, though the wound he 
had received seemed, to me at least, to be 
dangerous. He continued to complain of 
the pain as we drove along, so that he 
r. Duichcll's coiri]> 
t my request, exchanged him for 
in urn whete we called on our 
retui 

ied I, "my child ' 

and ll lUant deliverer, .1 thou- 

welcomes! Though our cheer is but 

el our hea; v to re- 

Vnd now, Mi BurcbeU, 

i think lier a 

. she is yours : if you can stoop 

ill ■ l.iimly so poor as 

nunc, take t, — as I 

j have 

!1 you, sir, thai I 

small treasure : she has been 

iuIv, ii is true, hut that 

I give you up a 

cried Mr. Bur- 
are apprised of my cir- 
cumstances, and of my incapacity to 
U she descr 

present objection," replied I, 

ion of my offer, I 

1 know no man so worthy to 

dmrri her as you ; and if I could give 

Is sought her 

11c, yet my honest brave Burchell 

nied to 
pve a unii, wilhouttlic 

hatt reply to my offer. d if lie 

imcnts 

. tic ordered 



:n the beat dinner U1.1t COttld be pi 

1 1 e bespoke also 
a dozen of their best Mine, and 
cordials for me ; adding, Willi a smile, that 
he would stretch ?. little fur once, and, 
though in a prison, asserted he was never 
better disposed to be merry. The 9 
soon made his appearance with pn 
lions for dinner ; a tabic was lent us by the 
gaoler, who seemed remarkably assiduous ; 
the wine was disposed in order, and two 
very well dressed dishes were brought in. 
My daughter had not yet heard of her 
poor brother's melancholy situation, 
we all autniul unwilling to damp hcrcheei- 
fulness by the relation. But it was in vain 
that I attempted to appear cheerful : the 
circumstances of my unfortunate son bruke 
through all efforts to dissemble , • 

last obliged to damp our mirth by 
relating his misfortunes, and wishing that 
he might be permitted to share wiih us in 

this little interval of satisfaction. After 

my guests were recovered from iht 
slernalion my account had produced, I re- 
quested also that Mr. Jcnkinson, afellow- 
r, might be admitted, and the gaoler 
it wiih an air of unusual 
I he clanking of my son - 
I sooner heard along the passage, 
than his sister ran impatiently to meet 
him, while Mr. Burchell, in the meantime, 
asked me if my son's name was George ; 
to which replying in the affirmative, he 
slid continued silent. As soon as my boy 
entered the room, 1 could perceive he re- 
garded Mr. Burchell with I lookofaston- 
n i and reverence. " Come on, " cried 
I, "my son ; though we are fallci 
low, yet Providence has been pleased to 
grant n !l relaxation from pain. 

Thy listex is restored to us, and there is 
her deliverer : to that brave man il 1 
I am indebted for yet having a daughter: 
give him, my boy, the hand of frier. 
rves our warmest gratitude." 
My son leaned all this while regard- 
id, and still conti 
fixed at a respectful distance " My dear 

r, " why don 
thank my good deliverer ? the brave 
r»e each oth 
I le still continued his silence and 
Lshmciit, tiil uu r i^utst. tX VasV ywaivsi^k 



74 



THE VICAR OF UWKFFI '/•' /./>. 



liimsclf to be known, and, Maiming .ill 
his native dignity, desired my son to come 
forward. Never before had I seen any- 
thing so truly majestic as the air he as- 
sumed on this occasion. The greatest 
in the universe, says a certain philo- 
sopher, is a good man struggling with .di- 
versity j yet there is still a greater, 
is the good man that comes to relieve it. 
After he had regarded my son for some 
time with I luperioi air, ' I again find," 
said he, "unthinking boy, thai the same 

crime " Hut here he was interrupted 

of i lie gaoler's servants, who came 

■rm us that a person of distinction, 
who had driven into town with a chariot 
and several attendants, sent his respects 
the gentleman that was with us, and 
to know when he should think 
proper to be waited upon. " Bid the fel- 
luvv unit," cried our guest, "till I shall 
have leisure to receive him :" and then 
turning to my son, " I again find, sir," 
he, " that you are guilty of the 
same offence for which you once hml my 

■f, and for which the law isnowpre- 
parinrj its justcst punishments. You 

ic, perhaps, that a contempt for your 

own life gives you a right to take that of 

a : but when-, sir, is the difference 

between a duellist, who hazards a life of 

no value, and the murderer who acts w iih 

Scaler security ? Is it any diminution of 
mester's fraud, when he alleges that 
he has staked a counter ?" 

"Alas, sir," cried L " whoever you are, 

Jit y the poor misguided creature ; for what 
e has done was in obedience to a deluded 
mother, who, in the bitterness of her re- 
sentment, required him, upon her bit 

rrel. Here, sir, is the 
letter, which will serve to convince you of 
her imprudence, and diminish his guilt." 
lie took the letter, and hastily read it 
over. *' This," says he, "though not apcr- 
i ■ palliation of his fault 
~ I induces me to forgive him. And now, 
•ir." continued he, kindly taking my son 
by the hand, " I see you are surprised at 
finding me here ; hut I have often visited 
prisons upon occasions less interesting. I 
" i now come to sec justice done a worthy 
man, for whom I hive the most sincere 
steem. I have long been a disguised 






Itot of thy father's benevolence, 
have, at his little dwelling, enjoyed respect 
uncontaminatcd by flatter)- ; and have re- 
ceived that happiness that courts could not 
give, from the amusing simplicity around 
e-side. My nephew has been ap- 
prised of niy int- >ming here, 
and, I hml, is arrived. It would be wrong- 
ing him and you to condemn him without 
examination : if there be injury, there shall 
be redress ; and this I may say, without 
boasting, that none have ever taxed the 
injustice of Sir William Thomhill." 

We now found the personage whom we 
had so lmig entertained as an ban 

arnnimg companion, mi no other than the 

celebrated Sir William Thomhill, to whose 
virtues and singularities scarce an-. 
strangers. The poor Mr. Durchcll was in 
reality a man of large fortune and great 
interest, to whom senates listened with 
applause, and whom party heard with con- 
he friend of his country, 
but loyal to his king. My poor wife, re- 
collecting her former familiarity, seemed 
to shrink with apprehension ; but Sophia, 
who a few moments licfore thought him 
her own, now perceiving the immense dis- 
tance to which he was removed by fortune, 
was unable to conceal her tears. 

" Ah ! sir," cried my wile, with a piteous 
aspect, "how is it possible that I can ever 
have your forgiveness ? The slights you 
received from me the last time I had the 
honour of seeing you at our house, and the 
jukes which I audaciously threw out — 
these, sir, I fear, can never be forgiven." 

" Mydeargood lady," returned he wrh 
■ smile, "jf you had your joke, 1 had my 
answer : I'll leave ii to. all the company if 
mine were not as good as yours. To say 
the truth, I know nobody whom I am dis- 

SWfth at present, but the 
ellow who so frighted my little girl 

to examine the rascal's 
person so as to describe him in an 

icllmc,Sophia,mydrar, 
whether you should know him again ?" 
" Indeed, sir," replied she, " I can't 

fiositivc ; yet now I recollect, he had 
arge mark over one of his eyebrof 

pardon, madam," interrupted Jen- 

so good as 

to inform na rem his own 



the vicar or wakefield. 



7S 



Anil ili'l you* bo 
tnra&dhe. tii' 

i 
of their lon-il.," cried the Bo 

for he 
ml I thought few 
m could have done." — [ 
" Please your honour," cried Jeni 

! '.'Hi ; he ha- ; 

; I 1 him perfectly, and 

Ike very place of ! his moment 

iiir will hid Mr. Gaoler I 

i me. I'll engage to pro- 
• you in an li'-mr at farthest." 
Upon this'' led, who in- 

ning. Sir William don 
him. " Yet, please your 

I well, and everybody 
him h ill di 
of him."— " Well, lhcn,"said 
'Ii.it you will 

cage by my authority ; 
loaalam I of Ihc peace, 

I uo.l. Hal . In secure you,"—" You pro- 

dthem 
never your honour thinks 

it" 

ii.-.i in ., .. 

imused 
^^^Hbc as- "V 

ne in ami cli 

^Hv> i 

ly going to chastise 
thy man pra- 
nking ihc child, 

lurched! ? anil 

' veteran, are you 

too ihall find I have not forgot you." 

; iece of 

:h the pool 

I thai mnm- 

'•n to dinnei 

.'. illiam wrote apre- 



- be hail made the study of 

iiiisemeiit, and wis inure than 

moderately skilled in the prui. 

being sent to an apothecary who lived in 

ce, my arm was dressed, and I found 

almost insianianeous relief. We were 

'J pon at dinner by the gaoler In 
who was willing to do our guest all the 
honour m hil ["over. But be! 
well din a message was brought 

from his nephew, desiring permission to 
appear in order lo vindicate his innocence 
and honour : with which request the 
Baronet Complied, and desired Mr. Tli'Uii- 
hill to be introduced. 

| II \rl I K XXXI. 
Fonnrr BtmtvoUfK» Ham npaid with untx- 

Mr. THORN BUJ appearance 

with a Bmile, " bich he seldom w 

;g to embrace his uncle, which 
let repulsed with an air of disdain. 
"No fawning, nr, at present," cried the 
Baronet, with a look of severity ; " the 
only way to my heart is by the road of 
honour ; but here I only see complicated 
instances of falsehoodi cowardk- . 
is it. sir, that tin 
man, for whom I know you 
friendship, is used thus baldly! I lis 
daughter vilely seduced as a recoio 
("i hi- hospitality, and he himself thrown 
into prison, perhaps for resenting the in- 
sult? Hit ana, t 00, whom you feared to 

B man " 

"Is it possible, -ir," iutcriiipi 

iv uncle should object 
which his r 

structions alone have persuaded me to 
I , ,i 

" Your rebuke," cried Sir William, "is 

•tance, 
prudently and well, though not quite us 

! her would have d 
indeed, was the soul of honour ; but thou 

Yes, you have acted, in this in- 

tance, perfectly right, and it hat my 
ion." 
" And I hope," said his nephew, "that 
the rest of my conduct will not be 
to deserve censure. It , wWj 

this gentleman's daughter at some places 
of public amusement : Vbis, ->s\ia.V -w»i 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



. .-.caudal called I., name, 

and ii »j« reported I haddebanched her. 
ed uii her father in pencil, willing 
lo clear [lie tiling to liis satisfaction, and 
he teceived meouly with insult and abuse. 
As for the ret, with regard to his Mug 
here, my attorney and steward can best 
inform you, is I commit the management 
of business entirely to them. If lie has 
contracted debts, and is unwilling, or even 
unable to pay them, it is their business t.. 
proceed in this manner : and I see no 
hardship or injustice in pursuing the moat 
legal means 

" If this," cried Sir William " be as you 
have stated it, there is nothing unp.n- 
e in your offence ; and though your 
conduit might have been more generous 
in not lufierwg this gentleman to be op- 
pressed by subordinate tyranny, yet it has 
been U least equitable." 

" He cannot contradict a single parti- 
cular," replied the Squire ; " I defy him 
to do so ; and several of my servants arc 

'est what I say. Thu 
continued he, finding that I wassUent, for 
I could not contrail ict him— "thus, 
ay own innocence i- vindicated : but 
'.' »t your entreaty I am ready I" for- 
give this gentlemen every other offence, 
yet his attempts to leaven nie in your es- 
teem entment that I cannot 
govern ; and tin,, too, at a time when his 
is actually preparing to take away 
iiiv life, — this, I say, was such guilt, that 
1 am determined to let the law take its 
I have here the challenge that 
nt me, and two witnesses to prove 
ic of my servants has l>ecn wounded 
dangerously ; and even though my uncle 
himself should dissuade me, which I know 
he will not, yet 1 will see public justice 
done, and he shall suffer for it." 

" Thou monster I " cried m\ 
thou not had vengeance enough already, 
hut niu, i my pool iy cruelty? I 

thai good ^ir William will | 

- as innocent as a child : 
I am .sure he is, and never did harm to 

" Madam," replied the good man, "your 

wish.-, greater than 

mine ; but I Jin sorry to find his guilt too 
plain ; and if my nephew persists " 



Hut the appi tad i 

its now called off our at 
tention, who entered, hauling in a tall man, 
very genteelly dressed, and answering the 
description already given of the ruffian wji 
had carried off my daughter. " Here, 
cried Jenkinson, pulling htm in, " here w 
have him ; and if ever I I cand' 

date for Tyburn, this is one." 

The moment Mr. Thornhill perceive 
the prisoner, and Jenkinson who had hii 
ill custody, he seemed to shrink bach wil 
terror. His face became pale wi> 

guilt, and he would have withdra 



bat Jenkinson, who perceived his design, 

d him. " What, - .ed he, 

yon ashamed of your two d! 
quait kinson and Baxte: 

this is the way that all great men forj 
then friends, though I am resolved 
will i m. Our prisoner, pi 

your honour," continuedhc, turning 
\\ illi.-im, " has already confessed all Th 
is the gentleman reported lo be so * 
ously wounded. He declares that it \< 
Mr. Thornhill who first put him up 
affair ; that he gave him the clothes 
now wears, to appear like a genlh 
and furnished him with the , 
The plan was laid between them, thai I 
should carry off the young lad)- t< ■ 
. :ely, and that there he should t 
J and terrify her ; hut Mr. Thornhill was 

come in, m the meantime, as if b] 

•lent, to her rescue ; and that the\ 
fight awhile, and then I n off, 

which Mr. Thornhill would have t 
, belter opportunity of gaining her aff< 
himself, under the char 
defcii' 

Sir William remembered the coal 
' have I" his nephew, and all tl 

he prisoner himself confirmed by 
more circumstantial account.: concludm, 
lh.it Mr. Tliornhill had often declared I 
him that he was in love with I 
i me 
"Hi riedSir William," 

a viper have I been fostering in my boso 
And so fond of public ju 
seemed to lie ! But he shall ' 
cure him, Mr. Gaoler — Yet. hold ! I f< 
there is not legal evidrnc 

Upon this Mr. Thornhill, with 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



77 



MJtiO"-! humility, entreated lh.it two such 
hes might not be admit- 
against him, but thai his 
servants should be examined. " Your ser- 
Sir William. " Wretch 
■ ours no longer: hut come, let 
e fellows have to 
. ,e call 

: butler was introduced, he 
by his former master's 

.ill his power was no". 

I - William, sternly, 
een your mister, and that 
in his dot 

CtherT" — " Y your 

ncd the butler, "a tho 

man that always brought 

interrupted 

lull, " tins to my face?" 

ilied the butler, " or to any 

run' tell you a truth, : 

Thornhill, 1 never eithei or liked 

now a 
, mind." — " Now, then," cried 

onour whet 1 

"—" I can't say," 

lit I know much 

;h! that gentleman's 

Icluded to our house, you 

ihem." — " So then," cried Sir 

I find JTOO have brought a very 

ve your innocence: thou 

! to associate with such 

1 continuing his examina- 

'■!,-. Butler, tli u this 

light him this old 

I not 

;!il the 

ID : " I 

confu- 

liaro- 
his vil- 

1 

i 

I I nisi 

i 



light to my friend the magistrate, who has 
committed him. But "here is the unfor- 
tunate young lady her. elf ? Let her appear 
to confront this wretch: I long to know 
by what art! he has seduced her. Entreat 
her to come in. Where is she?" 

" Ah! sir," said I, " that question 
me to the heart: I was once indeed happy 

in a daughter, but her miseries " 

Another interruption here prevented me ; 
for who should make her appearance l>ut 
Mi-- Arabella Wilmot, who was next ilny 

been married to Mr. Thoniliill. 
Nolo . i .1 her -uninse at seeing 
Sir William and his nephew here before 
her; for her arrival was quite accidental. 
It happened that she and the old gentle- 
man, her father, were passing through the 
town, on the way to her aunt's, who had 
insisted that her nuptial-, with Mr. Thorn- 
hill should be consummated at her house; 

ipping for refreshment, they put up 

al an inn al the other end of the town. It 

was there, from the window, that the 

young lady happened to observe one of* 

my 1 1 1 tie boys playing in the Street, and 

instantly sending a footman to bring the 

child to her, she learned from him some 

It of our misfortune.; bill was still 

;norant of voting Mr. Thornhill's 

being the cause. Though her father 

several remonstrances on the impropriety 

of going to a prison to I I they 

were ineffectual; she desired the child to 

t her, which lie did, and it was 

thus she surprised us at a juncture so 

can I go on without a reflection on 
utal meetings, winch, though 
ippen even" te our 

surprise but PpOJl some extraordinary 00- 
To what a fortuitous concurrence 
do we : and conve- 

nience of our lives ! How many seeming 
accide D lite before we can be 

1 01 fed ! The peasant urns! I 

our, the answer most fall, the 

wind fill the merchant's sail, or numbers 
must want the usual supply. 

"rV« ill continued sileni for some mo- 
ling pupil. 

tins young 

m ami 
iiient, wluclv £a,ve,r\e.<« fav&'ctas^n 



78 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



-" Indeed, mydc . 
bill," cncd she to the Squire, who she sup- 
come here to succour, 

o, '• I take n n Utile unkindly 
lii.it you should come here without me, or 

dorm meof the situation of a family 

so dear to us both • you know I should take 
as much pleasure in contributing to the 
relief of myrevercndoldmaslcrhcre, w bom 
I shall ever esteem, as you can. Uul I find 
that, like your uncle, you takes pleasure in 
doing good in secret. 

" II'- find plcasunsm doing good !" cried 
. 1 1! 1.1 m, interrupting her. "No, my 
dear, his pleasures are as base U 
You see in him, madam, as complel. 

- ever disgraced humanity. A wretch, 
who, after having deluded this poor man'* 
iter, after plotting against the inno- 
cence of her sister, has thrown the lather 
be eldest son into fetters 
because he had the courage to face her bc- 
Arid give me leave, madam, now | 
1 lie you upon an escape from 
uch i monster." 

" i < ;: Iness!" cried the lovely girl, i 

"h"w hare I been deceived ! Mr. ! 
hill informed me for cer lain that this gent le- 
Captain Primrose, was 
gone off to America with his ncw-m 

" \h -".■ nted my wife, "he 

has told you nothing bnl falsehoods. My 

son George never left the Idngdi mi, nor ever 

was married. Though you have forsaken 

linn, he ba always loved vu too "ell to 

think of anybody else ; and I have heard 

I die a bachelor for your 

a proceeded to ex] 

anon tl passion: -he 

aonilnll in 

gtatj from thence she made a rapid 

- pike's debaucherie-. In. 

ded with i 

lice. 
' -- Wilmot, 
near have I been to the brink 
of rain I Ten thousand falsehoods hi 

man told me! lie had al lad art 
i to persuade me, that my pt 
10 the only man 1 esteemed was no li 

n unfaithful. By 
I was taught to 
squall) 



But by this time my son was freed from 
the encumbrances of justice, as the person 
supposed to be wounded was detected to 
bean impostor. Mr. Jenkiosoo, also, who 

had acted as his valel-dc-chambre, 
dressed uphis hair, and furnished him with 
whatever was necessary to make a c 
appearance, lie n 

handsomely dressed In his regimentals; 

and, without vanity (for I am above it), 
he appeared as handsom 

military dress. As he entered, lie 
made Miss Wilmot a modest and dl 
bow, for he was not as yet acquainted with 
the change which the eloquence of his 
mother had wrought in his favour. But no 
tna could restrain the impatience of 
his blushing mistress to be forgiven. Her 






tears, her looks, all contributed todiscover 
f her heart, for having 
a her forma promise, and having 
suffered hersell to be deluded by an ir 
lor. My son appeared amazed at her 
condescension, and could scarce be i 
real. — "Sure, madam." cried he, "I 
l.iii ddusionl I can never have i 
this ! I thai h to I 

happy."— "No, Eh*," replied she; " 
been deceived, hi red, else no- 

thing could bave ever made me unjust to 
my promise. You know my friendship — 
you have long known it— but forget what 1 
have done, and as you once had my warm- 

ncy, you shall nov 
them repeated ; and be assured, thai 
Arabella cannot I" 

' — " And no other 
be," cried Sir William. " if I have any in- 
fluence with your father." 
This hint was sufficient for my son Moses, 

who immediately flew to the inn wl 
old gentleman "a-*-, to inform bun of even 
circumstance that bad happened. But, in 
the meantime, the Squire, perceivui 
lie "a. on every side undone, new ! 

that no >! ittery or dis- 

simulation, concluded tl 
would be to turn and ' 

Thus, laying jsid. 

illain. " I find, I 

cried he. " ili.u I .mi t" 
here; but lim r 

You shall know, sir," tU 
William, " I 



V Of WAKEFIELD. 



79 



doit 11 them. 

Nothi : irlunc 

;, Ii..t fallii i 

In my possession. It was her IbrtB 
that induced mc to v. 
and, possessed of the one. let 

•h" i " 

in alarming blow. Sir William 

. up the 
iVilmnt, 

therefore, perceiving that her fortune was 

ty son, 

asked 

value lo him? ." said 

I have 

! lover, 
* was Indeed all that you ever liad ti 

that I ever thought worth the 

ill that's happy, your \ 
Teases my pi 

' girl of 

■ 

consented to 

11 itch. But finding 
cured t" Mi. 

veil up, 

ippoinlment. 

i iscal, but to 
want i 
was wormwood. 

ulaotesemployedin lliemo.t 
ill Sir Willi i 

. ill 
aa hnrwM young soldier, who is u illing In 



forono- .'.Inch courts 

nee." 
William," replied the old gcntlc- 
I never yet fori 

tncKnations, nor will I now. If she »till 
continues to love tins young gentleman, let 

■••-- htm, Will it. There 

]-. .nil. thank Heaven, some fortune left, 

and your promise will make it something 

more. Only let my old friend here" (; 
iog mc) " give me ■ promise- of settl> 

ipon my girl if e\ 

to oil fortune, and 1 am I 
J be the first to join lli 
g. ih 

A- u now remained with me l" 

lung couple i lily gave a 

; which, to one who had such little 
i . W 
•. the satisfaction of see- 
in fly into each other's anus in a tran- 
sport " After ail my m " cried 

i George, " 
Sine this fj more than I could CV«1 

hope for. T 
all thai I after such an Interval 

could never 
i high I 

" Yet, my George," returned his lovely 

"now let the wretch take n 

n happy « ithi « 

am I. Oh, what an exchl 
— from the basest of m 
best! 1-cl hun enjoy our Ibl 
now be happy even in indigence."— 

mill what you ile. pis,.-."— " [ {old, 

to thai bargain. As lot I orrone, 

i never tool : iver of 

It. Pray, your honour. 
Sir William, " can the Squire havi 
fortune ifhe be married I 

.in.li a simp 
mam!?" replied the 1 
edly he com i that, 

. 

BUt I MHI.I til 

I 

I I 



8o 



THE VICAR OF IVAKEl 



turned the Squire, who seemed roused by 
this Insult ; " I never mi legally married 
to any woman." 

" indeed, begging your honour's par- 
don, " replied the Other, "you were: and 
• you will - ipet return of 

friendship to yooi own I Ituuon, 

who b. I wile; and :l the com- 

pauy :■ curiosity a few mimiic-s, 

they shall see her." So saying, he went 

th his una] celerity, ami left us all 

unable to fann any pi 'liable conjecture as 
to his design. " Ay, let him go," 
the Squire; "whatever else I may have 
done, I defy him there. I am too old now 
to lie frightened « 

in surprised,' 1 said tl 
" syhal ili • fellow can intend by thi-. Some 
low piece of humour, I suppose, "— " Per- 
haps, sir," replied I, " he may have a more I 
serious meaning. Pi >r w hen we reflect on 
the various icbemes this gentleman lias 
laid to seduce innocence, perhaps some 
one more artful than tl - been 

found able to deceive him. When we con- 
sider what numbers he has mined, how 
many parents now feel, with anguish, the 
infamy and the contamination which he 
: into their I would 

prise me if some one of them 

roentl Do i i daughter! 

old her! It is, it is my life, my hap- , 

J II I hold thee — and still thou shall 

ive to bless me. " The warmest transports 
of the fondest lover were not greater than 

n my arms, n 

nly spoke her r.i | • 

fort in age!" 
— "Tint she feoklnsonj 

your own ; 

In the whole room, lettheoth 
■ will. And as foi you. Squire, 
■. lady 
i- your lawful wedded wi 

rou that I speak nothing bu< the 
I nil h, here is the which you 

were married toe; 
put the licence into 

respect. "And i men," con- 



tinued he, "1 find you are surprised at all 
this; but a few words will explain the 
difficulty. That there Squirt 
for whom I have a great friendship (but 
that's between ourscln 

floyed me in doing odd little thm. 
im. Among the rest, he comnii- 
me to procure him a f.i' and a 

m order to deceive this young 
lady. But as I was very much his : 
what did I do, but went and got a true 
licence and a true priest, and married them 
both as fast as the cloth could make them. 
Perhap> you'll think it was generosity that 
■ne du all this : but no: to my shame 
I confers n. my only design was to keep 
the licence, and let the Squire know that 
I could prove it upon him whenever I 
thought proper, and so make him come 
down whenever I wanted money." A 
barsj of pleasure now seemed to fill the 

ipartment ; our joy reached 
to the common room, \\ here the prisoner 
themselves sympathised, 

And shook their chains 

In transport and rude harmony. 

1 1 appincss was expanded upon ever 
6we and even I iliua's el ■ 
flushed with pleasure, To be tin 
stored to reputation. to friends, and fortune 
at once, was a rapture sufficient to stop 
the progress of decay, and restore forme 
But, perhaps, among 
all, there was not one who U 

[ileasure than I. Still holding the 
old in my arms, I asked rnv 

■ poit- were not delusion. 
"How con!] \oii," cried I.lunnng to Mr. 
Jenkinson, " how ■ idd to my 

But 

it matters not; my pleasure at finding ha 

. more than a recomi>euse for the 

pain." 
" As to your question, 

the only pnol freeing yo 

from | '.bmitting !■ 

. and consenting to his marriage 
With the other young lady. But lie 
had vowed yui 

reforc 

> bear, 

l.ut by pcr.uodmg you that she was dead. 



her 

the 
ight 



THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



Si 



. »ded on your wife to join in the 
ii.l we have not bad a fit oppor- 
in till now. 
1 be whole assembly now there np- 
(eared only two faces th.it did not glow 
crrt. Mr. ThornhilTs assurance 
v forsaken him: he now saw 
infamy and want before him, 
rerobled to take the plunge, lie 
•-.re fell on his knees before his undo, 
and in a voice of piercing miser)' implored 
compassion. Sir William was g 
spurn him away, but at my request he 
nised him, and, after pausing a few mo- 
ments, " Thy vices, crimes, and ingrati- 
cried he, "deserve no tenderness ; 
jet thou shalt not be entirely forsaken, — 
t bare competence shall be supplied to 
sapport the wants of life, but not its follies. 
This young lady, thy wife, shall be put in 
possession of a third part of that fortune 
i once was thine, and from her ten- 
derness alone thou art to expect any ex- 
Inordinary supplies for the future." lie 
was going to express his gratitude for such 
kindness in a set speech ; but the ban met 

him, by bidding him not aggra- | 
vale his meanness, till idy but 

loo apparent. He ordered him at the 
ume time to be gone, and from all his 
former domestics to choose one, such as he 
thould think proper, which was all that 
should be granted to attend him. 

As soon as he left us, Sir William very ! 
up to his new niece with 
a smile. anJ wished her joy. His example 
was followed by Miss Wilmot and her 
father. Mv wife, too, kissed her daughter 
with much Affection ; as, to use her own 
the was now made an honest 
woman of. Sophia and Moses followed 
'1 even our benefactor Jcnkin- ' 
to be admitted to that honour. | 
eemed scarcely capable j 

lease. Sir William, whr.se greatest 

pleasure was in doing good, now looked 

. countenance open as the sun, 

and saw nothing but joy in the looks of 

cept that of my daughter Sophia, 

who, for some reasons we could not com- 

perfectly -.. 

lie, with a smile, 

"th«: -ipany except one or two 

i. happy. There only remains 




an act ol justice for me to do. You are 
sensible, sir," continued lie. turning to me, 
"of the obligations we both owe to Mi. 
Jenkinson ; and it is but lust we should 
both reward him lor it. Miss Sophia will, 
I am sure, make him very happy, I 
shall have from me five hundred pounds 
as her fortune; and upon this I am 
they can live very comfortably together, 
Come, Miss Sophia, wh.it ny you to this 
march of my making* Will you have 

My poor girl seemed almost sinking 
into her mother's arms at the hideous pro- 
posal. " Have him, iff ! " cried she faintly: 
No, sir, never ! "— " What ! " cried he 
again," not have Mr. Jenkinson, your bene- 
factor, a handsome young fellow, with 
five hundred pounds, and good expec- 
tations!" — "I beg, sir," returned she, 
scarce able to speak, "that you'll d 
and not make me M nry wretched." — 
' Was ever such obstinacy known ! " crici 
he again, " to refuse a man whom the 
family have such infinite obligations to, 
who has preserved your sister, and who 
has five hundred pounds I What I not 
have him I" — "No, sir, never 
she, angrily; " I'd sooner die first." — "If 
that be the case, then," cried he, " if you 
will not have him— I think I must have 
you myself." And, so saying, he caught 
her to his breast with ardour. " My love- 
liest, my most sensible of girls," cried he, 
" how could you ever think your own 
Burchell could deceive you, or that Sir 
William Thornhill could ever cease to 
admire a mistress that loved him for him- 
self alone! I have for some years sought for 
a woman, who, a stranger to my fortune, 
could think that I had merit as a man. 
After having tried in vain, even amongst 
the pert and the ugly, how great at last 
must be my rapture to have made a con- 
quest over such sense and such heavenly 
beauty." Then turning to Jenkinson : 
" As I cannot, sir, part with this young 
lady myself, for she has taken a fancy to 
the cut of my face, all the recompense I 
can make is to give you her fortune ; and 
you may call upon my steward to-monow 
for five hundred pounds." Thus we had 
all our compliments to repeat, and Lady 
Thornhill underwent the same round of 

iy that her sit\« \\»A Aw«Vw&cr«., 



82 



THE VICAR OF iVAKEflFr T>. 









In the meantime Sir WiD ntleman 

appeared lo tell us that the equipages were 
ready to carry us to the inn, « here every 
thing was prepared for our reception. My 
wife and I led the van, and left those 
gloomy mansions of sorrow. The generous 
Baronet ordered forty pounds to be 
buted among the prisoners, and Mr. Wil- 
mot, induced by his example., gave half 

ink. We • low by 

the shouts of the village r.v and 

. by the hand two or three of my 

; .. « ho were among the 

number, They attended u s to our Inn, 

when a sumptuous entertainment was 
ed, and coarser provisions were 
buted in great quantities among the 
populace. 

\iier supper, as my spirits were ex- 
hausted l>\ the .iliemation of pleasure and 
Sain winch they had sustained during the 
I asked permission to withdraw; 

and, leaving the company in llie IB 

mirth, as soon as I found myself 

■tirade 

to the GtVCf of joy as well I 

and then slept undisturbed till morning. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

TitF next morning! as soon as I awaited, 
1 found my eldest son sitting by D 
aide, who came 10 increase my joy with 
another turn of fortune in my l;nnu First 
having released me from the settlement 
tli.it 1 had made the day before in his 
favour, he let me know that my merchant, 
.id failed in town, WU arrested at 
n up effects 
to a much greater amount than Mtal was 

almost as much as this un- 

l-foi good fortune , but I had some 

Ii whether I ought, in justice, to 

' his offer. While I ni pi ndering 

upon this Sir William entered the 

bo wl nmnicated my doubts. 

His opinion was that, as my son WU 

already possessed of a very' affluent (i 

la offer 
without any hesitation. Hi! bi 
however, ml to Inform me, ti.at.ishehad 

the night before sent for the I 

expected them ever) hour, he hoped dial I 



would not rel 

footman entered while *. I 

to tell ua that the meawnger wasrel 

and as I WU by ibis til 1 went 

down, where 1 found the whi 
as merry as affluence and innocence could 
make them. However, ax they were now 
preparing for a very solemn ceremony, 
their laughter entirely disj leased me. I 
told them of the grave, bee 
sublime deportment they should asstin 
upon this mystical occa .idtbe 

two homilies, and a thesis of my mm I OK 
order to prepare ii I i B, V. 

they still seemed perfectly refi 
nngovernnble. Even as we a 

along to church, to which I led the WI 
id quite fors. I 

d tempted to turn back iii indhj 

tion. In church a new dilemma aro 
which promised no easy lolutl 

Id be married fir 

insisted that Lady 

I 1 omhill (that was to I i d.elhe 

other refused with equal 

c guilty 

ch rudeness for lie world. The 
argument wi si me lime 

between Ixith, with equal obstinacy and 
good bleeding. But, as I stood all this 
time wuh my book ready, 1 was at last 
quite tired of 1 1 « ad, .-hutting 

ft, "i I. " thai i 

youlia\ea mind tobt married, and I think 
we had as good go back again ; for I sup- 
i no business done here 
I em to 
reason. The Baronet and his lady were 
first married, and then my son and 

. partner. 

I bad previously, that morning, 
orders that a coach should be sent for my 
honest neig; . diorough a: 

family; by which means, trponoui 

to the inn, wi had the pleasure of finding 

the two Miss Flamboroughi alighted be- 

Mr. Tenkinaon and to 

the eldest, and my son Moses led up the 
other (and I have since found, I 
has taken a real Id ing to the l 
consent and bounty he shall have, whe 
cver he thiruVa p roper to demand the 
\\ c were no sooner returned to the 



were 

i: 



TffS VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 



«3 



bo! tsomber* of m\ parishioners, hearing 
of aay Mrrnii came to congratulate me ; 
■ ere those who rose 
md whom I formerly rc- 
ll sharpness. 1 told the 
-., William, my son-in-law, who 
I Ihem with great 
l>nl finding theiu quite di 

e them 
drink his health, 
lejecied spii 

re called to a very 

tcrlainment, which was dressed 

nihill s cook. — Ami it may not 

ptassv to observe with respect to 

dial In- u< i* resides, in 

i's house, 

■.veil liked, aud seldom sitting 

1 1£- except when there is no 

il the other; for they ni.ike no 

;el of him. Hi- time is pretty much 

up in keeping his relation, who is a 

ncholy, in spirits, and in leam- 

. Mow ihe French horn. My eldest 

ill remembers him 

; and she has even told me, 

. I make a great secret of it, thai 

may be brought to 

— Hut to return, for I am not apt 

thus: when we were to si! down 

monies were going to be 

renewed. The question wa>, whether my 

'ter, as being a matron, should 

;he two young brides ; but the 

debate was cut short by my son George, 



who pi si the company should 

sit indiscriminately, every gentleman by 
his lady. Th 

frnbalion by all, ■ " '■■■; 

fied, aj she expected to have h 

sure .if sitting a! the head of the [able, and 

j all the meat fur .ill the company. 
But, notwithstanding this, it U imp 
to describe our good humour. 1 can't 

say whether we had more wll -im. ■ 

now than usual ; but I am certain we had 
more laughing, which answered the einl 
as well. OlM [esl 1 particularly re- 
member: old Mr. Wihiuii drink! 
Ha u -, whose head was turned 
way, my son replied, "Madam, I thank 
you." upon which the old gentleman, 
winking upon the rest of the company, 
observed that he was thinking ol his nus> 
icst I thought the two 
Miss Flamboroughs would have died with 
laughing. As soon as dinner was over, 
according to my old custom. I reqt 
that the table might be taken away to have 
the pletwure of .seeing all mv (ami I 
sembled once more by a cheerful firi 
My Iwo liltlc ones sat upon each knee, 
the rest of the company by their partners, 
I had nothing now on this side of the grave 
to wish for : all my cares were over . 
pleasure was unspeakable. It now 
remained, that my gratitude in good for 
tune should exceed my former submission 
in adversity. 



01 rilF VtCAS "I' WAKEFIELD. 



THE 



CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



THE EDITOR'S PREFACE. 



oiHpUting the abililia Of 

nitliors Escobar, for inst.: ynius 

■ 

state Ins x ; 
. but as !■• hit It: .. .'■'its.-. It 

;r/t of ahie/u 

. Aim us ign 
i .1 Tripoli ne find i' 

..lorn, endued eve* with 
,:l his knowledge that the 

Europeans, to rt 
t and firtcitionl T'n-v htm tuner read onr iookj, 

.1 they tali 

truth 

mankind. 

.:>■ ; and i:. 

•umier sep.: use of the very same met/:, UTt rtjined 

i/s are few: but mil: . -.'■or to the Chinese 

ling correspondence. The metaphors- and allusions 

Their/. 1 Many 

he. The ' ..-turns ; so is he. But 

il peculiarly striking! the Chinese art often dull ; 

We are toll in an old romanee 
it-errant and his horse "oho e\ hip. The 

■ 
:n the iiiliui -.. :,thar 

1 lift of his eastern sublimity, and I have lomttimes 

passes 

'\ that tn.-/: - a 's shonlif 

pitlitts of '.-/.• 1 shed 

fall on every tide, but 

\ofy, by ton: 
■he mulabll line; bill:! -I of 

It take a nap myself, and -.ohen I awake tell 

' booths 
" Pair :oas 
- irks there - 
fntoty find a very g> .J, however, to nbtervt DurM 






88 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



of the plate in safety from the shore; semible that ice was at best precarious, and 
•ig been always a little etnoardly in my sleep. 
Sever ■ fHaintaiUt seemed much more hardy than I, and went over the 

•ith intrepidity. Some carried their ivories to the fair on sledges, some on 
and those which were more voluminous were conveyed in waggons. Their temeniy 
oished me. I knew their cargoes were Heavy, and expected ei ..' they 

to the bottom. They all entered the fair, however, in 
eacl, my gretit surprise, highly satisfied with his entertan. 

and Hit !::■ : I brought away. 

The success of such numbers at last began to operate upon me. If these, cried I, 
meet with favo.tr an J safety, some Inch may, perhaps, for once attend the itn/oituiia/e. 

rnture. The furniture, frippery, and fiic-.oorlu of 
■; hcct f.lt'l:.' )! up. I'll try the fair with a St* 

:. If the Chinese :o iittale our taste. Til: 

.'an help to improve our understanding. But, as others have driven into the 
■ waggons. Til cautiously begin by venturing with a wi... Thus 

up my goods, and fairly ventured ; when, upon fust entering th, 
f'le ice, thai had supported an hundred waggons before, crack. .1 UUO\ 
and whceldiarreau and all uvnt to the bottom. 

awahing from my reverie with the fright, I cannot help wishing that the 
r taken in giving this correspondence an English dress had been empl 

political systems, or nr.o plots for farces. I might then have takat 
my I 1 world, either as a poet or a philosopher, ami made one in those little 

societies where men elub to raise c.nh other's reputation. But at j ' -tg to 

ass. f resemble one of those animals that has been forced from its 
1 to -.-o.'tfy human tUTHvity. An tesrlittl wish was to escape unheeded ['trough 
'■ecu set tip for halfpence, to fret and scamper at the '.am. 

■ ft tiotti arc injured by my lage, I am naturally too savage to court a 
by j obstinate to bt taught nr.o trieles. and too iinpt evident to t/itii.i what 

'tappen. I am app.o for intrigue, and 

too tinud to push for favour, I am — But what signifies what am I • 



, Tt T..V *./,» ' ilfiOlf. 

■ ► iitoi x it*«V fg.fcie tch/i /i<x' ip: 



[1760—62.] 



LETTER I. 



U Mr, 






Anna 

Sik.— Vi.urs of the 13th insinm, covering 
two 1'ills, one mii Menn R. and I>.. value 

fl7_S 10s., and the other on Mr , value 
.. duly came to hand, the former of 
met with honour, hut the other has 
heen trifled with, and ] .mi afraid will lie 

rcturne I 

The bekrei of tl I, therefore 

let him be yours. 1 [e 1- a native ol I 
in China, and one who did mc signal 

1 a factor, 11 Canton, By freQuentl 
EngUjui (hen fa 
learned the language, though en 



stranger to their manners and customs. I 

am mM In; is aphdoaophei ; J am 
ii an I; thai i" you will 

besl recomn 
ihlemtioa at hi.-, being the ii 

yours, 4c. 

LETTER II. 

from Lien Cbi Altanfi l» , Merchant 

>'« A mttrrJeiiH. London. 

n in- my 111 ik r.— May the wings 
of peace rest upon ii. dwelling, and the 

shield ol erve thee Irom vice 

nnd miser)- 1 Fat >ll Ihy tavours accept my 
in. the only tributes a 
uoot wanderer can return, 

Sure, fbltatJi Ived to make me 

unhap; 




the c/rrzE.v of run world 



89 



of testifying their friendship by actions, 
and leaves me only words to express the 
Sincerity of mine. 

I am perfectly sensible of the delicacy 
With which you endeavour to lessen your 
own merit and my obligations. By calling 

. istances of friendship only I 

iirmer favours you would in- 
duce me to impute to your justice what 
I owe to your generosity. 

mton justice, 

ikI my office bade me perform ; 

vuu have done me since my arrival 

obliged you 
required. Even half your favours 
1 have been greater than my most 
1 ne expectations. 
The sum of money, therefore, which you 

rlely conveyed into my baggage, when 
was leaving Holland, and which 1 was 
ignorant of till my arrival in London, I 

Leg leave to return. You have been 
bred a merchant, and 1 a scholar ; you con- 
sequently love money better than I. You 
can find pleasure in superfluity ; I am 
perfectly content with what is sufficient. 
Take therefore what is yours : it may give 
you some pleasure, even though you have 

cation to use it ; my happiness it can- 
11.1t Improve, for I have already all that I 

passage by sea from Rotterdam (o 

- more painful to me than all 

r made on land. 1 have 

le immeasurable wilds of Mogul 

It all the rigours of Siberian 

• a hundred 

times disturbed by invading savages, and 

" ave seen, without shrinking, the desert 

c a troubled ocean all around 

lamitics I wa 

.uned that gave the 
isiness, to one \\\ 
[1 was a sul 
IniKiit and terror. To find the land 
e our ship mount the 
an arrow from the Tartar 
I howling through 
the cordage — to feel a sickness which 
depresses even the spirits of the brave, 
— these wen ted distresses, and 

.ulled ine, unpi 
icm, 




You men of Europe think nothing of a 
voyage by sea. With us of China a man 
who has been from sight of land is ree 
upon his return with admiration. 1 have 
known some provinces where there is not 
name for the ocean. Wh 

Eeople, therefore, am I gotamong-t. 
ave founded an empire on this unstable 
element, who build cities upon billo" 

[her than the mountains ol 
and make the deep more formidable than 
the wildest tempest ! 

Such accounts as these, I 1 
were my first motives for scein 
These induced me to undertake a journey 
of seven hundred painful days, in 01 
examine its opulence, buildings, sciences, 
arts, and manufactures, on the spot. Judge, 
then, my disappointment on entering Lon- 
don, to sec no signs of that opulcu 
much talked of abroad : wherever I turn 
1 am presented with a gloomy solemnity 
in the nouses, the streets, and the inhabi- 
tants ; none of that beautiful gilding winch 
makes a principal ornament in Chinese 
lure. The streets of Nankin are 
sometimes strewed with gold leaf: very 
different are those of London: in .the I 
of their pavement a great lazy puddle 
moves muddily along; heavy-laden ma- 
chines, with wheels of unwieldy thid 
crowd up every passage : so that a stranger, 
instead of finding time for observation, is 
often happy if he has time to escape from 
being crushed to pieces. 

The houses borrow very few ornaments 
from architecture; ihcir chief decoration 
seems to be a paltry piece of painting hung 
out at their doors or windows, at once a 
if their indigence and vanity: their 
vainly, in each having one of those pii 

I to public View; and their indi- 
. in being unable to get them 

painted, [a I the fancy • 

fl < is also deplorable. Could you be- 
[eve 11* I have seen five black lion- and 
three blue boars in less than the circuit of 
half a mUe ; ami yet you know that animals 
of these colours are nowhere to be found, 
except in the wild imaginations of Europe, 
From ■ cea in their build- 

ings, and from the dismal looks of the 
inhabitants, I am induced to i»Yvc.\wci.e<oa». 
the nation is actually poor -, t>a\0i\\\».V\^ 



■ 




THE CITIZE.V OF THE WORLD. 






the Persian-. 

everywhere hut at hem rovcrh 

of Xixofou is. that » mi 

seen in his eyes : if « e judge of 

by this rule, there is not a poorer nation 

under the sun. 

I have been here but two days, so will 
not be hasty in my decisions. Such letters 
ill write to Fipsihi in Moscow I beg 
you'll endeavour to forward with a]l dili- 
gence : I ".lull send them open, in order 
that you may take copies or trans! 
as you are equally versed in the Dutch and 
Chinese languages. Dear friend, think of 
my absence with regret, as 1 sincerely 
regret your, ; even wh.le I write, I lament 
our separation. — Farewell. 

LETTER III. 

Frvm turn Chi Altamgi to iMt cart pf Fittihi. 
rfii./stl in Uattaw, U ht frrwarzUd ey the 
RtttrioM vpvmm A.' /'ni* He*.<K, Fi'< ' 
Jtnt */ the Ctrtmtnial AcmcUmy at Ptkim, in 
Ciina. 

Think not, O thou guide of my ; 
that absence can impair my respect, or 
trackless deserts blot your 
reverend figure from my memory. The 
el the pain of separation 
with • *; [hose ties that bind 

me to my native country anil 

ken. By every remove 1 only drag 
da 

Id I find ought worth transmitting 
from so remote a region as this to which 
I have wandered, I should gladly send it ; 
but. Instead of this, you must be content 
with a renewal of my former professions, 
and an imperfect account of a people with 
whom I am as yet but superficially ac- 
quainted. The remarks of a man who has 
been hut three days in the co untr y can only 
be those obvious circumstances which force 
themselves upon the imagine 
sirler myself here as a newly created being 

I 

with wonder and suqjrise. The 

lie only 

- prnicple f'f the mind. The most 

'!rs give pleasure, till the 

have ceased to wonder, 1 n 

I may then call the reasoning 
principle to my old, and compare those 






objects with \\lnch were before 

examined without reflection. 

liehold me, then, in London, gating at 
the strangers, ami they.it me. It - 
they find somewhat absurd in my figure ; 
and had I never been from horn . 
possible I might find an infinite fund o: 
ridicule in theirs : but by loi. 
1 am taught to bugh at folly alone, and to 
find nothing truly ridiculous but villainy 
am! vice. 

D I had just quitted my native 
country, and Chinese • 

fancied every deviation I 
and manners of China g from 

nature. I smiled at the blue I 
foreheads of the Tongucse ; and could 
hardly contain when 1 saw the I 
dress their heads with horns : the I 
powdered with red earth; and tl 
mutk beauties, tricked out in all the fine 
of sheepskin, appeared highly ridiculous. 
But I soon perceived that the ridicule lny 
not in them, but in me ; that I falsely con 
demned others for absurdity, because they 
happened to differ from a standard ori- 
ginally founded in prejudice or partiality. 

I find no pleasure, therefore, in taking 
the English with departing from nal 
their external appearant - all 

yet know of their character : 
they only endeavour to improve hi r simple 
plan, since every extravagance in dress 

Eroceeds from a desire of becoming mor 
eautiful than nature made us; and tin 
is so harmless a vanity, that I not 
pardon, but approve it. A desire to lie 
more excellent than others is what acluall 
makes us so ; and as thousands find a li 
lihood in society by such appetite] 
but the ignorant inveigh against them. 

Von are nut insensible, most reverend 
Fum Ham, what numberless trades, evi 
among the Chinese, subsist by the harm 

I nose-bore! 
feet-swaiher- liners, eye! 

. II want bread, s 
' vanity. 
• i. employ much 
hands in China th ind ; .""id 

I 

I 
thai does no' 
distort i;t 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



91 



ilkci fine e 
ire required, but chiefly 1 barber. You 

undoubtedly heard of the | 

chani; }th lay in Ins hair. 

think lh.it the English were for 

e. To appear wise 

le here than for a 

man D it from the heads of all 

tp u like a h 

id phy- 
k on such quantities, that it is 

i distinguish 

I lir. 

avity of the lion j those I am 

mble the pert 

■r animals. The barber, 

• ! of the ceremonies, cuts 

their half close to the crown ; and then, 

with a composition of meal ami bog's-lard, 

whole in such a manner as to 

make it impossible to distinguish whether 

or a plaster : but, 

■ more perfectly striking, 

e tail of some beast, a grey- 

i tail, for in ' 

of the head, and 

i the place where tails in 

illy seen to begin : 

I the man of 

he improve dresses 

featured face in smiles, and 

. isly tender. Thus 

i|ualilied to make love, 

rom the pow- 

le of his head than the 

.it of acrea- 

lomhe is supposed 

to find 

please She 

mil of powder, and 

reverend hum. the 

: I can hardly 

sight of them ; they no way 

resemble the beauties of China : the 

\ quite different idea of 

beauts When I reflect on t lie 

ns of .in ! 
beaut v hie 1 should 

g ! 1 shall never for 

-lew. How very 



broad their bees I how very short their 
' how very little their eyes ! how 
very thin their lips ! how very black their 
teeth ! the snow on the tops of Bao is not 
fairer than their cheeks ; and their eye- 
brows are small as the line by the pencil 
of Quamsi. Here a lady with such per- 
fections would be frightful. Dutch and 
Chinese beauties, indeed, have some re- 
semblance, but English women are entirely 
different : red cheeks, big eyes, and 
of a most odious whiteness, are not only 
seen here, but wished for; and then 

nch masculine feet, as actually serve 
• walking ! 

unci vilas nature has been, they seem 
resolved to outdo her in unkindness : they 
use white powder, blue powder, and black 
powder for their hair, and a red powder 
for the face on some particular occasions. 

They like to have the face of various 
colours, as among the Tartars of Koreki, 
i'ly Sticking on, with spittle, little 
black patches on every part of it, except 
on the tip of the nose, which I have never 
Men with a patch, You'll have a better 
idea of their manner of placing these 
spots when I have finished a map of H 
English face patched up to the fashion, 
which shall shortly he sent to increase your 
curious collection of paintings, medals, 
and monsters. 

but what surprises more than all the 
rest is what I have just now been crcdihlv 
informed of by one of this country. "Most 
ladies here," says he, "have two I 
one face to sleep in, and another to show 
in company. The first is generally re- 
served for the husband and familyat !■ 
theotherp'-iou to | 

the family face i> often indifferent enough, 
but the out-door one looks something 
better j this is always made at the i 
where 6 ;lass and toad-eat 

in council, and settle the complexion of 
the day." 

iin the truth of this 
remark ■ however, it is actually certain, 
thai they «c 1 1 lies within 

than without -. and I have seen a lady, 
Mined to shudder at i breeze in her 

iovn ipartment, appear half naked in the 

-Farewell 



0» 



THE CtTIZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



LETTER IV. 
To Ifii 

The English Deal as the Japan- 

ese, yet vainer than the inhabitants of Sum. 
Upon my .irriv.il I attributed that reserve 
, which. I now find, has its ori- 
gin in pride. Condescend to address them 
first, and you are sure of their acquaintance ; 

in Mattery, and you conciliate their 
friendship and esteem. They bear hunger, 
cold, fatigue, and all the miseries of Fife, 
without shrinking; danger only calls forth 
their fortitude ; they even exult in cala- 
mity : but contempt is what they cannot 
bear. An Englishman fears contempt 
more than death ; he often Hies to death 
as a refuge from its pressure ; and dies 
when he fancies the world has ceased to 
esteem him. 

Pride seems the source not only of their 
national vices, but of their national virtues 
also. An Englishman is taught to love 
his king as his friend, but to acknowledge 
no other master than the laws which him- 
self has contributed to enact. He despises 
those nations who. that one may be free, 
are all content to be slaves ; who first lift 
a tyrant into terror, and then shrink under 
owe! as if delegated from Heaven. 
Liberty is echoed in all their assemblies : 
and thousands might be found ready tooffer 
up their lives for the sound, though per- 
haps n"l one of all the number understands 

iiiing. The lowest mechanic, how - 

looks upon it as his duty to be a 

watchful guardian of his country's freedom, 

nnruage that might 

ii in the month of the great 

emperor who traces his ancestry to the 

M.,on. 

n days ago, passing by one of their 

couM not avoid stopping, in 

order 1 u.. « Inch I thought 

1 afford me some entertainment. 
conversation was carried on between a 
debtor through the grate of ! 
porter, who had stopped to rest his : 

BOldier at the u indow. The subject 
1 threatened invasion from 
eemed extremely anxious 
to rescue his country from the i 

, art," cries the prisoner, 
" the greatest of my apprehensions i9 for 






ourfreedom ; if the French should conquer, 
what would become of English liberty ! 
My dear friends, liberty is the Englishman's 
prerogative ; we must preserve that at the 
expense of our lives ; of that the French 
shall never deprive us. It is not to be ex- 
pected that men who are slaves themselves 
would preserve our freedom should they 
happen to conquer." — " Ay, slaves," cries 
the porter, " they are all slaves, fit only to 
carry burdens, every one of them. Before 
I would stoop to slavery may this be my 

Coison ! (and he held the goblet in his 
may tin- be my poison! — but 1 
would sooner list for a soldier." 

The soldier, taking the goblet from his 
friend with much nwe, fervently cried out, 
"It is not so much our liberties, as our re- 
ligion, that would sutler by such a change : 
ay, our religion, my lads. May tie 
sink me into flames, (such was the solem- 
nity of his adjuration,) if the French should 
come over, but our religion would be 
utterly undone ! " — So saying, instead of 
a libation, he applied the goblet to Ins 
lips, and confirmed his sentiments with 
a ceremony of the most persevering 
devotion. 

In -liort, every man here pretends lobe 
a politician ; even the fair sex are some- 
times found to mix the severity of national 
altercation with the blandishments of love, 
and often become conquerors by more 
weapons of destruction than their eyes. 

'1 his unr.iisal passion for poll' 
gratified by daily gazettes, as with us in 
China. But as in ours the emperor en- 
deavours to instruct his people, ill theirs 
the people endeavour to instruct the 
administration. You must not, however, 
, that they who compile these 
papers have any actual knowledge of the 
-. or the government, of a stale ; 
they only collect their material- from the 
oracle of some coffeehouse, which oracle 
has himself gathered them the night before 
from a beau at a gaming-table, who has 
pillaged Ins knowledge from a great man's 
a ho has had his information from 
the gp- ■ rifleman, who has in- 

vented the whole story for his own amuse- 
ment the nig "g. 

The English, in general, seem fond' 
of gaining the esteem than the love 






' 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 






those they converse with. This g 
formality to their amusements: the.. 

omelhing loo wise 

ixation: though in com- 

. lum disgusted with the 

I are seldom lifted 

Irokcs of w. 

instant, though not perm 

lire. 
il they want, however, in g 
•i politeness. You 
.ring me praise the English for theii 
;..:--s; you v. ry dif- 

accounts from the missionaries at 
have seen such a different be- 
heir merchants and seamen at 
l!nl 1 must 

than any of their neigh- 
art in this respect lies in 
ile they oblige, to lessen 
if the favour. Other coun- 
tries are fond of obliging a stranger ; but 
item desirous that he should be sensible 
igstion. The English confer 
kindness with an appearance of 
benefits with 
an ait a- if they despised them. 

ago, between an 

in, intothesuburbs 

heavy 

1 ; but 

-, which defended 

perfect 

mg me 

me thus: 

brink at? 

Want it ; I find it 

ay ubrfnl to me ; 1 had as lief be 

nchman began to 

'.inn. " My dear 

i \ ou oblige 

use of my vo.it ? yi 

ads me from the rain ; 

lid not cho i with it to 

you I 

villi my skin to do lum 

i ute instances as I 
in I loam, I am - 

ill collect instruction, 
'he book of 



LETTER V. 

To the lamf. 

I iiavi: abcady informed ynu of tile 
singular passion of this nation for p< i] 
An Englishman, not satisfied with In 
by his own prosperity, the contending 
of Europe properly balanced, de- 
sires also to know the precise value of 
every weight in either scale. To gratify 

thiscui if of political instruction 

! Qp every Doming with lea: when 
our politician has feasted upon this, he 
to a coffeehouse, in order to rumi- 
nate uiion what he has read, and increase 
his collection ; from thence he proceeds 
to the ordinary, inquires what news, and 
treasuring up every acquisition there, hunts 
about all the evening in quest of more, 
and carefully adds it to the resl. I I 
night he retires home, full of the imp. 

- of the day : when lo I awaking 
next morning, he finds the in-mi 
of yesterday a collection of absurdity 
or palpable falsehood. This one would 
think a mortifying repulse in the pursuit 
of wisdom ; yet our politician, no way 

fresh materials, and in order to be again 
disappointed. 

1 have often admired the commercial 
spirit which prevail! over Europe: have 
been surprised to see them carry on a 
traffic with productions that an Asi.nic 
stranger would deem entirely useless. It 
is a proverb in China that an European 
sullen aol i be lost -. the 

in.i.xiin, however, is i •■ -t sufficiently • 

since they sell even their lies to 
advantage. Every nation drives a con- 
siderable Irade in this commodity wall 
their neighbours. 

An English dealer in tin 
instance, has only to ascend to his p 
house, and manufacture a turbulent speech 
'. to be spoken in the senate; or a 
report supposed lo be dropped at court ; 
a piece of scandal .1 a [>opular 

mandarine; or a v between two 

ncighl When finished, 

these goods arc baled up, and con- 
to a factor abroad, who sends in return V«o 

-ev\«\\« 



94 



the crrrzE.v of the world. 



filled with dashes — . blanks , and 
dan " * ' of great impa 
Thus you perceive thai ■ angle gazette 

is the joint manufacture of Europe ; and he 
who would peruse it with a philosophical 
eye might perceive in every paragraph 
something characteristic of the nation to 
which it belongs. A map don not ex- , 
hiMt a more distinct view of the boun- 
daiies and situation of every Country, than 
its new-s does a picture of the genius and 
the morals of its inhabitants. The super- 
stition and erroneous delicacy of Italy, the 
formality of Spun, the cruelty of POTl 
the fears of Austria, the confidence of 
1 i, the levity of France, the avarice 

of Holland, the pride of England, the 
absurdity of Ireland, and the national 
partiality of Scotland, are all conspicuous 

in every page. 

Hut, perhaps, you may find more satis- 

i in a real newspaper, than in my 

description of one; I therefore send a 

specimen, which may serve to exhibit the 

manner of their being written, and di-tin- 

he characters of the various nations 

.ire united in its composition. 

N \ro K-S.— We have lately dug up here a 

CUlioas El ruscan monument, brokeintwo 

in i he raising. The characters are scarce 

I N'ugosi, the learned antiquary, 

i been erected in honour 

of Plena, .1 Latin king, as one of the lines 

may be plainly distinguished to begin with 

It is hoped this discovery "ill pio- 

duce something valuable, as the litcrau of 

our twelve academies are deeply engaged 

in the disquisition. 

PlSA.— Since Father Fudgi, prior of St. 

Gilbert's, has gone to reside at Rome, no 

lea have been performed at theshrine 

I : the devout begin to 

uneasy, and some begin actually ' 

thai Si Gilbert has forsaken then with the 

reverend father. 

The administrators of our 

serene republic have frequent conferences 

upon the part thev shall Like in the present 
Some are for 
Ig a body of then 

pany of foot and six ln.rsemcn. 
ike a divcr-i.ni of the 

en j others are ns strenuous 
a&srrtors ul ian intciest 






turn these debates may take time only 
cm discover. However certain it is, we 

shall be able to bring into the field, |l the 
opening of the next campaign, seventy- 
five armed men, a commander-in-chief, 
and two drummers of great experience. 

Spain. — Yesterday the new king showed 
himself to his subjects, and, after I 
stayed half an hour in hi- ball 
to the royal apartment. The night con- 
cluded, on this extraordinary occasion, 

with illuminations and other demons! ra- 
tions of joy. 

The queen is more beautiful than the 
BUB, and reckoned one of the first 
wit- in Europe, She had a glorious oj 
tuuity of displaying the readiness of her 

invention and her -kill in repartee lately 

at court. The Duke of hernia coming up 

to her with a low bow and a sini!< 

presenting a nosegay set with diam 

"Madam," cries he, "lam JTOtH ni"-i 

obedient humble servant." — ' 

plies the queen, without any prompter, or 

the lea-t hesitation, " In. 

very great honour you do mi 

which she made a low courtesy, and all the 

courtiers fell a-laughing at the readiness 

and the smartness of her reply. 

LISBON. — Yesterday we had an taUt 
da//, at which were burned three yi 
women accused of heresy, one of I tn.111 
of exquisite beauty, two Jews, and an old 
woman, convicted of being a witch : one 
of the friars who attended this last ret 
that he saw the devil fly out of her at 
the stake in the shape of a flame of fire. 
The populace behaved on this occasio 
with great good-humour, joy, and sii 
devotion. 

Our merciful sovereign li 
some time past i i his fright ; 

though so atrocious an attempt di 
to exterminate halt the nation, | 
has be 
lives of hi- -111). 

hundred h 

or otherwise executed, upon this huriii 
occasion. 

VlBNNA, — We have 
advices that a party of Iwen 
Auslnans, having attacked a m 
body of Prussians put them all to flight, 
and look the rest prisoners oi 



or 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WOK IT*. 



05 



Be i tin 

a party of twenty thousand LI-.TTER VI. 

having attacked a much su»e- Fum Htxtm, Fint Prtii,lttl ef tkt Cmmmi.il 

itrians, put them lo flight, Ac*Jcmy at Pekit, It LltH Chi AlUnei. tkt 

umber of prisoners, *un*t*n*dWau Mmtm. 

■i military chest, cannon, and Whethmi sporting on [In- flowery banks 

of tliL- rivea litis, or scaling the sleepy 

reeded this cam- mountains of Douchenuur ; whether tra- 

!, when we think of versing the black deserts of Kobi, orgiving 

-t in security . lessons of politeness to the savage inha- 

while ing is watchful lor bilants of Europe; in whatever country, 

whatever climate, and whatever circum- 
vVe shall soon strike a signal 



blow. We have seventeen flat-bottomed 

I ivrc. The people are in excel- 

our ministers make no 

1 undone ; tl 're dis- 

to the last degree ; tile minister* 

course to the most 



stances, all hail ! May Tien, the L'n 

Soul, take you under his prol 

inspire you with a superior poriion of 

How long, my friend, shall an cut In 
for knowledge continue to obstruct juiir 
liappiin ill the COB- 

liesions that make life pleasing} How 



methods lo laise the expenses of long will you continue I climate 



• esses are great ; but Madame 
i continues to supply our king, 
1 growing old, with a fres 

His health, thank Heaven, 

pretty well ; nor is lie in the least 

-. reported, for any kind of royal 



to climate, circled by thousands, and ycl 

without a [riend, Ceding all (he incon- 

ices of a crowd, and all the anxiety 

ttg alone ! 

I know you will reply, that the refined 

pleasure of growing every I 

ninicteo r every incouvenv 



was so frightened at the encc. [ know you will talk of the vulami 

nens, that his physicians were satisfaction of soliciting happiness from 
lis reason should suffer ; sensual enjoyment only; and probably 



■on composed 
i. of his bn 

1 an usher to an 
i. He must be able to 
and muit have had the 
small -pox. 

—We hear that there is a be- 

nevo! lion on foot among the 

try of this kingdom, who 

arcgi nt, in order to assist 

>t with 
i are. 
Ne:r foe. i that Prince 

■uwl has gained a complete 
ketlle-drums, live 
vaggons of ammunition, 
prisoners ot 

We arc positive when 

M 'Gregor, who was 

ii horvc-stealing, is not a 
• rn in Carnckferjrus. — 
Far*. 




enlarge upon the exquisite raptures of 
sentimental bliss. Yet, believe me, friend, 
you aiedeceived ; all ourpleasures, though 
seemingly never so remote from sense, 
derive their origin from some one of the 

•t exquisite demonstra- 
tion in mathematics, or the most pleasing 

1 1 ion in metaphy 
ultimately tend to increase some set 
satisfaction, is delightful only 
to men who have by long 
a false idea of pleasnie, and be 
separates sensual and sentimental i 

menu, seeking b Irani mind 

alone, is in fief OS wictclicd as the naked 
inhabitant of the 

happiness In the first, regardless of the 
latter. There are two extreme) in this 
respect : the savage, who swallows down 
the draught 'aying 

to reflect on hia happiness; and the 

iftssetb the cup while He tfcV\tt\s, o^ 
the conveniences oi lanv-Vvtvy,. 



r>6 



It il with a Iicart full of sorrow, my 
dear Altangi, that I must inform you, that 
what the world calls happiness must now 
irs no longer. Our great emperor's 
displeasure at yourlcaving China, contrary 
1. 1 the roles of our government and the im- 
memorial custom of the empire, has pro- 
duced t lio most terrible effects Your wile, 
I the rest of your family, have 
eized by his order, and appropriated 
ill. except your son, are now 
the peculiar property of him who possesses 
all : him I have hidden from the officers 
employed for this purpose j and even at 
the hazard of my life I have concealed him. 
The youth seems obstinately bent on find- 
ing you out, wherever y M ire ; be is deter- 
mined to face every danger that 0] 

rsuit. Though yet but fifteen, all 

rirtnes and obstinacy sparkle 

in bit eyes and mark bin as one destined 

mediocrity of fortune. 

VoO see, my dearest friend, what im- 

Iirudence has brought thee to: from opu- 
ence, a tender family, surrounding fnends, 
and font ni tfl 'educed 

thee In want, persecution, and, still worse, 

II mighty monarch's disp!- 
Want of prudence is too frequently the 
le ; nor is there mi earth 

•■ for vice than poverty. 

hall endeavour to guard thee from 

the -Mi--, s.i guard thyself from the other; 

and still think of me with affection and 

esteem. — farewell. 

LETTER VII. 

- 'it Altnigi le Fnm //mm, Firit 

:fntc/t\idr. <.'kina. 

(The Ed - acquaint the reader. 

-.,ri of ihe following Letter 

. to bt little 11 

. borrowed froro t- 

-cr.J 

A Wll Into captivity 

to expiate my oflence 

i at natality, resolving to eocounta 

i in the pious putsuit of one 
has undone him, — these indeed are 

: though I! 

were i 

ueh an 

OCCJJsl 

i the siroke of II- 

I bold the Vol trneol ' "iifuciusinmyhand, 



THE C/T/ZFV OF THE WOK!.!). 



and, as I read, grow humble, and _ 

•e. We should feel sorrow, 
he, but not sink under its oppression. 'I la- 
heart of a wise man should resemble a 
mirror, which reflects every object wilhout 
being sullied by any. The wheel of fortune 
turns incessantly round ; and who can say 
within himself, I shall to-day lie upper- 
most! We should hold the imtnutal'le 
mean that lies between insensibihi - 
anguish ; our attempts should not be to 
extinguish nature, but to repress it ; not to 
stand unmoved at distress, but endeavour 
to turn every disaster to our own advantage. 
Our greatest glory is, not in never falling, 
but in rising every lime we fall. 

1 fancy myself at present, O thou reverend 
disciple of Tao, more than a Batch fur all 
that can happen. The chief business of 
my life has been to procure wisdoo 
the chief object of that wisdom was to be 
happy. My attendance on your lectures, 
my conferences with the niissiona: 
I-.urope, and all my subsequent adventures 
upon quitting China, were calculated to 
increase the sphere of my happiness, not 
my curiosity. Let European trawl Iris 
cross seas and deserts merely to measure 
the height of a mountain, to describe the 
cm. iract of a river, or tell the commodities 
which every country may produce: mer- 
chants or geographers, perhaps, may find 
profit by such discoveries; but what ad- 
vantage can accrue to a philosopher from 
such accounts, who is desirous of undcr- 
Itaoding the human heart, who seeks 
(o know the men of every country 

i" discover those rjulereouei which 
result from climate, teligion, eduo 
prejudice, and partiality, 

-ild think my time very illbestowcd, 
the only frn 
m being able to tell, that a trades- 
man of London h\es in a house three times 
as high as that of our great Emperor ; that 
the ladies wear longer clothes than the 

ilut the priests are dressed in o 
which we are taught to detest; and that 
their soldiers wear scarlet, which i* mih 
• and innocence. 
How rout travellers are there who 

fine t'. such minuti 

i one who enters 
i genius of those nations with whom 






THE CITIZEN OF THE irofiLD. 



97 



lie ha« their 

morals, (heir opin ideas winch 

us worship, the- in- 

ity who only 

lie particulars, whi 
to a true philo 

i neither to make 
ithers more happy; they 
to control their pa 
. -rsity, to inspire true- virtue, or 

ry learned, and yet very 
miser-: i sy to be a deep geome- 

ironomcr, but very 
ill to be a good man. I > 

11 eller who instructs the 
heart, but despise hun who only in 

n who leaves home 
ii a philoso- 

l»y the blind imp 

im Zer- 
to him of Tyana, 1 I 

leavoured to 
irld liy their n tvels : such men 
..; well .1. better the I 

im home, and Beemed 
nly in- 
I from 

rt, my greal 

l my 

1 .ill the \ i 

than i< 

ises o( despair. — 
Kare .. 

LETTER VIII. 

To tht MM*. 

i thou n 

ml I 

jw«»(.Ie among whom I reside, and begin 
loUo . 

1 begin 
i eif their maun. 

custom 



whicli they make from us, 
froni win. in ill other D e their 

as their original. 

1 now begin to think their women toler- 
able. I can now look on a languishing 
blue a pardon a set 

of teeth, even though whiter than ivory. 
I now begin to fancy there is no universal 
standard Ibl The truth i 

manners of the ladies in thi] city are so 
very open, and so vutly engaging, that I 
am inclined to pass over the more glaring 
defects of their persons, since compensated 
by the more solid yet latent beauties of 
the mind. What though they want black 
or arc deprived of the allurements 
of feet no bigger than their thumbs, yet 
still they have souls, my friend ; 

rig, so hospitable, 

and to engaging! I have received more 

invitations in the >treels of London from 

• in one night, than I have met with 

at Pekin in twelve revolutions of the i 

Evei . as I return home from 

my usual solitary excursions, I am met by 
several of these well-disposed daughters 
of hospitality, at different times, and in 

different streets, richly dressed, and with 

minds not less noble than their appearance. 

that nature has indulged me 

'•• ; yet 

lie they too generous to object to my 

homely appearance ; they feel no rcpug- 
.1 my broad face and tlat m.-e . they 

jer, and thai alone 

-.. em io think it their duty to d 
he country by every . 

complaisance in their power. One 
. and in a manner fi 

pilalitj , while a third, kinder still, 
-h my spirit- wilt 
\\ iin- i«. in ICngland, reserved onl) 
ii wine i-. given ft! 

A few nights ago, one of these generous 
ill in white, and flaunt- 
by my side, fordl 
tended me home to my own apartment 

in the ctce,u.\c& t& 
the fur.. 'Ave WBKTexnKWK ^ TWJ 



98 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 






situation i and well indeed she might, for 
I have lured u apartment for not less than 
i idlings of their money every week. 
But her civility did not rest here; for, at 
Muting, being desirous to know the hour, 
and perceiving my watch out of order, she 

kindly took it to be repaired byi n 

of her own, may imagine, will 

save some expense ; and she assures me 
•rill cost her nothing. I shall have 
it back in a few days, when mended, and 
am preparing a proper speech, expressive 
ofnry gratitude on tne occasion :" Celestial 
excellence '." I intend to say, " happy I am 
in having found out, after many painful 
a lnnd of innocence, and a 
people of humanity : I may rove into other 
climes, and converse With nalions yet un- 
known ; but where shall I meet a soul of 
Rich parity as that which resides in thy 
( re thou hast been nurtured by 
the bill of the Shin Shin, or sucked the 
I of the provident Gin lliung. The 
i of thy voice could rob the Chong 
I her whelps, "r inveigle the Boh 
'. i- in the midst of the waters. Thy 
servant shall ever retain a sense of thy 
■ s ; and one day boast of thy virtue, 
ity, and truth, among the daughters 
of China." — Adieu. 

LETTER IX. 

To Ikt same. 
I mvF. been deceived! She whom 1 
iradisc, has proved 
■ the infamous disciples ol 

trifle; I havegained the con- 
•vered a deceiver, 
more, t her e for e, relax into m 
r indifference with regard to 
ladies; they once more begin to appear 
disagi ecable in my eyes. Thus is my whole 
time passed in forming conclusion- which 
the next minute's experience may probably 
nt moment becomes a i 
-', and I improve rather 

in humility \\\ 

I heir laws and religion forbid the Eng- 
lish to keep more than one woman; I 
icluded, that prastituti 
I was dec 
many wives as he 
are cemented a ah 
I disregarded. The very 



Chinese, whose religion allows him two 
lakes not half the liberties of the 
ii in this particular. Their law- may 
be compared to the books of the Sybils, — 
they are held in great veneration, bt 
dom read, or seldomer understood . 
those who pretend to be their guar 
dispute about the meaning of many of 
them, and confess their ignorance of others, 

The law, th eref ore, « Inch commands them 
to have but one wife, is strictly observed 
only by those for whom one is more than 
sufficient, or by such as have not money 
to buy two. As for the rest, they violate 
it publicly, and some glory in its violation. 
They seem to think, like the Persian 
they give evident marks of manhoi 

A mandarine, 
therefore, here generally keeps four wives, 
a gentleman three, and a stage-play. > 
As for the magistrates, the country justices 
and squires, they are employer! first . 
bauching young virgins, and then punish 
iiij; the transgression. 

1 rom such a picture you will be apt to 
conclude, that he who employs foui 
Bjr hi- amusement has four times as nnuli 
co nsti tution to spore as he who is con- 
tented with one ; that a mandarine is much 
cleverer than a gentleman, and a gentleman 
than a player; and yet it is quite I 
verse: a mandarine is frequently su| 
on spindle shanks, appears emaciated by 
luxury, and is obliged to have 

. merely from tin- not the 

vigour, of his constitution, the num 
his wive) being the most equivocal 
loin of Ins virility. 

Besides the country squire, there is also 
another set of men whose whole en 
ment a orruptmg beauty : these 

ly part of the fair sex call amiable ; 
the more sensible part of then 
give them the title of abominable. You 
will probably demand, what are the talents 
of a man thus caressed by the majority of 
the opposite sex? what talent- of what 
beauty is he possessed of, superior to the 
rest of hi- fellows? Toanswer \ 
he has neither talents nor beauty ; but then 
he is possessed of impudence and as- 1 
With assiduity and impudence, men of all 
ages, and al : 
mircrs. I have even be 









ice ad- 
f some 



THE C/T/ZE.V OF THE IVOR I. P. 



■ ho m 

when e they 

: and, whal 

tig still, such battered 

beam umously suc- 

A fellow of this kind employs three 
- head, 
is understood only his hair. 

. not of any 
. Imt of the whole sex. 
• every lady has caught 
. which ;.- 
ling 10 see how she does 

to showhim- 

ladies : ll" a 

Wops even a pin, he is to fly in order 

• iL 

-toi lady without ad- 

by which he 

mi one. 

exces- 

, formed In Living 

i, shutting his eyes, 

I ! - - nd of dancing a 

. by which is only 
ing round tl rf or ten 

hat on, alii 
i sometimes looking tenderly 

If. and 
. another. 
infinite variety of small talk 
;hs when he 
ire to say. 
• killing creature who 
If to the sex iill he has undone 
■■ hose submissions are the 
please the 
almost becomes himself a la 

LETTER X. 

Ta Ike W, 

I in 

■ pe — of 
nature 

measurable height, banish the huibandman 



and spread extensive desolation — coun- 
tries where the btOwn 1 
aprecai ul that 

never fell pity, him 

the « ild makes. 

Will easily concc 

i of 1 ind, 

late, or still more dang* inha- 

. — the retreat of men in ho 
driven from society, in order to 
upon all the human race; noriiiiiall-. 

.! rabjectioD to Muscovy or China, 

bat Without any reseinl /lance to the C ■ 

tries on which they depend. 

! 1 had CTI I oil Wall. 

I objects that presented them 
le remains of desolated cities, and 
all the magnificence of venei 
There were to be seen ten oiriful 

structure, statues wrought hy the hand of 
I toaster, and around, I country of lu»u- 
riant plenty; but not one bitant 

to reap the bounties ol nature. These were 

Erospects that might bumble the pi 
ings, and repress human vanity. I 
my guide the cause of such desol 
These i re once the 

dominions Of a Tartar prince; and these 
ruins, the seat of arts, clcganc 
This pi I an unsuccessful war 

with one of the emperors of ( I itii.i ; I 
conquered, hi- cities plundered, and all 
his subjects carried into captivity, 
are the effects of the ami f 

Ten dei he Indian proverb, shall 

Sleep in pe.lCe upon a single ...irpcl, uhile 
two kings shall quarrel, 
kingdoms to divide them 
the cruelty and the ; 

* she 
is kind, but ffl li f"l I 

Proceeding in mj ;h ihis 

pensive scene of desolated beam '• , IDO lew 

arrived among the I >aun -. i 
■rju dq 

the name. 

Eficera, who 

lhuse their 

I e the wives and 

\Vi 






100 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



necessity teach even barbarians the same 
;ur « if dissimulation that ambition ami in- 
trigue inspire in the breasts of the polite. 
such unhcen 

ought I, how in 1 ' 

id good emperor know ■ ' 

ins! These provinces are 
foi complaint, mm too insig- 

redress. The more dis- 
tant the government, the honester should 

be the governor to whom it is tab 

for hope of impunity io a strong induce- 

ition. 

IK. religion of the Dnures is more 

: that of the sectaries of 

How would you be surprised, O 

disciple and follower of Confucius! 

you who believe one eternal intelligent 

of .ill, should you be present at the 

ITOUS ceremonies of iliis infatuated 

1! How would you deplore the 
illndnesa and foil* of raanlcindl His 
boasted reason seems only to light him 
astray, and inct more regularly 

out ihe path to happiness. Could 
you think it? they adore a wicked divinity ; 
they fear lum and they worship him ; they 
.ng, ready to 
Mid ready :■■ i ■ The 

men and women assemble at midnight in 
a hut, which serves for I temple, A priest 
imself on the ground, and all 
iple pour forth the most honi i 

tlrnmsond timbreUswell the infernal 
An. i tl too, miscalled 

. has continued about two hours, the 
from the ground, 

with the in- 
_; demon, and pretends to a skill in 
fin n, 

untrv. my friend, the Iionres, 
deceive the 

Iom the 
i, Mil the way io 
i theii fingers, but lUnd —rill 
: towards the 

iew. 

ims "i ilii. people corre sp ond 

p their dead 

I where the 

icy bury him 

leep, but With the 

■everal 

icnt sorts of 



, which, when they perceive 
does not consume, they fill up the grave 
and desist from desiring him to e 

the future. How, how can mankind 

of such strange absurdity ! to 
entreat I dead body, already pin. 

:e of the banquet I Wrii 
repeat it, is human reason? not only, 
some men, but whole nations, seen 
divested of its illumination. Mere we 
observe a whole country adoring 
divinity through fear, and attempting to 

be dead. These are their I 
serious and most religious occupm 
Are these men rational, or are not the 
apes of Borneo more wise r 

Certain I am, O Ihou instructor of my 
youth ! that without philosophers— with- 
out some few virtuous men, who sen 
be of a different nature from the i t 
mankind — without such as these, the wor- 
ship of a wicked divinity would surely be 
established over every part of the earth. 
Fear guides more to their duty than 
tilu-le : for one man who is virtuous from 
the love of virtue, from the oblig 
which he thinks he lies under to the i 
of all, there are ten thousand who are 
good only from the apprehensions of pun- 
ishment. Could these last be persuaded, 
as the Epicureans were, that heaven had 
no thunders in store for the villain, the* 
would no longer continui 'edge 

subordination, or thank that Being who 

gave them existence. — Adieu. 

LETTER XI. 
T» Ikt mint. 

ich a picture of nature in prime 
simplicity, tell me, my much respect! 

. arc you in love with fatigue and 
lolitu b for the 

frugal M 

' the luxurj 

dissimulation of I « tell 

me, has not every kind ■ pecu- 

liarly its own! Is it not • truth, thn 
more vices, 

. 
few, and they of the most hideous 
plcxion .' Perfid) and fraud are I 1j ■ 
of civil! •, credulity and viole 

those of the inhabitants of the desert. 



THE C/T/ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



Does llie luxury of the one predtt 

ill 'he inhumanity of the other ? 
info those philosophers whod 

again ive hut little understood 

; they seem insensible, thai to 

owe not only (he greatest prut 

'■ven of our virtues. 

It may sound line in llie mouth of a 

declaimer, when he talks of subduing 

ery sense lu 

lent with ?. iency, and of 

only the wants of nature; but 

: icrjon in indulging 

jppctites, if with innocen 

. than in restraining them 1 Am nut 

;i enjoyment than in the 

sullen i of thinking that I can 

lyment T The more va- 

OUI artificial necessities, the wider is 

our circle of pleasure ; for all pleasures 

ting necessities as they 

riae-: luxury, therefore, as it increases 

our wants, increases our capacity for 

mess. 

-tory of any country re- 
markable for opulence and wisdom, you 
■ad they would never have been wise 
-t luxurious 
will find poets, philosophers, and even 
nching in luxury's train. The 
reason Is obvious : we then only arc 
after : . hen we find it coir 

. and reflection comments 

v. Inform a na 

of Kobi nf the ej 

i llax of the moon, he finds no 

it all in the information ; he 

v any could take such pains, 

leasures, inoi 
difficulty: but connect il with 
.howing that il improves 
that by such an investi 

. —anil lie i- instai 

u greal an improvement. In 

" know what we 

liscss; and whatever xvc may 

talk ag.iinii i'. luxury adds the spur to 

nl gives usadesireof becoming 

l^e only, but our 
virtue* aie i 'bscrve 

■m the 



fruits of the spreading pomegr 

lie- an habitation, Such 

a character has few vices, 1 gram, DUl 
he has are of the most hid 
rapine and cruelty are sen 

cither pity nor tenderness, I 
ennoble every virtue, have any place in his 

enemies, and kill- 
he subdue-.. I In the Othei hand, ill. 
Chinese and eivili/ed European seem even 
to love their enemies. I hav 
seen an instance, xvhere the English have 
succo u red those enemies whom the I 
Tuncn actually refused (o relieve. 
The greater the luxuries of every coun- 
try, tlii :,, politically speaking, 

i- that country unrled. Luxury is llie child 
Ety alone ; the luxurious man stands 
in need of a thousand different arlisis to 
fumlsh out his happ more likely. 

therefore, that he should lie a good citizen 
whi i is connected by motives of self-interest 
with so many, than the abstemious man 
who is united to none. 

In whatsoever light, therefore, we con- 
sider luxury, whether as employing a num- 
ber of hands, naturally too feeble (v. 
laborious employment ; as finding a i 

ion for. others who might be 
totally idle ; or .is furmdiing out new inlets 
to happiness, without encroaching on 
mutual property j in whatever light we 
regard il, we -hall have reason to stand up 
in its defence, and the seniiineni ol 
till remains unshaken : " Th 
should enjoy as many of III.' luxuries of life 

■ 
the prosperity of others ; and that he who 
funis out a new pleasure, is one of the most 
useful members of society. 

LETTER XII. 

To lJu tSMW 

the funeral solemnities of 

■ think themselves llie i 
people in the world, I must n 
sition to the funeral solemnities of the 
English, who think themselves as poli 
they. The numb 

are used here when a person is sick appear 
to me so many evident murks of fear and 
apprehension. Ask an I Vxerw- 

cver, whethci eisa.'vjx, »sxxV 



102 



THE CIT1ZEV OF THE WORLD. 



in ilic negatives, but 
obscrv, tnutances of 

ind yon will find 
■ i lie lie. 
Tilt- ' "-■ in this re- 

spect ; they hate to die, ind they i 

their tenor-: a great part of their lift' i* 
in preparing things proper for their 
funeral. A poor artisan shall -pend half 
bia income in providing himself a tomb 
i years before he wi I denies 

himself the iiecc-s.irics of life thai he may 
be amply provided for when he shall want 
them no more. 

But people of distinction in England 
really deserve pity, for they die in circum- 
stances of the most extreme distress. It 
is an established rule, never to let a ram 
know thai he i- 'lying : ph\ --ician. are sent 
for, the clergy arc called, and everything 
passes in silenl Kriannity round i 

bed. The patient is in agonies, looks round 

'v. yet not ,1 rure « ill say 

that he is 'lying. I -esscd of for- 

tune, Ins rel IBtO nuke his 

the tranquillity of 
his mind. I [e ii undergo the 

riles of the I ir decency requires 

it. His friends lake their leave only be- 

they d >l cflretosee him in pain. 

In short, an bundl ire used 

Ice him do what he might have been 
induced to perform only by being told, 
re past all hopes, and had as 
good think decently of dying." 

Besides all this, tl ri darkened, 

the whole house echoes to the cries of the 
wife, the lament.. the children, 

the grief of I the sighs of 

The bed is surrounded with 
and doctors in Mack, and only Hom- 
1 w gloom. Where is the 

man, how intrepid soever, that would not 
shrink at such a hideous solemnity? For 
fear of affrighting then riends, 

the F.i II them 

with terror. Stroi if human pre- 

judice, thus to torture, merely from mis- 
taken tenderness! 

I see, my friend, trt ictions 

there arc in the tempers of these islanders : 
when prompted by ambition, revenge, or 
disappointment, they meet death with the 
Utmost resolution : the very man who in 



his bed would have trembled at the : 
of a doctor, shall go with intrepidity t" 
attack a bastion, or deliberately noo 
himself up in his garters. 

The passion of the Europeans for mag- 
nificent interment! i-, equally .-.trong with 
that of the Chinese. When a trad r 
dies, his frightful face is painted up by an 
undertaker, and placed in a proper situa- 
tion to receive company: this is called 
lying in state. To this disagreeable spec- 
tacle all the idlers in town flock, and 
learn to loath the wretch deal whom they 
despised when living. In this manner, you 
see some who would have refused a shi I iing 
to save the life of their dearest friend 
stow thousands on adorning their putrid 
corpse. I have been told of a ft 
who, grown rich by the price of bloo 
it in his will that he should lie in - 
and thus unknowingly gibbeted himself 
into infamy, when he might have other- 
wise quietly retired into oblivion. 

When the person is buried, the next 
care is to make his epitaph : they are 
generally reckoned best which flatter i 
such relations, therefore, as have recciv 
most benefits from the defunct 
this friendly office, and generally flatter in 
proportion to t heir joy. When we read 
these monumental histories of the dead, it 
may be justly said, that all men are equ 
in the dust ; for they all appeal 
markable for being the mi 
tiana, the most benevolent neighbours, and 
-: men of their tune. To po 
through an European cemetery, one would 
be apt to wonder how mankind could have 
so basely degenerated from such excellent 

tomb pretei 

your reverence and regret; some ore 

i those inscription- . 

entered the temple until they were 

ire praised for being excellent 

poets, who were never mentioned except 

i dulaefi when living; othei 
sublime orators, who were never noted ex- 
cept for their impudence; and others still, 
for military achievements, who were never 
in any other skirmishes but with the watch. 
Some even make epitaphs for them 
and liespeak the reader's good-will. It 
were indeed to be wished, that every man 
would early learn in this manner to make 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



>°J 



am ; thai he woald draw it up in terms 
as flattering as possible, and that he would 
make it the employment of his whole life 
to deserve U. 

'. yet been in a place called 

mister Abbey, but won Intend to 

it. There, I am told, 1 ^-linll 
lOM to deceased merit: none, I am 
ne permitted to be buried there, but 
. - well as improved 
There, no intruders, by the 
influence of friends or fortune, presume 
i their unhallowed ashes with philo- 
! s heroes, and poets. Nothing but 
icrit has a place in that awful sanc- 
tuary. The guardianship of the tombs is 
i tied to several reverend priests, who 
are never guilty, for a superior reward, of 
taking down the names of good men, to 
make room for others of equivocal charac- 
ter, nor ever profane the sacred walls with 
pageants that posterity cannot know, or 
shall blush to own. 

I always was of opinion, that lepulcbra] 
honours of this kind should be considered 
as a national concern, and not trusted to 
the care of the priests of any country, how 
respectable soever: but from tha conduct 
of the reverend personages, whose 
teres! i in I shall shortly be able 

to discover, 1 am taught to retract my for- 
ms. It is true, the Spartans 
made n fine political use 
©f sepulchral vanity : they permitted none 
nierred who had not fallen in 
ton of their country. A monu- 
' hus became a real mark of distinc- 
;i nerved the hero's arm with tenfold 
1 lie fought without fear who 
Ugh) for a grave. — Farewell. 

LETTER XIII. 

To tki i-ii'tt. 

1 returned from Westminster 

place of sepulture for the phi- 

and kings of England. 

venerable remains of deceased 
e ! Imagine a temple marked 
■ ■id of antiquity, solemn as 
with all Ihe mag- 
num profusion, dim win- 
• 1 pillars, lung colonnades, and 



dark ceilings. Think, then, what were 
my sensations at being introduced ti 
a scene. I stood in the midst of the temple, 
and threw my eyes round on the II 
tilled with the statues, the inscriptions and 
the monuments of the dead. 

Alas! 1 said to myself, how does | 
attend the puny child of dust even to the 
gmvel Even humble as 1 am, I possess 
more consequence in the present scene 
than the greatest hero of them all : they 
have toiled for an hour to gain a transient 
immortality, and are at length retired to 
the grave, where they have no attendant 
but the worm, none to (latter but the 
epitaph. 

As I was indulging such reflections, a 
gentleman dressed in black, perceiving me 
to be a stranger, come up, entered into 
conversation, and politely offered to be my 
instructor and guide through the temple. 
"If any monument," said he, "should 
particularly excite your curiosity, I shall 
endeavour to satisfy your demands." I 
accepted, with thanks, the gentleman's 
offer, adding, that " I was come to observe 
the policy, the wisdom, and the justice of 
the English, in conferring rewards upon 
deceased merit. If adulation like I 
continued I, "be properly conducted, as 
it can no ways injure those who are flat- 
tered, so it may be a glorious incentive to 
those who are now capable of enjoying it 
It is the duty of every good govcrnni' 
turn this monumental pride to its own ad- 
vantage ; to become strong in the aggre- 
gate from the weakness of the indivi 
If none but the truly great have a place in 
this awful repository, a temple like this 
will give the finest lessons of morality, and 
be a strong incentive to true ambition. I 
am told, that none have a place here but 
charactersof the most distinguished merit" 
The Man in Black seemed impatient it 
my observations, so I discontinued D 
marks, and we walked on together to take 
a view of every particular monument m 
order as it 1 

As the eye is naturally caught by the 
finest objects, I could not avoid being 
particularly curious about one monument, 
which appeared more beautiful linn the 
rest. "That," said I toil 1 take 

to be the tomb of some vtrj %^«».\ tox&- 



104 



THE Cir/ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



th 



By (he peculiar excellence of the work- 
manship, and the magnificence of the 
design, this must be a trophy raised to the 
memory of some king who has saved his 
country from ruin, or lawgiver who has 
fellow-citizens from anarchy 

into just subjection."— "II is not requi- 

silc, ' replied my companion, smiling, "to 
have such qualifications in order to have 
a very fine monument here : more humble 
abilities will suffice." — " What I I suppose, 
then, the gaining two or three battles, 
or the taking half a score of towns, is 
thought a sufficient qualification?" — 
" Gaining battles, or taking towns, ' ' replied 
;c Man in Black, " may be of service ; 
but a gentleman may have a very fine 
monument lure without cverseeingab.it- 
tie or a siege. " — " This, then, is the monu- 
ment of some poet, I presume — of one 
whose wit has gained him immortality?" 
— "No, sir," replied my guide, "the gen- 
tleman who lies here never made verses ; 
and as for wit, he despised it in others, 
because he had none himself." — " Pray tell 
me, then, in a word," said I, peevishly. 
"what is the great man who lies here par- 
ticularly remarkable for?" — " Remark- 
able, sir I" said my companion; "why, 
sir, the gentleman that lies here is remark- 
able, very rein arkable— for a tomb in West- 
minister Abbey." — "Hut, head of my 
ancestors ! how has he got here ? I fancy 
he could never bribe the guardians of the 
temple to give him a place. Should he 
not be ashamed to be seen among company 
where even moderate merit would look 
like infamy?" — "1 suppose," replied the 
Man in Black, " the gentleman was rich, 
and his friends, as is usual in such a case, 
told him he was great. He readily believed 
them; the guardians of the temple, as they 

!;ol by the self-delusion, were I 
ieve him loo ; so he paid his mam 

lonutncnt -, and the workman, as you 
sec, has made him one of the most bcau- 
tilul. Think not, however, that this gen- 
tleman is singular in his desire of being 

I among the great ; there arc 
others in the temple, who. h.-ited and 
shunned by the great while alive, hive 
come here fully resolved lo keep them 
company now they are di 

As we walked along to a particular part 



of the temple, "There," says the gentle- 
man, pointing with his finger, "that is the 
Poet's Comer ; there you see the monu- 
ments of Shakspeare, and Milton, and 
Prior, and Drayton." — "Drayton !" I rc- 

Elied ; " I never heard of him before ; but 
have been told of one Pope — is he there ? " 
— "It is time enough," replied my guide, 
" these hundred years ; he is not long dead ; 
people have not done hating him yet." — 
'Strange," cried I ; "can any be found 
to hale a man whose life was wholly spent 
in entertaining and instructing his fellow- 
creatures ?"—" Yes, "says my guide, "they 
hale him lor that very reason. There are a 
set of men called answerers of books, who 
take upon them to watch the republic of 
letters, and distribute reputation by the 
sheet ; they somewhat resemble the eu- 
nuchs in a seraglio, who arc incapable of 
giving pleasure themselves, and hinder 
those that would. These answerers have 
no other employment but to cry out Dunce 
Hid Scribbler; to praise the dead and 
revile the living ; to grant a man of con- 
fessed abilities some small share of merit ; 
to applaud twenty blockheads in order lo 
gain the reputation of candour ; and to 
revile the moral character of the man 
whose writings they cannot injure. Such 
wretches arc kept in pay by some mer- 
cenary bookseller, or more frequently the 
bookseller himself takes this dirty work 
off their hands, as all thai is required is 
to be very abusive and very dull. Every 
poet of any genius is sure to find such 
enemies; he feels, though he seems lo 
despise, their malice ; they make him 
miserable here, and in the pursuit of empty 
fame, at last he gains solid uu 

" I las this been the case with every poet 
I sec here?" cried I. — "Yes, with 
r's son of them," replied be, 
happened to be bom a mandarine, 
Ii he nil much money, he may buy repu- 
tation from your book -answerers, u 

annment from the guardian-, 

le." 
"Boi ue then not rf dis- 

bo are 

williiv e men of merit, and iufl en 

the rancour of malevolent dulncss." 

"I Of 
Man in . , the book- 



THE CTTfZEK OF THE WORLD. 



>°5 



snswererscrowd about them, andcall them- 
selves the writer* of hooks : and the patron 
is too indolent to distinguish : thus poets 
arc kept at a distance, while their enemies 
eat up all their rewards at the mandarine's 

Leaving thi= part of the temple, we made 
' »n iron gate, through which my 
Companion told me we wen.- to pass, in 
to see the monuments of the kings. 
Accordingly, I marched up without further 
1 1 was going to enter, when 
a person who held the gate in his hand 
ay first. I was surprised 
at such a demand ; and asked the man, 
whether the people of England kept a 
•—whether the paltry sum he de- 
is not a national reproach? — 
re to the honour of 
nintry to let their magnificence or 
uties be openly seen, than thus 
meanly to tax a curiosity which tended to 
onoui !— " As for youi 
lied the gate-keeper, "to be 
sure t. ; ie very right, because I 

rstand them; but, ns for that 
•-•nee, I farm it from one— who 
im another— who hire- it from 
1— who leases it from the guardians 
temple : and we all must live." I 
ted, upon paying here, to see some- 
thing extraordinary, since what I had seen 
th so much surprise: 
pointed ; there was 
within than black coffins, rusty 
>me few 
slovenly figures in wax. I was sorry I had 
raid, but I comforted myself by considcr- 
payment. 
t( oded us who without once blushing 
: he talked of a lady 
.' pricking tier finge-r ; of a king 

ye there, gentle- 
he, ["liming to an old oak 
curiosity for ye ; in that 
iwned : 
■ ne underneath, and that 
pillow." I could 
i the oak chair or the 
: Meed, behold one of the 
land seated in this, or 
i upon the other, there 
might be something curious in the sight ; 



but in the present case, there was no more 

reason for my surprise, than if I should 

pick a stone from their Streets, and call it 

ny, merely because one of the kings 

ted to tread upon it as he passed in 

From hence our conductor led us 
through several dark walks and winding 
ways, uttering lies, talking to himself, an 1 
flourishing a wand which he held li 
hand He reminded me of the black 
magicians of Kobi. After we had been 
almost fatigued with a variety of objects, he 
a) last desired me to consider attentively 
a certain suit of armour, which seemed to 
show nothing remarkable. "Thisarmour," 
said he, "belonged to General Monk." — 
" \ cry surprising that a general should 
wear armour !" — "And pray," added he, 
"observe this cap ; this i- t lencral Monk's 
cap." — "Very strange indeed, very strange, 
that a general should have a cap also 1 
Pray, friend, what might this cap have 
cost originally?"— "That, sir," says he, 
"I don't know; but this cap ia .ill the wages 
I have for my trouble." — "A very small 
recompense, truly," said I.— "Not v 
small, ' replied he, "for every gentleman 
puts some money into it, and I spend the 
money." — "What, more money] still 
more money ! " — " Every gentleman gives 
something, sir." — "I'll give thee nothing." 
relumed I ; "the guardians of the t' 
should pay you your wages, fnend, and 
not permit you to squeeze thus from every 
spectator. When we pay our money at 
trie door to see a show, we never give more 
•me, the guardians 
of the temple can never think they get 
enough. Show me the gate; if I stay 
longer, I may probably meet with more 
of those ecclesiastical beggar- ." 

Thus leaving the temple precipitately, 
I returned to my lodging - to ru- 

minate over what was great, and to despise 
II mean, in the occurrences of the 
day. 

LETTER XIV. 

To Hit I.IMA 

RUM days ago agrecaV 
by a message from a lady of distin< 
who sent me word, that lie meMt vassmhi- 
atcly desired iVe \Aeasuit cA «v^ «Bl 



10* 



TIIF. CITI7.ES- OF THE ft'ORLP. 



ance. anil with the utmost impatience 
;ed on interview. I will not deny, 
lt In in (loam, bnl ih.K my vanity 

was raised at such an imitation : I flat- 
tered myself that she had seen me in some 
public place, and had conceived an affection 
for my person, which that induced her to 

i- from the usual decorums of the 
sex. My imagination painted her in all 
the bloom of youth and beauty. I fancied 
her attended by the Loves and Graces; 
and I set out with the most pleasing expec- 
tations of seeing the conquest I had made. 
When I was introduced into her apart- 
ment, my ■ were quick!'. 
end I 1 perceived a little shrivelled figure 
indolently reclined on a sofa, who nodded, 
ty of approbation, at my approach. 
This, M I w.i- afterwards informed, was 
the lady herself, — a woman equally dis- 
tinguished for rank, politeness, taste, and 
understanding. As I was dressed after the 
D of Europe, she had taken me for 
an Englishman, and consequently saluted 
me in her ordinary manner : but when the 
footman informed her grace that I was the 
gentleman from China, she instantly lifted 
herself from the couch, while her eyes 
sparkled with umi-ii.il vivacity. "Bless 
me I can this be the gentleman that was 
bom so far from home ? What an unusual 
share oiiomdhiiign/a in his whole appear- 
ance ! Lord, how I am charmed with the 
outlandish cut of his face ! how bewitching 
the exotic breadth of his forehead I I 
would give the world to sec him in his own 
Country dress. Tray, turn about, sir, and 
let me see you behind. There, there's a 
travelled air for you! You that attend 
there, bring up a plate of beef cut into small 
pieces j I have a violent passion to see him 
eat Tray, sir, have you got your chop- 

about you? It will be so pretty to 
see the meat carried to the mouth with 
a jerk. Tray, speak a little Chinese: I 
have learned some of the language myself. 
Lord ! have you nothing pretty from China 
about you; something tliat one do 

What to do with? I have got twenty 

• from China that are of no use in the 

ok at those jars; they are of 

the right pea-green : these arc the furni- 

— " Dear m 
though they may appear fine in you. 



are but paltry to a Chinese; but as the 
are useful utensils, it is proper they shou 
have ■ place in every apartment." — " Us 
ful. sir!" replied the lady; "sure yo 
mistake ; they are of no use in the world. " 
— " What ! are they not filled with an in- 
fusion of tea, as in China?" replied I. 
"Quite empty and useless, upon my honour, 
sir." — " Then they are the most cumbrous 
and clumsy furniture in the world, as no- 
thing is truly elegant but what unites use 
with beauty." — ' I protest," s.i; 
" I shall begin to suspect thee of bei 
actual barbariaa I suppose you Cold 
my two beautiful pagods in contempt. " 
— " What ! " cried I, " has Fohi spread 1 
gross superstitions here also 1 Pagods 
all kinds are my aversion." — " A Chine 
a traveller, and want taste I It lurpr 
me. Pray, sir, examine the beauties 
that Chinese temple which you see at the 
end of the garden. Is there anything in 
China more beautiful ?" — " Where 1 stand, 
"thing, madam, at the end of the 
, that may not as well be called an 
Egyptian pyramid as a Chinese temple; 
for that little building in view is as like the 
one as t'other." — " What, sir ! is not that 
a Chinese temple? you must surely be 
mistaken. Mr. Freeze, who designed it, 
calls it one, and nobody disputes his pre- 
tensions to taste." I now found it vain to 
contradict the lady in anything she thought 
fit to advance; so was resolved rather to 
act the disciple than the instructor. She 
took me through several rooms, all fur- 
nished, as she told me, in the Chinese man- 
ner; sprawling dragons, squatting pagods, 
and clumsy mandarines were stuck 
every shelf: in turning round, one must 
have used caution not to demolish a part 
of the precarious furniture. 

In ■ house like this, thought I, one 
must live continually upon the watch . 
inhabitant must resemble a knight in an 
enchanted castle, who expects to meet 
an adventure at every turning, 
madam," said I, "do not accidents ever 
happen to all this finery?" — " Man. 
replied n to misfortunes ; 

and it is hut lit I should have a - 
Three weeks ago, a careless ser 

! off the head of a favourite ma 
danne : I had scarce done grieving for I 



THE C IT 17. EX OF THE HOE ID. 



when a monkey broke a beautiful jar ; this 
I look ttie more to heart, as the injury was 
However, 

I crash 
iragons upon the marble 

I live ; 1 IUI 

iceive what comfort I find 

'ions from philosophy. There 

U Sen . a"'l some 

, who guide me through life, and 

teach me to support its calamide 

le at a woman who makes 

fortunes, and then deplores the 

•lion. Wherefore, tired 

ah dissimulation, and willing 

in solitude, I 

the servant was bringing 

ill to the dirt 
Adieu. 

LETTER XV. 

To thi itimr. 

I wit here pretend to the utmost 

ind : to 

inger would be apt 

ould hardly hurt the gnat 

. em so tender, and 

would take them 

mless friends of the whole crea- 

tectors of the meanest insect or 

that was privilege! I with existence. 

vet (would you believe it!) I have 

seen the very men who have thus boasted 

a, at the same time de- 

: K the flesh '>f six different animal;, 

totted up in a fricassee. Strange con- 

■ ondui t! tl 

: their compassion! The 
i e ; the 
shriek to wi- 
re nhows any 

a cat. 

h innocence 

ed from 

the bounties 

i nt he lias monopolized them ; 

i he brute creation, 

come their tyrant. If an epi- 

ppen to surfeit on 

My animals the next day 

:cr to provoke his appetite to another 



guilty meal. Hail, O ye simple, honest 
brahmins of the East I ye inoffensive 
Mends of all that were born to hap; 
as well as you I You never sought a short- 
lived pleasure from the miseries of oilier 
creatures ! You never studied the tor- 
menting arts of ingenious refinement; you 
urfeited upon a guilty meal I How 
much more purified and refined are all 
your sensations than ours ! You distinguish 
every element with the utmost precision : 
a stream untaslcd before is a new Ium 
change of air is ■ new banquet, too refined 
for Western imaginations to concer 

Though the Europeans do not hold the 
transmigration of souls, yet one of their 
doctors has, with great force of argument 
and great plausibility of reasoning, en- 
deavoured to prove that the bodies of 
animals are the habitations of demons and 
Spirit*, which are obliged to i 
I in these prisons till the resurrection pro- 
nounces their everlasting punishment ; but 
are previously condemned to suffer all the 

Eains and haidship-. indicted upon them 
y man, or by each other, here. If this 
be the case, it may frequently happen, 
that while we whip pigs to death, or boil 
live hibsters, we are putting some old ac- 
quaintance, some near relation, to 
Bating tortures, and are serving hiin up 
I to the very same table v. here he mi I mce 
the most welcome companion. 

"Kabul," says the Zendnvesta, "was 
born on the rushy banks of the 
Mawra; hi- possessions were great, and 
his luxuries kept pace with the al:' 
"I oil fortune; he hated the harmless- brah- 
mins, and despised their holy rel. 
every day his table was decked out with 
the flesh of an hundred different animals, 
il cooks had an hundred difl 
-ing it, to solicit I 

" Notwithstanding all his eating, he did 
not arrive at old age ; he died of a surfeit 
caused by intemperance : upon this h 
was carried off, in order to lake its trial 
before a select as the souls of 

those nnimals which his gluttony had 
caused n, and who were now 

appointed his judge*. 

" He trembled before a tribunal, to every 
ol which he had formtivs «jA 
as an untncicvtvA Vyrauv-. Vt wm$&. Vaa, 



108 



THE C/TIZEX Of THE WORLD. 



pity, but found none disposed lo grant it. 
" Does he not remember,' cries the angry 
boar, ' to what agonies I was put, not to 
satisfy his hunger, but his vanity? I was 
first hunted to death, and my flesh scarce 
thought worthy of coming once to his table. 
Were my advice followed, he should do 
penance in the shape of an hog, which in 
life he most resembled.' 

" ' I am rather.' cries a sheep upon the 
bench, 'for having him suffer under the 
nee of a lamb; we may then send 
i through four or five transmigrations 
in the space of a month.' — * Were my voice 
of any weight in the assembly,' cries a calf, 
',hc should rather assume such a form as 
mine; I was bled every day, in order to 
mite my llcsh white, and al Last kill.il 
without mercy.' — ' Would it not bt 
cries a hen, ' to cram him in the shape of 
i fowl, and then mother him in his own 
blood, as I was served?' The mail 

-embly were pleased with this pun- 
ishment, and were going to condemn him 
without further delay, when the ox rose up 
to give his opinion, — ' I am informed," says 
this counsellor, 'that the prisoner al the 
bar has left ■ wife with child behind him. 
By my knowledge in divination, I foresee 
thai this child will be a son, dc 

v. ■ plague to himself and all 
about him. What say you, then, my com- 
panions, if we condemn the father to ani- 
mate the body of his own son ; and by this 
means make him feel in himself those 
miseries his intemperance nir 
have entailed upon his posterity?' The 
whole court applauded the ingenuity of his 
torture: they thanked him for his advice. 
Kabul was driven once more to revisit the 
earth ; and his soul, in the body of his ow n 
son, passed a period of thirty years, loaded 
with misery, anxiety, and disease." 

LETTER XVI. 

To the VM 

vv not whether I am more obliged 

Chinese missionaries for the instruc- 

ii'.n 1 have received from them, or preju- 

by the falsehoods lliey have 
me believe. By them I was told that the 
Pone was universally allowed to be a man, 
and placed at the head of the church; in 



England, however, they plainly prove 
to be a whore in man's i d often 

bum him in effigy as an impostor, A 
thousand books have been written on 
either side of the question: priest 
eternally disputing against each other ; 
and ihose mouths that want argflmt i 
tilled with abuse. Which party i 
believe? or shall I give credit to ncithci I 
When I survey the absurdities and false- 
hoods with which the books of the 
Europeans are filled, I thank Heaven for 
having been born in China, and that 1 
have sagacity enough to detect imposture. 

The Europeans reproach us with false 
history and fabulous chronology : how 
should they blush to see their own books, 
many of which are written by the doctors 
of their religion, filled with the most mon- 
strous fables, and attested with the utmost 
solemnity ! The bounds of a letter do not 
permit me to mention all the absurdities 
of this kind which, in my reading; I have 
met with. 1 shall confine myself to the 
accounts which some of their Ictterc 
give of the persons of some of the inhabit- 
ants on our globe : and, not satisfied with 
the most solemn asseverations, they some- 
times pretend to have been cye-witm 
of what they describe. 

A Christian doctor, in one of his prin- 
cipal performances, says, that it was not 
ilile for a whole nation to have BUI 
one eye in the middle of the forehead. 
He is not satisfied with leaving it in doubt ; 
but, in another work, assures us. that the 
II certain, and thai he himself KM 
witness of it. " When," says he^ 

" 1 took i journey into Ethiopia, in com- 
pany with several other servants of I 
in order to preach the Go. pel, there I 
beheld, in the southern provinces of tha' 
country, a nation which had only one eye 
in the no. It of their foreheads.' 

You will no doubt be surprised, rever- 
end Fum, with this authors effrontery ; 
but, alas ! he is not alone in this story 
he has only borrowed it from seve 

who wrote before him. S 
creates another nation of Cyclops, the Ari- 

1118, who inhabit those OOUntril 
border on the Caspian Sea. This author 
goes on to lell us of a people of India 
who have but one leg and one eye, 







THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



too 



yet are extremely active, run with great 
. hunting. 
■ we scarce know how to pity or 
it tiie men whom I'liny calls 
who have got I 

erve our compassion : in- 
nguage, they express the 

iinus confirms what 
and Simon Mayole, a 
■ Iks of them as of parti- 
ir acquaintances. "Alter 
• deserts of lays he, 

: 1 1 » •_- 1 with the Kunokephaloi, who 
ins that border on Ethi- j 
they live by bunting ; they cannot 
. bat whistle ; their chins resemble a 
their hands are armed 
i irp claws ; their breast rescm- 
hound ; and they excel in 
swiftness and agility." Would you think 
it, bit friend, I "id kinil uf people 

are, notwithstanding their figure, exces- 
<tc : not even an alderman's 
in excel them 
icular. "These people," con- 
tinues our faithful bishop, never 

nd boiled uie.it: they are 
ularly curious in having theil 
ipurn ai it if in tl 
I." " When the Ptolemies reigned 
he, a little farthi 

For men who h 

nid who couM HOI 
ach grammar, is, 1 o 
1 liil ever th 
• ii Fohi broach anything more 

e seen men with heads 
I, and with dogs' heads ; 

•ard of I 
heads at all .' I 
. :iiii| Aulua tlellius 
The Blemire 
. their 

." 
1 think thai ihesc authors had 
on ant* 1 in, and were 

resolvL ::e of their 

. Though 
us of a leg, an | 
inch tniling part 
rally bestow I 



upon us something that we wanted before. 
Simon Mayole seems our particular friend 
in this respect ; if he has denied heads to 
one part of mankind, he has given tails to 
another. I Ic describes many of the Eng- 
lish of his time, which is more than an 
hundred years ago, as having tails. His 
own words are as follow i " fa I ngland 
there are some families which have tails, 
as a punishment for deriding an Augustin 
friar sent by St. Gregory, and who preached 
in Dorsetshire. 'I I the tail.-, of 

different animals to his clothes ; but soon 
they found those tails entailed upon them 
and their posterity for ever." It is cer- 
tain that the author had some ground for 
this description. Many of the English 
wear tails to their wigs to this very day ; 
irk, I suppose, of the antiquity of 
indies, and perhaps as a symbol of 
those tails with whicli ti>' niorly 

distinguished by nature. 

You sec, my friend, there is nothing so 
ridiculous that has not at some time been 
said by some philosopher. The writers 
of books in Europe seem to think them- 
selves authorized to say what they please; 
i.ou.s philosopher among them 
has openly asserted, that he would under- 
persuade the whole republic of 
readers to believe, that the sun was uti- 
le cause of light nor heat, if he 
could only get six philosophers on Ins 
side, — Farewell. 

LETTER XV1L 
To iht mm*. 

Wkrk an Asiatic politician to read th 

treaties of peace and friendship that hav 

been annually making for more than an 

long Die inhabitants of 

Europe, he would probably I 
how it should ever happen that Chi 
princes Could quarrel among each oilier. 
Their compacts for peace are drawn up 
with the utmost precision, ami ratified 
\\ ith the greatest solemnity : tothese each 
party promises a sincere and inviolable 
obedience, and all wears the appearance 
of open friendship anil unreserved recon- 
ciliation. 

Vet, notwithstanding those ties.<.v4%,>i«. 
of Euioyie a.te aXrocjsX wo&wuKii 



I to 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



at war. There is nothing more easy than 
to break a treaty ratified in all the usual 
forms, and yet neither paity be the ag- 
gressor. One side, for instance, In 
trilling article by mistake -, the opposite 
party, upon this, makes a small but pre- 
meditated reprisal ; this brings on I return 
of greater from the Other ; both sides com- 
plain of injuries and infractions; WW is 
declared ; they beat— are beaten ; some 
o or three hundred thousand men are 
died; they grow tired; leave off just 
win-re they began ; and so sit coolly down 

English and French seem to place 
(elves foremost among the champion 
of Europe. Though parted by a 
v sea, yet are they entirely of oppo- 
site character- ; and, from their vicinity, 
arc taught to fear and admire each other. 
~hey are at present engaged in a very 
destructive war, have already spilled touch 
" "ood, are excessively irritated, and nil 
n account of one side's desiring to 
wear greater quantities of furs than the 
other. 
The pretext of the war is about some 
■ thousand leagues off, — a country 
cold, desolate, and hideous— a country 
ix'longing to a people who were in posses- 
ion rot time immemorial. The savages 
of Canada claim a property in the country 
me ; they have all the pretensions 
which long possession can confer. Here 
they had reigned for ages without 

iininii. and knew no enemies but 

I he prowling bear or insidious tiger; 

their i its produced all the ne- 

ies of lite, and they found ample 

luxury in the enjoyment. In this manner 

they might have continued t'> live to cter- 

"ly, had not the English been informed 

at those countries produced furs in great 

1 i 'oil that moment the coun- 

desire : it Ml 

mis were things very much 

I in England ; the 1 some 

1 muffs were 

both by gentlemen and ladies 

■.hurt, i'u is were found Indispensably nc- 

ior the hap 
the kit entry petilioi 

not only Ihe country of Canada, but 
all the savages belonging to it, to the sub- 









in order to have the 
people supplied with proper quantities ol 
this necessary commodity. 

So very reasonable a request was imme- 
diately complied with, and large colonies 
were sent abroad lo procure furs, and take 
nan, The l'reiich,\<h" wco? equally 
ol furs, (for they were as fond of 
muffs and tippets as the English,) made 
the veiy same request to their mosui h, 
and met with the same gracious rece] 
from their king, who generously granted 
what was not his to give. Wherever the 
French landed, they called the country 
their own ; and the English took p 
sion wherever they came, upon the same 
equitable pretensions. The harmless sa- 
vages made no opposition ; and, could the 
ini ruder-, hive agreed together.thcy might 
peaceably have shared this desolate coun- 
try between them ; but (hey quarrelled 
about the boundaries of thei i 
about grounds and rivers to which neither 
side could show any other right than thai 
er, and which neither could occupy 
but by usuipation. Such is the COD 
that no honest man can heartily wish suc- 
cess to either party. 

The war has continued for some time 
with fan iUS success. At first the French 
seemed victorious ; but the English 1 
of late dispossessed them of the whole 
country in dispute. Think not, however, 
that success on one side is the harbinger 
of peace ; on the contrary, both parties 
must be heartily tired, to eflecl i 
temporary reconciliation. It should seem 
the business of the victorious party to 
offer terms of peace : but thete arc many 
in England who, encouraged by success, 
acting the • 

The best English politicians, however, 
are sensible, that to keep their i 
conquests would be rather a burden ih.in 
an advantage to them ; rather a diminu- 
tion of their Strength than an incr. 
power. It i I i tie as in the hu- 

man D if the hni 1 

large lor the body, thei' 
improving, will diminish the vigour of the 
whole. The colonies should always bear 
an exact proportion to the mother 
try : when they grow populous, the) 
powerful, and, by becoming powerful, they 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



become independent also : thus subor- 
ioyed, and a couniry 
■■lent of its own Jo- 
ins. 'I lie Turkish empire wuuld be 
naive — 
I tv it for those countries which it can 

give entirely away, 

. obliged to protect, but from 
which it lias no power to exact obe- 

Vfet, obvious as these truths are, there 
ate many Englishmen who are for trans- 
plant!; into this late acqui- 
sition, for peopling the deserts of America 
with the refuse of their countrymen, and 
(is they express it) with the waste 
exuberant nation. But who are those 
unhappy creatures who are to be thus 
drained away T Not the sickly, for they 
are unwelcome guests abroad as well as 
at home; nor the idle, lot they would 
starve as well behind the Apalachian 
mountains as in the streets of London. 
This refuse is composed of the laborious 
and enterprising— of such men as can be 
serviceable to their country at home — of 
who ought to be regarded as the 
Ihe people, and cherished with 
degree of political indulgence. And 
unmodities which this 
■ 
Why, raw sill., hemp, and to- 
bacco. England, therefore, must make an 
f her best and bravest subjects 
for raw silk, hemp, and tobacco; her hardy 

veterans and honest tradesmen mnsl be 

a box of snuff or a silk petti- 
coat. Strange absurdity I Sorely the poli- 

1'aures are not more strange, 
i, their wives, and 
. bead or a paltry 
pchkr veil. 

LETTER XVIII. 

To tfu i,lwe 

THE English love their wives with much 

passion, the Hollander-, with mnch pru- 

sh, when they give their 

hand'-. , give their hearts ; the 

id, but ko 

on. The 
expect 



! with the slightest acknowledg- 
ment, for they give little away. The 
English expend many of the matrimonial 
rtt in the first year; the Dutch 
frugally husband out their pleasures, and 
vays constant, because they are 
always indifi- i 

There seems very little difference be- 
tween a Dutch bridegroom and a Dutch 
husband. Both are equally possessed of 
the same cool unexpecting serenity ; they 
can see neither Elysium nor Paradise 
behind the curtain; and Yilt'row is not 
more a goddess on the wedding-night 
than after twenty years matrimonial ac- 
quaintance. On the other hand, many of 
' the English marry in order to have one 
happy month in their Uvea; they seem 
incapable of looking beyond that period ; 

they unite in hopes of rinding rapture) 

and, disappointed in that, disdain ever 

pi hi happiness, nam hence we 
i hatred ensue ; or, what is worse, 
concealed disgust under the appearance of 
fulsome endearment Much formality, 
great civility, and studied compj n 
arc exhibited in public ; cross looks, 

sulky silence, or open recrimination, fill 
up their hours of private entertainment 

Hence I am taught, whenever 1 see a 
new married couple more than or linarily 
fond before faces, to consider them as 
attempting to impose upon the company 
or themselves; either hating each other 
heartily, or consuming that stock of lore 
in the beginning of their course which 
should serve them through their whole 
journey. Neither side should i 
those instances of kindness which are 
■ lent with tine freedom or happi- 
ness to bestow. Love, when f.Hiiv 
the heart, will ihow itself in I tin > 
unpremeditated sallies of fondness ; but 
every cool deliberate exhibition of the 
passion only argues little understanding, 
or great mstni 

Choang was the fondest husband, and 
Hansi Ihe most endearing wife, in all the 
kingdom of Korea : they were a pattern 
of conjugal bliss; the inhabitant) of the 
ciiuntry around saw, and envied their 
felicity: wherever Choang c.i 
was sui \ . vcfti \v\ «cX "tec 



112 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



fidi 



Ml 



milled a partner. They walked hand in 
hand wherever they appeared, showing 
every mark of mutual satisfaction, em- 
bracing, kissing — their mouths were for 
'.ned ; and, to speak in the language 
of anatomy, it «a> with them one per- 
petual anastomosis. 

Their love was so great, that it was 
thought nothing could interrupt their 
mutual peace, when an accident bas- 
ed, which, in some measure, dimin- 

ied the husband's assurance of his - 
fidelity; for love so refined as his was 
subject to a thousand little disquietudes. 

Happening to go one day alone among 
the tombs that lay at some distance from 
his house, he there perceived a lady 
dressed in the deepest mourning, (being 
clothed all over in white, J fanning the 
wet clay that was raised over one of the 
graves with a large fan which she held in 

ad. Cheng, who had early been | 

taught wisdom in the school of 1 to, was 

unable to assign a cause for her pr es e nt 

ment ; and coming up, civilly 

demanded the reason. *' Alas, ' replied 

the lady, her eyes bathed in tears, " hdw 

is il possible to survive the loss of my 

I, who lies buried In tins grave! 

I le » is the best of men, the tendcrcst of 

husbands : with his dyine breath he bid 

or marry again till the earth over 

his grave should be dry ; and here you 

sec me steadily resolving to obey hi- will, 

udeavouring to dry it with my fan. 

employed two whole days in ful- 
filling his commands, and am detein 
not to marry till they are punctually 
I, even though his grave should 
in dning." 
ng| who was struck with the 
widow's beauty, could not, however, 
imiling at ha haste to be m 

Miccaling the cause of hts mirth, 
uvillv invited her home, adding, that he 
had a wife who might be capable of 
giving her some consolation. As soon 
as he and his guest were returned, he 
IC "hat he 
had seen, and could n..' icssing 

■ such might be his own 
ease If his dearest wife should one day 
happen aim. 

It Is impossible to describe 1 1 



resentment at so unkind a suspicion. As 
for him was not only great, 
but extremely delicate, she employed tears, 
anger, frowns, and exclamations, to chid 
his suspicions : the widow herself was 
inveighed against ; and llonsi declared, 
she was resolved never to sleep under the 
same roof with a wretch, who, like her, 
could be guilty of such barefaced in- 
constancy. The night was cold and 
stormy ; however, the stranger was ob- 
liged to seek another lodging, for Choang 
was not disposed to resist, and Hansi 
would have her way. 

The widow had scarce been gone an 
hour, when an old disciple of Choang' s, 
whom he had not seen for many yean, 
came to pay him a visit. He was received 
with the utmost ceremony, placed in the 
most honourable seat at supper, and the 
wine began to circulate with great freedom. 
ChOUg and Hansi exhibited open marks 
of mutual tenderness and unfeigned re- 
conciliation : nothing could equal their 

it happiness; so fond a lui-' 
so obedient a wife, few could behold 
without regretting their own Infeli 
when, lo ! their happiness was at once 
disturbed by a most fatal ace: 
Choang fell lifeless in an apoplectic fit 

he floor. Every method was i 
but in vain, for his recovery. Han- 
at first inconsolable for his death : after 
some hours, however, she found spirits to 
read bb last will. The ensuing da; 
began to moralize and talk wisdom; the 
next day, the was able to comfort the 
young disciple; and on the thn 
shorten a long story, they both agreed to 
be married. 

There was now no longer mounting in 
the apartments : the body of I 
now thrust into an old coffin, and pit 
one of the meanest rooms, tli 
attended until the lime prescribed b) 
for his interment. In the meantime, I 
and the young disciple were arrayed in the 

most magnificent habits ; the bridi 

in her nose a jewel of Immense price, and 
her lover was dressed in all the finery 
his former master, together with R 
artificial whiskers that reached down to 
Ins toes. The hour of their nuptl 
arrived ; the whole family 



THE C/TIZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



with Ibeir approaching happiness ; the 
apartments were brightened up with lights 
•1 the most exquisite perfume, 
and a lustre more bright than noon-day. 
The lady expected her youthful I 

nt with impatience ; when 

, approaching with terror In bis 

incd her, then his master 

'lien into a fit winch would certainly 

the heart of n man lately 

I. and applied to 

ely waited to hear 

up her 

-. she ran with a mattock in her 

m the coffin where Cboong lay, 

resolving to apply the heart of her dead 

. a cure for the living. She 

• ire struck the lid with the 

[n a few blows the coffin flew 
when the body, which to nil ap- 
ncebad been dead, began to 

dropped the 

k, and t.'hoang walked out, oslon- 

own situation, his wife's un- 

I her more a 

I le went among the apartments, 

onceive the cause of so much 

I [i was not lung in suspense 

ned bin of 

-iciion since he first 1 

lie tree believe 

told him, and went in pursuit 

rdcr to receive more 

n information, or to reproach her 

But she prevented his re- 

he found 

11 to the 
■ ■: her shame 
en I. 

, e any loud lamentations i he 

mi the old 

i himself, he placed his 

nd un- 

ny nuptial preparations 

vain, nc the same 

pW with the large 

As they both were apprised of the 
other hefor 

■ 
great < ig rap- j 




turc, made a shift to find content; 

—Farewell. 

LETTER XIX. 

To t At tame. 

The gentleman dressed in black, who 
on through Westm 

Abbey, can. to pay me I 

and, after drinking tea, we both resolved 
to take a walk together, in order to 
the freshness of the country, whicl 
begins to resume its verdure, Before we 
got out of the Stlburb r. we 

were stopped in one of the streets by a 
crowd of people, t'ai'i circle 

round a man and In- c-med 

too loud and too I 

The people were h sed with the 

dispute, winch, upon inquiry, we I 
to be between I 

,, and his wife. The 'I 
it seems, coming unexpectedly in' 
wife's apartment, found a gentl 
there, in circumstances DOl In the least 

icaL 

The doctor, who was a person of nice 

honour, resolving to revenge the f 
insult. Immediately flew to the ehii 

Ciece, and, taking down a rusty hlunder- 
Irew the trigger upon the defil 
I I the delinquent I only 

have been shot through the head, bul 
that the piece had not been charged for 
many yens. The gallant rfladi 

through Ihewtndow, but the lady 

■till remained; and, as she well knew 
her husband's temper, US 

quarrel without I i. 

and she load ; theil 
had gathered all the mob, who charitably 

iled on theoo 
hut to enjoy the quarrel. 

I to my compn 
" what will become of tlii 
creature thus caught in adultery? Di 
lie, I |.:ly li.-r rroiD my he.nt: her bus- 

band, I suppose, n ill show hi i 

Will they burn her, as in India, 
her, a- Will [hey load h« 

ha in 
.Miii as In 

China 7 Prithee. I 

ishnicnt nd tat »vAy dRes 

\ 



"4 



The citizen or thi 



hci 

tre 



" When a lady it thus caught tripping," 
replied my companion, " rliey never 
punish her, but the h u sband." — "You 

surely jest," interrupted 1 ; " 1 am a 

foreigner, and you would abuse my igno- 
rance ! " — "I am really serious," re- 
turned he : " Dr. CaodogO his caught 
his wife in the act ; but, as he hi 

witnesses his email testimony goes for 

nothing : the consequences therefore, of 
eovery will lie, that she will be 
packed off to live among her relations, 
and the doctor mii-t be obliged to allow 
ha .i unci-."—" A 

ing ! " cried I ; "is it not enough that 
she is permitted to lit from 

the object -he detests, but must he give 
her money to keep ber in spirit! too? ' — 
"That he must,' said my guide, "and 
be called a cuckold by all his neighbours 
mlo the bargain. The men will laugh at 
him, the ladies will pity him ; and all that 

friends can say in his 
will be that ' the poor good soul bat never 
had anv harm in him.'" — "I want 
patience," interrupted I. " What .' are 
there no private chastisements for the 
no schools of penitence to 
'ly— no rods for such delinquents }" 
— " PuaW| man," replied he, smiling, "if 

delinquent among as were 

' in your manner, one half of the- 
rm would flog the other." I 
i urn, that if I wc 
,h husband, of all things I 
■ 
ml.. |ho 

infidelity, what is the consequence? If I 

calmly pocket the abase, I am laughed it 

I and her gallant : if I talk toy 

E aloud, like a tragedy hero, I nrn 
tighed at by the whole world. The 
course, then, I would Id be, 

i went our, to tell iny wife 
where I was going, leSI I should micx- 

i 
dial rap at 

Would ly peep under her 

And 
even (hough I I 



1 would calmly take I 
cool tea, and talk of tin 
■ verence. 
Of . the Russians so 

me to behave mi 

cumstances. Thi lise* her hus- 

band never to let him see her 
gressions of this nature : and 

punctually promises, whenevi 
detected, without the least anger, to 
her without mercy : so they both kno 
what each has j the lady trans- 

gresses is beaten, taken again into favour, 
and all goes on as before. 

When a Russian young lady, therefore, 
is to be married, her father, with n cud- 
gel in his hand, I ridegioom, 
whether he chooses this virgin tor his 
bride? to which the other replies in the 
affirmative. Upon thi-. the lather, turn- 
ing the lady throe times round, and 

i er three strokes with 
on the back, — "My dear," cries he, 

■re the Inst blow 
receive from your ti 

my authority, and my cudgel, to yooi 
an me the 
use of either." The bi 
decorum too well to accept of the i 
abruptly ; he assures the father il 
lady will oevei wanl it, and that be would 
i the world 

but the father, who kmra - what thi 
may want better than hi 

there roll 

■ 

The v. with the 

bridegroom's taking n ; upon which the 
lady 3 i in token ol 

ceremony proceeds as usual. 

■ ■ Iv fair and 
open in this method of coui 

ith -ides are prepared for all the 
inatrin. that -ire I 

low. \ 

t of -kill lor life : it 

, both parties to ey are 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 






XX. 

Tf tkt 
Rtpublk of 1 very common 

; and 
i the learni 

that can be 

lire unlike a I 

>es by 

From i'n- expression one 

le that the learned 

i single Imdy, joining 

their i 1 concurring in the same 

design. Fn mij;hl In; apt to 

compare them to our literary societies in , 

where each acknowledges a just 
subordination, and all contribute to build . 
ace, without attempting, 
i ;norancc or envy, to obstruct each 

1 very different is the state of Icam- 
every member of this fancied 
ous of governing, ami 
willing to i looks upon 

tant in 
f calumniate 
ise, they ridicule each 
ne man wri 
tiers shall write books to show 
e might have given still | 

• should not have pie ised. 1 1 
•ppens to hit upon something new, 

irs ready to assure the 

• all this was no novelty to 

Mint Cnrdanus, or 
Druinis, or some other author too 'lull to 
be gci :, had anticipated the 

uniting like 
the members of a commonwealth 
are divided into almost as ra 
as there are men ; ami their 

i beine; styl 
■. should be entitled an 
hy of literature. 

tome of superior 
i each 
mutual admiration is not i 
Id off the contempt of 
wise are but feu 

le voice; the vulgar 
nut roar in reproaches. The 
hi unite in soi 
etings no cabals; the trances | 
11 they have run down a 



reputation, and then snarl and fight with 
each other about dividing the spoil, 
you may see the compilers and the 
answerers of every month, when 
they have CUl up some respectable name, 
frequently reproaching 
ituprdity and dull unbling 

the wolves of the Russian foresi. 
prey upon venison, or I tfben 

they can get it ; but in cases of ne. 
in wail to devour each 
While they have new books to CUl up, 
they nrake a hearty meal ; but if this 
rce should unhappily fail, then it 
is that critics eat up critics, and com- 
pilers rob from compilations. 

Confucius observes, that it is the duly 
of the learned to unite society more 
ly, and to persuade men to b 
ns of the world I but the authors I 
refer to are not only foi 
but kingdoms also: if the English are 
at war with France, the dunces of France 
think it their duty to be at war will 
of England. Thus Pleron, one of their 
first-rate scribblers, thinks proper to 
tense all the English writers in the 
" Their whole merit," says he, 
it in exaggeration, and often in 
extravagance : correct their pieces as you 

. there still remains a leaven i 
corrupts the whole. They sometimes 
discover genius, hut not the smallest 
share of taste : England is not a soil for 
the plants of genius to thrive in " 
is open enoi it the least adula- 

n the picture : but bear ■■■■ 
Frenchman of acknowledged ab 

poll the same subji 01 at a 

to determine in what we excel the 
English, or where they evcel us ; when I 
he merits of both in any one 
of literary composition, so many 
nd pleasing writers present 
Ives from cither country, U 
judgment rests in suspense: I 
with the disquisition, without rinding the 
object of my inquiry." Bl 
should think the Frensh alone are faulty 
in this respect, hear how 
journalist delivers hhtientirni 
" Wl are amazed.' 

many works translated from lb* fteodti, 
while we have sucYi wov 



1.6 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



our own. In our opinion, notwithstanding 

their fame throughout the rest of Europe, 
the French are the most contemptible rea- 
soners (we had almost said writere) that can 
be imagined. However, nevertheless, ex- 
cepting," &o. Another English writer, 
if 1 remember, on the con- 
rhat the French authors are 



Other critics contradict the fulminations 
of this tribunal, call them nil spiders, 
and assure the public, that they ought to 
laugh without restraint. Another set are 
in the meantime quietly employed in 
writing notes to the book, i 
thou the particular ; 
at : when these arc out, other, still I 



s 



IS, more clear, more [ arc who write notes upon notes : thus a 
••nl " 
of his own country. 



i aining, than those 




single new book employs not only the 

paper-makers, the printers, the pre- 

the bookbinders, the hawkera, but twenty 

critics, and as many compilers. In short, 

the body of the learned may be con 

to a Persian army, where there are many 

■-.-, several sutlers, nun, 
v. 1 . his. women and children in abundance, 
and but few soldiers. — Adieu. 



LETTER XXI. 

7V» Ihi jaw. 



From thete opposite pictures you pcr- 
" li.it the good authors of cither 
ind the bad revile, each 
. and yet, perhaps, you will be sur- 

Ethit indifferent writers should thus 
matt apt to censure, as they have 
the init*l toapprehend from recrimination: 
■OH may. perhaps, imagine, that such as 
are possessed of fame themselves should 
Cl ready to declare their opinions, 
since what they say might pass for ,1c- 

cimuii. Hut the truth happens to be. Till'. English are as fond of seeing plays 
that thegreat are sohauui, only of raising acted as the Chinese; but there il 
their own reputations while the opposite difference in the manner of conducting 
alas! are solicitous of bringing then. We play our pieces in the open 
cry reputation down to a level with air, the English theirs undei cover; we 
their own. act by daylight, thcyby the blaze of torches. 

But let us acquit them of malice and One of our plays continues eight oi i.-n 
envy. A err the days successively ; an English piect 

-line motives that direct his author: the takes up above four hours in the rcprcscn- 
1 endeavours to persuade us, that he tation. 

ten a g-""i book; the criti. i- My companion in black, with whom I 
opnll) to show that he Could am now beginning to contract an Intimacy, 

write a better bad he thought proper. A introduced me a few nights ago to i> 
Of all the Imuse, where we placed oursch 
vanity, bal not the genius, of a scholar : vcnicntly at the foot of the sr 

in his native weakness, of curtain wis not drawn before my 
lifting himself from the ground, he applies I had an opportunity of observing the 
to contiguous merit for support ; makes behaviour of the spectators, and indulging 
the sportive sallies of another's imagine- those reflections which novelty generally 






lion In daployment ; pretendsto 

lake our feelings under his care ; teaches 

where l>. condemn, where to lay the em- 

. and may with as much 

■ be called a man of taste as the 

,e who measures his wisdom by 

If, then, a book, spirited or humorous, 
appear in the republic of 



inspires. 

The richest in general were placed in the 
lowest scats, and the poor rose abov 
in degrees proportioned to th 
The order of precedence seemed here in- 
verted ; those who were undermost all the 
day, now enjoyed a temporary eminence, 
and became masters of the ceremonies. 
they who called for the mu« 






everal critic* are in waiting to bid dulging every noisy freedom, and t< 

the public not to laugh at a single line of all the insolence of beggary in exaltation. 

iliey They who held the middle region seemed 

what i', propel to excite laughter, not so riotous as those above them. 




THE C/T/ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



"7 



j«t so Ume as those below : lo judge by 
iheirlooks, many of them seemed strangers 

:i well as myself; they were chiefly 

I of expecta- 
111 eating ora 

i ,signalions. 
ii the lowest rows, which 
died I he pit, seemed to consider them- 
selves a, judges of the merit of the poet 

■ mblcd 
nd partly ; 

iiir under that 
aich an affectation of superior 
i. illy produces. My com- 
panion, however, informed me, that not 
in a hundred of them knew even the 
linciples of criticism; that they as- 
I the right of being censors because 
there was none to contradict their preten- 
Bry man who now called 
himself a connoisseur, became such to all 
intents and purposes. 

Those who sit in the boxes appe.n 

the most unhappy situation of all. The 

I the audience came merely for their 

these, rather to furnish 

i" the entertainment themselves. 

lid considering them as 

- in dumb show — not a c 

not the result of ait ; 
look nor a smile that was not de- 
Gentlemen am I 
I other through spectacles; for 
ay companion observed, that blindness 
; all affected 
ise, while their he 
iic- tunc- burned for conquest. Upon 
the whole, the lights, the music, the ladies 
•es. the men with cheer- 
fulness and expectation in their looks, all 
• make a most agreeable pic- 
nd to fill a heart that sympathises 
mum happiness with inexpressible 

expected time for the play to begin 

at last arrived ; the curtain was drawn, 

ie on, A woman, who 

:ine in curtseying 

Lipped their hands 

I noc. Clapping of hands 

inner of applauding in 

inner is absurd, but every 

'i know, hoi ■■ absur- 

1 was equally surprised, however, 




at the submission of the actress, who 
have considered herself as a queen, 
as at the little discernment of the audience 
who gave her such marks of applau 
fore she attempted to deserve them. Pre- 
liminaries between her and the audience- 

dialogne w.i 

ported between her and a m 

?aulh, who acted the part of her confidant 
hey both appeared m extren 
for it seems the cjucl 

fifteen years before, and still kept its dear 
resemblance next her heart, while her kind 
iiion bore a part in hersorrov 
He* lamentations grew loud; comfort 
is offered, but' she detests the very sound : 
she bids them preach comfort to the \\ 
Upon this her husband comes in, who, 
seeing the queen so much afflicted, can 
himself hardly refrain from tears, or avoid 
partaking in the n thus 

Srievin. i rec scenes, the curtain 

ropped for the first act. 

kid] to my companion, "these 
kings and queens are very much disturbed 
at no very Hi me : certain I am, 

; were people of humbler stations to act 
in this manner, they would be thought 
divested of common sense." I had scarce 
finished this observation, when the curtain 
rose, and the king came on in a violent 

Kssion. His wife 
i proffered tendc tpnrned his 

royal embrace, and he seemed resolv 
lo survive her fierce disdain. After he 
had thus fretted, and the queen had I. 
; through the second act, the * 
let down once more. 

" Now," layi my companion, ' 
perceive the king to be a man of t\ 
lie feels at every pore : one of your phleg- 
matic n would have given the 
queen her m I let her come to 
herself by degrees; but the king 
numc'l rtant death; 
death and tenderness are leading passions 
of every modem buskincd hero; this 

nid the next 
mixing daggers and kisses in every period.' 1 

I was going to second his remark*, when 
my attention was engrossed by a new 
object ; a man came in balancing a straw 
upon his nose, and tire wicuwxc* -were 
clapping in«\i tanAs/vo. «&$ae xwvfw.w*'!! 



n8 



THE C/T/ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



taJ 



applause. "To what purpose," cried I, 
"doc* this unmeaning figure make his ap- 
pearance? is he a put of the plot!" — 

" Unmeaning do you call him?" replied 

my friend in black ; " this is one of the 

important characters of the whole 

play; nothing pleases the people more 

.lanced : thi i 

great deal of meaning in a straw : there is 

to every apprehension 

in the tight; and a fellow possessed of 

re of nuking his 

ne." 

The third act now began with an actor 

who came to inform us that he was the 

villain of the play, and intended to show 

e things before all was over. He 

was joined by another who seemed as 

much is he ; their* 

intrigues continued through this whole 

in. " If that be a villain." Mid I, 

"he must be a very stupid one to tell his 

secrets without being asked ; such soli- 

9 of late are never admitted in 

China." 

The noise of clapping interrupted me 
once more ; a child of six years old was 
i incc on the stage, which gave 
the ladies and mandarines infinite B 
lion. "I am sorry." Bod I, "to sec the 
pretty creature so early learning so bad a 
ing being, I presume, as con- 
temptible here as ID China.* 1 — "Quite 
the reverse," interrupted my companion; 
ing is a very reputable and genteel 
employment here ; men have a greater 
neouragement from the merit 
of ihcir heels than their heads. One who 
jumps up and flourishes In. na three 
times betON I I. may 

have three hundred a year: he who Sou- 
thern four times, gets four ban 
but he who arrive tnable, 

ami may demand what salary he thinks 
proper. The fei. •, IK 

1 lor this sort of {umpin) 
ind it is a caul rrord amongst them, 
he deserves most who shows highest. 
But the fourth act is begun ; let us be 
Ive." 

lUTth act the queen finds her 
•t child, now grown up into a youth 
of smart parts and great qualific. 
wherefore she wisely considers that the 



crown will lit his head better than that of 
her husband, whom she knows to be a 
driveller. The king discovers her design, 
and here conies on the deep distress; he 
loves the queen, and he loves the king- 
dom; he resolves, therefore, in 01 
possess both, that her son must die. The 
queen exclaims at his barbarity, is fiantic 
with iagc. and at length, overcome with 

n which the 

curtain .hops, and the act II concluded. 

" Observe the art of the poet," cries my 
companion, " When the qu< 
no more, she falls into a fit. WM 
her eyes are shut, while she is sup; 
in the arms of her A lug-ail, what horrors 
do we not fancy ! We feel it in every 
nerve : take my word for it, that fits are 
the true Oftsiofttil of modern tragedy." 

The fifth act began, and a busy piece it 
was. Scenes shifting, trumpets sounding, 
mobs hallooing, carpets spreading, guards 
bustling from one door to another; gods, 
demons, daggers, racks, and raj 
But whether the king was killed, or the 
queen was drowned, or the son wa 
soned, I have absolutely forgotten. 

When the play was over, I could not 
avoid observing, that the persons of the 
drama appeared in as much distress in the 
first act as the last "How is il 
said I, " to sympathise with them il 
five long acts ! Pity is but a shoi I 
passion. I hate to hear an actor mouth- 
ing tritles I neither starlings, strainings, 
nor attitudes, affect me, unless thi 
cause: after I have been once or twice 
deceived by those unmeaning alarm 
heart sleeps in peace, probably una! 
by the principal disDcSF. There should 
be one I •> i he actor 

as well as the poel ; all the rest should lie 
sultordinate, and only contribute to make 
that the greater; if the actor, theri 
ry occasion, in ti 
. he attempt*' to move us too 
he anticipates the blow, he ceases 
affect, though he gains not appl 

1 scarce perceived that the audi' 
were almost all departed ; whercfo 
mixing with the crowd, my con i| 
and 1 got into the street, where, essayin 
an hundred obstacles from coach-wheel 
and palanquin poles, like bin 



THE CITIZES OF THE WORLD. 






after I re both >l length 

II. 

'■: tht tame. 

the way of 
.1, and which you . 

I have 

r"f all those 

directed In 
- in joy or sorrow, m) I 

in my feelings. It 
ire to see a good man 
Id give 
-ure to see him .-; 

ive from ilie East ' 

to Com 1 with some new 

My wife ami daughter were 

a.l yet I sustained the 

lay ; my son is made a 

ing the barbarians, which was 

lied my 

1 will indulge the Umnsporti 

for a little, in order to show I 

tie tliern in the end. True 

ot in never falling, 

fall. 

Wh ;hty emperor had pub- 

tire a' ii i y departure, 

and v all that wot mine, my 

■-■I from his resent- 

utent Under the protection and gnardian- 

■ f Fum 1 1 1 • : i n. die best and the 

II the inhabitants of I lima, he 

was for some time instructed in the 

, and die wisdom 
Bui bearing of my 

piety, he was 
I share 

■ I die confines of China in 
uiself as a camel-drivet 

to * caravan that 

day's 
ur, which divides 
iiintry from India, when a b 
is falling i) 

mode those who 
>lavc». Hy those lie « 



on the i 

Here he lived by hunting; tod 
obliged i'-» supply every day a certain 

proportion of the .-pud, to regale bit 

masters. 1 lii learning, bisvii 
nnd even his beauty, were qualific 

nmend him ; 

they knew no merit, but that of providing 
.untitle- of milk and raw fled) ; 
Qsible 01 no happiness but 
i rioting on the undressed meal. 

its from Mesched, how- 
ever, a trade with the Tartars 
for slaves, he was sold among the mini- 
I led into the kingdom of Persia, 
•I. lie is there 
watch the looks of a volup- 
tuous and cruel master, a man fund of 
pleasure, yet incapable of refinement, 
many years' service in wax has 
taught pride, bill i; 

That treasure which 1 still keep within 

mi — my child, myall that was 

left to me — is now a slave. Good 

... this * Why have I 

been introduced into this mortal apart- 
merit, to be a spectator of my own mis- 
fortunes, and the misfortunes of my fel- 
low-creatureel Wherever I turn, what a 

Ith of doubt, error, and disappoint- 
ment appears] Why was I brought into 
being? for what purposes made? from 
one ? whither strayed ? 
or to what regions am I hastening? 
Reason cannot resolve. It lends a i 
.-how the horrors of my prison, but not a 
light to guide me to escape them. Ye 
ini of the earth, how 
little do you aid the inquiry ! How am 
I surprised at the inconsistency of the 

Magi ! of good and 

evil affright DM The Indian who bathes 

lg« in mine, and calls it piety, 
Strikes The Chris- 

tian who believes in three Gods is highly 
absurd. The lews, who pretend that I 

ted with the effusion of blood, are 
leasing. I am equally 

Siriscd, that rational beings can i 
the extremities: of the earth, m 

oider ti Lone, or scatter pebbles. 

' and 
yel all pteten u*t \» VsOmWI , 



130 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



I ly all men nrc blind and ignorant 
• if ! ruth. Mankind wanders, unknowing 
In. way, from morning lill evening. 
\\ here shall we turn after happiness; or 
■. ;sest lo desist from the pursuit ! — 
eptilcs in a corner of some stupen- 
lace, we peep from our holes, look 
about us, wonder it all we see, but are 
ni . ,f the great architect's design. 
r a revelation of Himself, for a 
plan of His universal system! Oh for 
csons of our creation ; or why were 
we created to be thus unhappy ! If we 
rience no other felicity but 
what litis life affords, then are we miser- 
able Indeed ; if we are born only to look 
pine and die, then has Hca- 
aeu guilty of injustice. If this life 
terminates my existence, I despise the 
igs "f Providence, and the wisdom 
giver; if this life be myall, let 
Mowing epitaph be written on the 
tomb Of AltJIigi : — MY MY iaihek's 

LO THIS ; I 
CXIME9 1 BEQUEATH IT TO MS- 

LETTER XXIII. 

Tt Ihr Maw 

while I sometimes lament the case 

of humanity, and the depravity of human 

, there DOW end then appear gleams 

(hat serve to relieve the eye 

oppressed with the hideous prospect, 

Kmble those cultivated spots that 

are sometimes found in the mien 

wilderness. I see many si;. 
excel!. g the rngliOi, which it 

letr follies to 

Ueh in other coun- 
tries U uly to a f 
, every rani. 
I la tlar it proceeds from 
their - llence that the English 
»ie more charitable than the rest of man- 
kind ; whether by being possessed of all 
•nces of life themselves, they 
;ore leisure to perceive the uneasy 
in of the distressed ; whatever be 
it, they are not only the most 
>l)le of any other nation, but most 
{udidoui in distinguishing the propcrest 
objects of compassion. 



In other countries, the gtver is gtn 
influenced by the immediate impulse > 
pity j his generosity is exerted as much to 
relieve his own uneasy sensations as to 
comfort the object in distress. In Eng 
land, benefactions are of a more general 
nature. Some men of fortune and uni 
versal benevolence propose the proper 
I objects ; the wants and the merit- of th 
petitioners are canvassed by the people 
neither passion nor pity find a place i 
the cool discussion; and charity i- thl 
only exerted when it has received it 
approbation of reason. 

A late instance of this finely directs 
benevolence forces itself so strongly « 
my imagination, that it in a manner r: 
concilcs me to pleasure, and once moi 
makes me the universal friend elf man. 

The English and French have not onl 
political reasons to induce them to mutual 
hatred, but often the more ptttvaili 
motive of private interest to widen th" 

i. A war between other couutri 
is carried on collectively ; army tight 
against army, and a man's own pnva 1 
resentment is lost in that of the con 
miinily : but in England and France, tl 
individuals of each country plunder each 
other at sea without redress, and coi 
scciuently feel that animosity against eat 
other which passengers do at a robbc 
They have for some time carried on I 
;; -ive war ; and several captives ha' 
been taken on both sides : those mi 
prisoners by the French have been 
with cruelty, and guarded with unn 
sary caution : those taken by the English 
, being much more numerous, were coi 
fined in the ordinary manner ; and Dl 
being released by their countrymen, began 

i all those inconvenii 
arise from want of covering and long 
confinement. 

Their countrymen were informed i 
their deplorable situation ; bat they, mo: 

intent on ■nsoytng tbeii enemies than 

tag their friends, refused the |i 
assistance. The English now saw 
sands of their fellow-creatures si 
every prison, forsaken by those 
duty it was to protect them, labourii 
with disease, and without clothes lo k< 
off the severity of the season. Nalio: 



THE CITIZE.V OF THE WORLD, 



121 



benevolence prevailed over national ani- 
mosity ; their prisoner! were indeed ene- 
mies, but tliey were enemies m di 

cased to be hateful when they no 

niued lo be formidable: for- 

, their national hatred, 

were brave enough to con- 
generous enough to forgive ; 

i the world seemed lo 
limed, at last found pity and 
redress from those they alien); 

A subscription was opened, ample 
harities col l ected, proper necessaries pro- 
cured, and the poor gay sons of a merry 
nalion were once more taught to resume 
heir former gaiety. 

lea I cast my eye over the list of 

those who contributed on this occasion, 

find the names almost entirely English ; 

scarce one foreigner appears among the 

number. It was for Englishmen alone to 

of such exalted virtue. I own 

cannot look over this catalog! 

ood men and philosophers, without 

linking better of myself, because it 

makes mc entertain a more favourable 

mankind. I am particularly 

truck with one who writes these words I 

i per that enclosed his bene- 

1 he mite of an Englishman, | 
ol the world, to Frenchmen, 

, and naked." I only 

, find as much pleasure 

. as I have done in 

them; that alone will 

niply reward Inin. Such a one, my 

rich'], is .in honour to human nature ; he 

makes no private distinctions of party -. 

all that are stamped with the divine 

image of their Creator are friends to 

mi : he is a native of the world ; and 

of China may be proud that 

be has such a countryman. 

To rejoice at the destruction of our 

'.-> is a foible grafted upon human 

■tare, must be permitted to 

the true way of atoning for 

n ill founded pleasure, is thus to 

rum our triumph into an ad of 

olence, and to testify our own joy by 
endeavouring to banish anxiety from 

;t and wisest emperor 
thai ever filled the throne, after having 



gained three signal victories over the 

invaded his detail 
returned to Nankin, in order to enjoy 
the glory of hi.s conquest. After he had 
rested for some days, the people, who 
are naturally fond of processions, im- 
patiently expected the triumphant entry 
which emperon upon such occasions 
were accustomed to make I their mur- 
murs came to the emperoi 
loved his people, and was willing lo do 
all in his power to satisfy their just OC 
He therefore assured them, that he in- 
tended, upon the next feast of the Lan- 
terns, to exhibit one of the most glorious 
triumphs that had ever been seen in 
China. 

The people were in raptures at his 
condescension ; anil, on the appointed 
day, assembled at the gales of the palace 
with the most eager expectations. Here 
they waited for some time, without seeing 
any of those preparations which usually 
precede a pageant. The lantern, with 
ten thousand tapers, was not yet brought 
forth ; the fireworks, which usually 
covered the city walls, were not yet 
lighted : the people once more beg 
murmur at this delay, when, in the midst 
oi their impatience, the palace-gates flew 
open, and the emperor himself appeared, 
not in splendour or magnificence, but in 
an ordinary habit, followed by the blind, 
the maimed, and the strangers of the 
city, all in new clothes, and each carrying 
in his hand money enough to supply his 
necessities for the year. The people were 
at first amazed, but soon perceived the 
wisdom of their king, who taught them, 
that to make one man happy, was more 
truly great than having ten thousand 
captives groaning at the wheels of his 
chariot.— Adieu. 



LETTER XXIV. 

Tt tin i.i KM 
WiiWFViR may be the merits of the 
English in other sciences, they seem pe- 
culiarly excellent in the art of healing. 
There is sea' 

humanity, against which ihey are 
possessed with a most infallible ant 1 . 
The professors, gt caW w\* vrofcesa "fc* 



Hi 



THE C/riZE.V OF the world. 




inevitable intricacy of thing! ; talk with 
doulit, and decide with hesitation : but 
ilimtiting is entirely unknown in medicine; 
the advertising professors here delight in 
cases of difficulty- Be the disorder never 
so desperate or radical, you will find 
ntunben in every street, who, by levelling 
■ pill at the i 'lit affected, promise a cer- 
tain cure, v SI of time, know- 
ledge of a bedfellow, or hindrance of 
busiiii 

When 1 consider the assiduity of this 
profession, their benevolence amazes me. 
They not only in general give their riusli- 
I u half value, bat ue the most per- 
suasive remonstrances to induce the sick 
to come and be cured. Sure, there must be 

iinKclyobstinateinau I 
patient who refuses so much health upon 
such easy terms. Dire- h- take a pride 
lg bloated with .1 dropsy f does he 
find pleasure in the alternations of in 
intermittent fever • or feel as much satis- 
faction in nursing up his gout, as he found 
pleasure in acquiring it ? He must, other- 
wise he would not reject such repealed 
assurances of instant relief. What can be 
more convincing than the manner in 
which the sick are invited to be well ? 
The doctor tii-t begs the most earnest 
the public to what he is 
to propose : he solemnly affirms 
■(ever found to want Ml 

he produce- a list of those " ho have been 

■I from the grave by taking it: yet, 
notwithstanding all this, then arc many 
here who now and then think proper to 
be sick. Only sick, did 1 say T there are 
some who even think proper to die ! 
■y the head of Confucius ! they 
though they might have pun 
the health-rcstonng specific for half-a- 
Crowa al every turner. 

1 am ani.i.'c I. my dear Fum I loam, 

thai these 1 bo know wfa 

1 of people they have to deal 

with, have never thought of attempting 

d. When the living are 

reject their prescriptions, they 

pplyto the dead, 

from whom they c nosuchmoT- 

llcest they would find in the 

dead the most eomplyini magna- 

able ; and what gratitude might th 



ery 
ese 

the 



: from the patient's son, now 1111 
longer an heir, and his wife, now 
longer a widow ! 

Think not, my friend, that there . 
thing chimerical in such an attempt ; they 
already perform cures equally strange. 
What can be more truly astonishing, 
than to see old age restored to youth, 
and vigour to the most feeble constitu- 
tions? Vet this is performed here 1 
day : a simple electuary effects these 
wonders, even without the bungling cere 
monies of having the patient boiled up 
in a kettle, or ground down in a mill. 

physicians here go through the 
ordinary courses of education, but receive 
all their knowledge of medicine by Un- 
ite inspiration from Heaven. Same 
are thus inspired even in the womb; 
what is very remarkable, understand their 
profession as well at three years old. ... 
at threescore. Others liave spent a great 

fiart of their lives unconscious of any 
itent excellence, till a bankruptcy, or 
residence in gaol, have called their miracu- 
lous powers into exertion. And 1 
still there arc indebted to their super 
ignorance alone for success ; the more 
ignorant the practitioner, the lessen 
is he thought of deceiving. The people 
here judge as they do in the East, where 
it is thought absolutely requisite that 
man should be an idiot, before he p 
to be either a conjurer or I doctor. 

When a physician byinspiration 1 

for, he never perplexes tne patient by 
previous examination ; he asks very few 
questions, and those only for form 
He knows every disorder by intuition ; 

minsters the pill or drop 
distemper ; nor is more inquisitive than 
the farrier while he drenches an horse. If 
the patient lues, then has he one more 

to the Eurvrring li-i ; ii hi 

then it may be jn-tly told ol the pal 
disorder, tint, aa u vraa not cured, th 
disorder was Incut 



LETTER XXV. 

-illHf. 

I was some days ago in company 

ASon 



iat a 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



'*3 






lie assured me, that the 

ilc polr . moving in 

i anj thai scarce even 

could ever set it 

gain, " What I. i <! he. 

ment ? 

We arc a commercial nation ; we have 

■amerce, like our 

utch ; ii is mil business 

ilonies; 

ire the strength 

. our ships 
i os." 1 found ii viiii in 
feeble argument i" lh< 
a man who thought hm. 

red even the ministry, 
howe W with in' 

because 1 reasoned wit; ice: I 

therefore begged leave, instead of argu- 
ment, to relate a short history. He gave 
me a smile at once of condescension and 
.ind I proceeded as follow-, to 
Till RISE AND DECLENSION 

gdom op Lao." 

I in one of 
igs of the Great Wall, the 
1 province of Lao enjoy. 

i a peculiar government of its 
As the inhabitant? were on all 
surrounded by the wall, the) : 

invasion from the Tartar 
each possessed of property, they 
ealous in n 

tral consequence of security 
and affluence in any country is a love of 
.' lien the wants of nature are 
e seek after the convcnii 

■ desire the 

nie ; and when every luxury 

mbition takes up 

in, and leaves him still something 

The inhabitants of the 

imitive simplicity, 

to aim at elegance, anil from 

■ I to refinement. It 

und absolutely requisite, for 

, that the p 

1. Formerly, the 

mployed in tilling the 

in dressing up the manufac- 

. was also, in time of need, a soldier ; 

but tin- eusioni was now changed ; for it 

a a man bred up from 

■ the aru of cither peace or 



war, became more eminent by this means 
in his respective profession. The inha- 
bitants were, therefore, now distinguished 
into artisans and soldiers ; and while 
those improved the luxuries of life, I 
watched for the sreurity of the people. 

esscd of freedom has 
• sorts of enemies to fear. — 
foreign foes, who attack its exi 
from without, and internal 
who betray its liberties within. The 
inhabitants of Lao 

A country of artisans were most 
likely to preserve internal liberty ; and a 
i of soldiers i to repel a 

i invasion. Hence natui.ilU 
a division of opinion between the ai 
and soldiers of the kingdom. The 
r complaining that freedom 
Bed by an armed internal 
were for d 
and insisted that their walls, their walla 
alone, were sufficient to repel the most 
formidable invasion : the warrioi 
the contrary, represented the power of 
the neighbouring kings, the combin 
formed against their stale, and the weak- 
ness of the wall, which every earthquake 
might overturn. While this alte: 
continued, the kingdom might be justly 
said to enjoy its greatest share of vigour : 
every order in the state, by being watchful 
over each Other, contributed to diffuse 
happiness equally, and balanced the slate. 
The arts of peace flourished, nor were 
those of war neglected : the neigh- 
bouring POWtfS, who had nothing to 
apprehend from the ambition of men 
; they only saw solicitous, not for 
riches, but freedom, were contented to 
traffic Willi them : they sent their goods 
to be manufactured in Lao, 
large price for them upon their return. 
By Ihese meanx lie at length 

e moderately rich, and then 
naturally invited the invader: a 
Tartar prince led an immense army 

' them, and they as bl 
up in their own defence; they wo 
I with a love of the I 
fought the barbarous enemy with 
fortitude, and gained a i 

E ii.iii tbu moment, which tin 

garded as the ccmvyVtUw 'A. ^vt ^*T 



124 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



historians date their downfall. They had 
tin strength by a love of their count iv, 
fell by indulging ambition. The 
country possessed by the invading Tartars 
seemed to them a prise that would MM 
only render them more formidable for 
the future, but which would in 
their opulence for the present ; it m 
unanimously resolved, therefore, both by 

an*, ili.it '.! 
regions should be peopled by colonies 
from LttOi When a tr.iding nation 
- to act the conqueror, it is then 
perfectly undone. It subsists in some 
measure by the Hlppotl of its neighbours: 
while they continue to regard it without 
envy or apprehension, trade may flourish ; 
but when once it presumes to 
right what is only enjoyed as a favour, 
each country reclaims that part of com- 
merce which it has puwer to take back, 
and turns it into some other channel 
more honourable, though perhaps less 
convenient. 

ry neighbour now began to regard 
with jealous eyes this ambitious common- 
wealth, and forbade their subjects any 
future intercourse with them. The in- 
habitants of Lao, however, still pursued 
the same ambitious maxims j it was from 
their colonies alone they expected riches; 
and riches, said they, are strength, and 
strength is security. Numberless were 
the migrations of the desperate and 
enterprising of this country to people 
the desolate dominions late] 
by the Tartar. Between these col 
and the mother country a very advan- 
tageous traffic was at first carried on : 
the republic sent their colonies large 
anannaa of the manufactures of the 
country, and they in return provided the 
lie with an equivalent in ivoi 

Kl y this means the inhabitants 
came immensely rich, and this pro- 
iual degree of voluptuousness ; 
■n who have much money will 
fantastical modes ofen- 

"I. How shall I mark the itepi 

by winch [hey declined I Every colony 
la procMi ■ b over the 

try where it first was planted. 
As it grows mote populous, it Dt 
more polite ; and those manufactures for 






which ii was in the beginning obliged to 

. it [earns to dress up itself Such 

was the case with the colonics of Lao : 
they, in less than a century, bee. 

rful and a polite people, and llic 
more polite they grew, the less advan- 
tageous was the commerce which -till 
ted between them and others. By 
this means the mother country, being 
abridged in its commerce, grew poorer, 
but not less luxurious. Their former 
wealth had introduced luxury ; and 
wherever luxury once fixes, no art can 
either lessen or remove it. Their 
merce with their neighbours was totally 
destroyed, and that with their col 
was every day naturally and necessarily 
declining ; they still, however, preserved 
''lence of wealth, without a power 
to support it, and persevered in being 
luxurious, while contemptible from po- 
verty. In short, the state resembled one 
of those bodies bloated with disease, 
whose bulk is only a symptom of its 
wretchedness. 

Their former opulence only rendered 
them more impotent, as those indi\ V 
who arc reduced from riches to pen 
are of all men the most unfortunate and 
helpless. They had imagined, bet 
their colonies tended to make them rich 
upon the first acquisition, they would 
still continue to do so j they now found, 
however, that on themselves alone they 
should have depended for support ; that 
colonies ever afforded but temporary- alllu- 

. and when cultivated and | 
are no >l. From Ittch 

currence of circumstances ll i 

The F.mperor Kontj 
invaded them with a powerful 
Historians do not say whether 
colonies were too remote to lend 

or else were desirous of 
dependence; but certain 
scarce made any resistance : theii 
were now found but a weak defend 
they at length were obliged to ocknow- 

subjection to the empire of China, 
Sappy, very happy might thc\ 
had thej known when to ' 
their riches and their glory . 

1 that extending empire is 
diminishing power; that countries are e 1 



"IlCIl 




THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



/iich are internally powerful: 

olonies, by draining away the brave 

leave the country in the 

- .if the timid and avaricious; th.it 

rotection, unless manned 

t lint too much commerce 

l nation as well as loo little ; 

it there is a wide difference between 

rig and a flourishing empire. — 

LETTF.R XXVI. 

To the NUkv. 

.11 fond "( many acquaintances, I 

an inlimacy only wiihafew. The 

k. whom 1 have often men- 

hose friendship I could 

e he possesses my 

true, .ire tinc- 

v.nli some strange inconsistei 

and lie may lie justly termeil a humorist 

in a nation of humorists. Though he is 

usion, he affects to 

lie thought a prodigy of parsimony and 

rersation be 

!e with the n I and selfish 

; heart is dilated with the most 

I have known him 

\ man-hater, while his 

flowing with compassion ; and, 

while Ins looks \iorc softened into pity, I 

heard htm use the language nf ihe 

nded ill-nature. Some affect 

ncrs boast of 

■ dispositii 

man I evei knew who 

natural benevo- 

I |e taki ilns i" hide 

. as any hypocrite would to 

fcrence ; but on even" 

ni the mask dro 

veals linn to the most superficial 

I e if our late excursions into the 

ipon the 

Sat was made for the poor in 
nod amared how any of 
■uld lie so foolish]; 

isional objects of . : 

I made such ample pro- 
port. " In every parish 
hemic." Bry ire supplied 

with food, clothes, fin. ■ ! to lie 



on ; they want no more, I desire no more 
Ifj yet still they seem discontented 

1 am surprised at the inactivity of Out 
magistrates, in not taking up such vag- 
who are only a weight upon the 
industrious ; I am surprised that the pi.-r.ple 
are found to relieve them, when they 
must be at the same lime sensible that it 
in some measure encourages idleness, 
extravagance, and imposture. Were I to 
advise any man for whom I had the least 
regard, I would caution him by all means 
not to be imposed upon by their false pre- 
tences : let me assure you, sir, they are 
impostors, every one of them, and rather 
a prison than relief." 
He was proceeding in this strain, ear- 
nestly to dissuade me from an imprudence 
of which I am seldom guilty, when an old 
man, who still had about him the rem- 
..f tattered finery, implored our 
compassion. He assured us that he was 
no common beggar, but forced into Ihe 
shameful profession to support a dying 
wife and five hungry children, i 
prepossessed against such falsehoods, his 
story had not the least influence upon me ; 
but it was quite otherwise with tin 

ill Black: I could sec it visibly operate 
npon his countenance, and effectually 
interrupt his harangue. I could easily 
perceive, that his heart burned to relieve 
the five starving children, but he seemed 
vet his weakness to me. 
While he thu- i iween com- 

n and pride, I pretended to look 
an. .[her way, aud he se: 

is the pom petitioi 

of silver, bidding him at the same linn-. 

Il i that 1 should heai, go work 

for his bread, and not tease passengers 

with such impertinent falsehoods for the 

future. 

As he had fancier! himself quite unper- 
ceived. he continued, as we proceeded, to 
rail against beggars with as much animo- 
sity as before : he threw in some epi 
on his own aniaring prudence and cco- 
iininy, with his profound skill in discover- 
ing impostors; he explained the manner 
in which he would deal with beggars were 
he a magistrate, hinted at enlacing some 
of the prisons for their reception, arv 
two stories ot WSacs v\\a.\ -*tx*tsMvie.Wt 



126 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



f..i 

DC 



beggar-men. Me was beginning a third 
MUM purpose, when a sailor With ■ 
en leg once more crossed our walks, 
ig our pity, and blessing our limbs. 
I was for going on without taking any 
notice, but my friend, looking wistfully 
Upon the poor petitioner, bid me stop, and 
ild show me with how much ease 
lie could at any time detect an impostor. 
II. now, therefore, assumed a took of 
importance, and in an angry tone began 
to examine the sailor, demanding in what 
engagement lie was thus disabled and 
rendered unfit for service- The sailor ra- 
llied, in a tone as angrily as he, that he 
been an officer on board a private 
of war, and that he had lost his leg 
ibroad, in defence of those who did 
nothing at home. At this reply, all my 
friend's importance vanished in a moment ; 
he had not a single question more to ask ; 
he now only studied what method he 
should take to relieve him unobserved. 
He had, however, no easy nart to act, as 
he was obliged to preserve the appearance 
of Ill-nature before me, and yet relieve 
himself by relieving the sailor. Casting, 
therefore, a furious look upon some 
bandies of chips which the fellow carried 
in a string at his back, my friend demanded 
bow he sold his matches; but, not wait- 
ing for a re] ■, in a surly tone, 
to have a shilling's worth. The sailer 
seemed at fir-t surprised at Ins demand, 
recollecting himself, and pre- 
| lii- whole bundle, "Here, master," 
, " lake all my cargo, and a blessing 
t bargain." 
impossible to describe with what 
an air nf triumph my friend marched off 
with Ins new purchase : he assured me, ' 
that he was firmly of opinion that those 

must have stolen their goods, who | 

BOIlld thus afford to sell them for half 

value. He informed me of several dif- 

ii those chips might he 

I; he expatiated largely upon the 

thai would result from lighting 

candles with a match. Instead of thrusting 

ito the fire. He averred, that he 

rted with a tooth 

»s Ins money to those vagabonds, di 

■n. I can- 
Inn' thin panegyric upon fru- 



galilyand matches might have continued, 
had not his attention been called off l.y 
another object more distressful than cither 
of the former. A woman in rags, with 
one child in her arms, and another on her 
hack, was attempting to sing kill.! 
with such a mournful voice, that it was 
difficult to determine whether she was 
singing or crying. A Wretch, « 
the deepest distress slill aimed at good- 
humour, was an object my friend was by 
no means capable of withstanding 
vivacity and his discourse were instantly 
interrupted ; upon this occasion, his very 
dissimulation had forsaken him. Even 
in my presence he immediately applied 
his hands to his pockets, m order to relieve 
her; but guess his confusion when he 
found he had already given away all ihe 
money he carried about him to form, 
jects. The misery painted in the woman's 
visage was not half so strongly expressed 
as the agony in bis. He continue. 1 to 
search for some time, but to no put 
till, at length recollecting himself, with a 
face of ineffable good -nature, .is I 
no money, he put into her hands his 
shilling's worth of matches. 

LETTER XXVII. 
To tin 
As there appeared something reluctantly 

good in the character of my compan 

I must I me what could be 

his n-i' thus concealing \ 

which others take such pain- to dii 
I was unable to repress my desire of 
knowing the history of a man who thai 
seemed to act under continual re-t 
and whose benevolence was rather the 
effect of appetite than re 

It was not, however, till after rep 
solicitations he thought proper to gratify 

v. " If you are fond, 
he, "of hearing hairbreadth 'scape-, 
history must certainly please; for 1 have 
been for twenty years upon the veiy verge 
without ever being starved, 
" My father, the younger son of a good 
family, was possessed of a small livil 
the church. Hi- education was alxive 

une. and his generositv gt 
than his education. Poor as he was, " 






THE C/T/tEV OF THE n'ORLP. 



socic 



rers, still poorer than himself; 
ivc them they re- 
.lent in praise, and this 
i. The same an 

h at the head of an 
influenced my father at the head of 
'!e : he told the story of the iv 
and that was laughed at; he repeated the 
: the two scholars anil one pair of 
lies, and the company laughed at 
'ml the story of I 

ire to set the table in a roar: 

■ -nre increased in proportion to 

c , helovedalltheworld, 

, the world loved him. 

11 As his fortune was but small, he lived 

ttent 'if it; he had no 

: leaving his children money, 

; he was resolved they 

■ have learnin 

was better than m! ■. 

ik to instruct 

mi! took as much pains to 

form our mot nprove otu under- 

We were told, that univ 

il first cemented 

•r nil 

own; to re- 

; human face divine with afTcction 

lie wound as up lo be mere 

red us inca- ' 

it ilTl- 

cither by real or fictitious 
!, we were perfectly in- 
' ue art of giving away thou- 
. : taught the more neccs- 
tlinc a farthing, 
imagining, thai thus 
■ ins out of all my 
divested of even all the little 
ig which nature had given 

my first entrance into 
insidious world, one of 
ii s who « ■!'• exposed « 
in the amphitheatre at Rome. My 
mly seen the 

I world on one side, seemed to triumph in my 
Igh my whole 
ng able 
Ik Uke himself upon subj 
were i e then topics 

-.- connected with 



" The first opportunity he had of finding 
his expectations disappointed was in the 
very nndi I ling figure I made in the univer- 
sity ; he had flattered himself that he should 
; into the foremost rank 
in literary reputation, but was mortified 
to find me utterly unnoticed and unknown. 
lintment might have been 
partly i Ins having overrated 

my talents, and partly to my dislike of 
mathematical reasonings, at a time when 
my imagination and memory, yet m 
after new " 
than desirous of reasoning u | 

This did not. however, please my 

tutor, who observed, indeed, that i 

little dull ; but at the same time all- 

led to be very good-natured, 

I no harm in me. 

"After I had resided at college seven 
ill. i died, and left me— his 
Thus shoved from shore with- 
out ill-nature to protect, or cunning to 
guide, or proper stores to subsist me in 
■ voyage, I was obliged to 
embark in the wide world at twenb 
Urn, in tile in life, my i. 

advised (for they ah* ays advise when they 

begin to despise n-i. they advised me, 
I say, to go into orders. 

I be obliged lo wear a long wig, 

when 1 liked a short one, or a black coat, 

when I generally dressed in brown, I 

- such a restraint upon my 

liberty, that I absolutely rejected the pro- 

A priest in England is not the 
mortified creature with a bonte in China: 

with us, not he that fasts liest, but eats 

- reckoned the best liver; yet I 

rejected a life of luxury, indolence, and 

ca.ie, from no other consideration but 

thai boyish one of dress, So that my 

were DO* perfectly satisfied I was 

■ ; and yet they though! it ■ 

for one who had not the least harm in liira 

and was so very good-natured. 

" Poverty naturally begets dependence, 
and 1 was admitted as flatterer to a great 
man. At fir-t, I ed that the 

n of a flatterer at a great man's 
table could be thought disagreeable : 
was no great trouble in listening attentively 
when I ■-, and laughing 

when I aiq^asHfc. "Vt>a, 



1*8 



THE CITIZEN Ofi THE WORLD. 



p* 
bol 



even good manners might have obliged me 

to perform. I found, however, loo soon, 

that his lordship was n greater dunce than 

lyself ; Mid from that very moment my 

of flattery ml tl an end. I now 

aimed at letting bito right, than »t 

receiving his absurdities with subiir 
to flatter those we do not know is an easy 
hot to flatter our intimate acquaint- 
ances, all whose foibles arc strongly in our 
eye, is drudgery insupportable. Every 
hOBC I now opened my lips in praise, my 
falsehood went to my conscience ; his lord- 
Kin perceived mc to be unfit for 
service ; I was therefore discharged ; my 
itrDB kl the same time being graciously 
ilcascd to observe, that he believed I was 
tolerably good-natured, and had. nut the 
rm iii me. 
" Disappointed in ambition, T had re- 
e to love. A young lady, who lived 
with her aunt, and was possessed of a 
pretty fortune in her own disposal, had 
given me, as I fancied, son to 

I -.uccess. The symptoms by which 
I was guided were striking. She had 
always laughed with me at her awkward 
acquaintance, anil at her aunt among the 
number ; she always observed, that a man 
of sense would make a better lin 

I'd, and I as constantly applied 

I my own favour. She 

continually talked, in my company, of 

iil> Mid the beauties of the mind, 

i Mr. Shrif&p my rival's high- 

-hors with detestation. These were 

dfOOnutancea which I thought strongly 

iii my favour; so, after resolving 

ring", 1 had courage enough to tell her 

inv mind. Mi— heard my proposal with 

ametime to study 

the figure* of her fan. Out at last it came. 

DOC small ohjection to 

lete our happiness, which was no 

than that she was married three 

fore to Mr. Shrimp, with high- 

! By way of consolation, 

however, she observed, that, though I was 

I in her, my addresses to her 

Hint would probably kindle her into scn- 

■ i ; as the old lady always allowed 

least share of hirm in mc. 

i numerous 



friends, and to them I was resolved to 
apply O friendship ! thou fond » 
of the human breast, to thee we fly in 
every calamity ; to thee the wretched seek 
for succour ; on thee the care-tired son of 
misery fondly relies : from thy kind ■ 
ance the unfortunate always hopes i 
and may be ever sure of — disappointment. 
My first apple a city scrivener, 

who had frequently offered to lend me 
money, when he knew I did not want it. 
I informed him, that now was the time to » 
put Ins friendship to the test ; that I 
wanted to borrow a couple of bundled 
for a certain occasion, and was resolved 
to take it up from him. ' And pnn 
cried my friend, 'do you want all this 
money! — 'Indeed, I never ranted it 
leturned I. — ' I am sorry for that,' 
Crie* the scrivener, 'with all my heart; 
for they who want money when they come 
to borrow , wall always want money when 
they should come h 

' From him I flew, with indignation, to 
one of the best friends I had in the wi u II, 
and made the same request. ' 1 1 
Mr. I'rybone,' cries my friend, 'I always 
though) it would come to this. Von know, 
sir. 1 would not advise you but for your 
own good ; but your conduct has hitherto 
been ridiculous in the highest degree, 

I me of your acquaintance I 
thought you a very silly fellow. Let me 
see — you wont two hundred pounds. Do 
you only u nnt two hundred, sir, exact U F 1 
— 'To confess a truth,' returned I, ' I 
want three hundred; but then. I baVC 
another friend, from whom 1 can hi 
the rest.'— 'Why, then,' replied my friend, 
'if you would take m\ II 1 you 

know I should not presume to advice you 
but for your own good.) I would n 
mend it to you to borrow the whi 
'.<• iin that other friend ; and then one note 
will serve for all. you know." 

' Poverty now began to come fast u 
me ; yet instead of growing more pro 
or cautious as I grew poor, 1 became 
day more indolent and simple. A 
was arrested for fifty pounds ; I was unable 
to extricate him, except by b 
bail, W lu.n at liberty, he li 

irs, and left mc to take his place. 
In prison I expected gicier satisli 







ction* 



THE CITfZEX OF THE ll'OE/.D. 



129 



■.yed al l.-.i 

.■11 111 this new 

II ' ; bill 

ig and as 1 

. the world I had left b 

: :cd up my money while it 

never 

foi them, and cheated me when I 

j;e. All this was done 

tie to be vei 
•w that 1 had no harm 

" Upon my first entrance into this man- 
do abode of d< 
i felt no sensations different from those 
I experienced abroad. I was now on one 
le who were uncon- 
011 the other : this was all the 

; how I 
.Me to provide 1 1 1 1 — week for the 

of eating one 

. I l\ .1 1 

mother. 1 

Civith the utmost good- 
1 no rant- 1 

a hai '1 of radish' 

than mutto 1 
with thinking, that all 
, cither cat whiti 

thai all thai h ip- 
peoed Laughed when 1 ■■ 

it went, and 
r«ail Tacitus often for want of more books 

.11. 1 I, ic .. 

thai I li -I 

that the true 

others was 

If; my 

1 fi Hue 
net and behaviour. 

1 >neof the most h 



I ever performed, and for which 1 shall 

myself as long as I live, was the 
refusing half-a-crown to an old acquaint- 

■ the time when he wanted it, and 
I DM u to spare : (or this alone I deserve 
to be decreed an o^ 

" I now therefore pursued a course ol 
uninterrupted frugality, seldom wan 
dinner, and was consequently invited to 
twenty. I soon began to get the cl 
ter of a saving hunks that had none] 

' 'I)' K rL '"' into esteem. Neighbours 
have asked my advice in the disposal of 
their daughters : and 1 h taken 

care not to give any. I have contracted 
a friendship with an alderman, only by 
observing, that if we take a farthing from 

-and pounds, it will be a thousand 
pounds no longer. I have been invited 
to a pawnbroker's table, by pretending to 
hate gravy; and am now actually upon 

of marriage with a rich widow, for 
only having observed that the bread WW 

It ever I am asked a que 
whether I know it or not, instead ol 
answering, 1 only smile and look wise. 
If a charity is proposed, I go a lion' 

it, but put nothing in myself. If 

a wreti '1 •olielts my pity, I ol 

filled with unpottors, md take 

1 1 method ol not being do 

In short, 1 now find 
the truest \i ay of finding eslcein, even from 
the mdlgent, is to giveaway nothing, and 
thus have nuieh in our power to gh 

LETTER XX VI II. 

To tkt iii rut 

Lately, in ■■ ith my friend m 

Oth my 

ineni and in-tin non, 1 eould not 

il in mbm of old 

with which 

hi. " Sure, 

main. 1 ;t.ei»nlly en- 

courae ould never behold such 

aux and decayed 

I inpting ti.i drive a trade 

ihey h tit for, and 

ery of the age. I 

ai tie most con- 

lible llghti mal \V»\ Vits 

upon the ujinnvatt s\ocY irS&waX tiswsv- 



«3° 



THE C/T/ZFX OF THE WORLD. 



billing his share : he is a bemst of prey, and 
the laws should make use of as many 
stratagems, anil as much force, to drive 
ilie reluctant savage into the toils, is the 
- when they hunt the hyena or the 
rhinoceros. The mob ihonM !>c permitted 
alter hi light pl'iv tricks on him 

with impunity, every well-bred company 

1 laugh*) him; and if, when turned 
• iffered to make love, his mis- 
tress might spil in his face, or, what would 
be pet l. iter puiiirhment, should 

fairly grant the favour. 

for old maids," continued I, "they 
should not be treated* Edl n much -evetity. 

I I RIppose none would be 
they could. No lady in bet Kmei would 

e to make a subordinate figure at 
christenings or lying-in, when -he might 
be the principal herself; noi curry f.ivour 

wilh 1 -i.ler-iti-l.lw, when lb 
mand . nor toil in prc[>aring 

custards, when -he tniglii lie a-bed, and 
lireelioru bow they ought to be made; 
• •us in clemure for- 
mality, when shemight, with tnatrimonia] 
■ mce by the 
hie entendre. No 
live single, 
I ■ .1 1 !• 1 help il 1 i ooatder an un- 
lining i n t . • ihe I 
ne of those charming countries 
ting on China, that lies waste for 
•( proper inhabitants. We are not 
the country, hui the ignorance 
of its neighbours, who areusensibli 

• ■-, ih. .ugh it liberty to enter and 

soil." 

" in |i I my companion, 

ted « ith the 
think they are old maids 

: their will. I dare venture to affirm, 
of them all, 

Inn I 

dunking il a dis- 
•n to boast 

man wh m the 

d, than ■ 

ads she 

death- 
! her eyes. She tells of 



in gold lace, who died with a 
again till — 
he was married to his maid ; of tlv 

( ruelly denied, in a rage 
the window, and lifting up the sash, ihi cw 
If, in an agony — into his arm-choir; 
of the parson, who, crossed in love, 
lately snail 

the slings of despised love by — making 
him sleep. In short, she talks over her 
former losses with pleasure, and, like 
some tradesmen, 1 in Ihe 

many bankruptcies ;he 1 

" for this rcason.whenever I sec a super- 
annuated beauty -till unmarried, I tacitly 
accuse hereitherof pride, avarice, coquetry, 
or affectation. There's Miss Jenny Tin- 
derbox, 1 once remember her to have had 
M -ine beauty and a moderate fortune. 
Her elder sister happened to marry n man 
lity, and this seemed as a statute of 
vfrginrrjr against poorjane. Because there 
was one lucky hit in the family, it 

■ grace it by introducing 

alrailesman. By thus rejecting her equals, 

and neglected or despised bybersuj i 

she now acts in the capacity of i 
to her sister's children, and umh 
the drudgery of three 
I receiving the wages of one. 

"M a pawnbroker's 

daughter; her father had early taught bet 
that money was a eery good thing, 
left her a moderate fortune at his 
I She was so perfectly sensible of the 
c of what she had got, that she was r. 
never to pa it with a farthing without an 

ty .hi the put of bei suitor: aha 

refused sc\i made her by 

i iranted t" better them 

IS the saying is, and grew old and ill- 
■ i, a nh. mi evei considering tl 
. should have made an abatement in her 
ice being pale, nnd 
I with the small-pox. 
ly Betty Tempest, on the con 
had beauty, with I 

fond o rem triumph 

to triumph : she I 

mam had learned, thai a plain 

man I il ensc was no better than a 

fool; such she refused, nnd sighed only for 
thegay, giddy, inconstant, and thougl 
Afict she had thus rejected hundreds who 






THE CITIZEK OF THE WORLD. 



'S' 



foi hundreds who 

cnsibly 

v only 

netimes 

m«kr e, with only 

i partner, o 

(•j a corner 

treated with 

rery quarter, and 

[i. like a piece of ol i fashioned 
D fill up a corner. 

.reck anil hate I 

they were I 

I 

ivet every fault in 

tice has 

it ; thus she 

ill the wrinkles of 

age had overtaken Iter ; and now, without 

feature in her face, sfa • talks 

incessantly of the beauties of t 

Farewell. 

LKTTKK XXIX. 

mate the learning of the 
the number of books that arc 
ibbshcil among, ilicm, perhaps 

them m this particular. I I. re 
twenty-three new 

year. 

lo one 

tingle the whole 

ifi.'illie- 

in a manual 
Inldrcn 
Iters. If, then, wi 
: ;lanJ !o reai 

the press, (and sure none can 

trill read a 
I r ■ 'Til inch 
a calculation you may conjecture H 



books every day, no! one of winch but 

as all the good thi 

said or written. 

And yet I know not how it hi. 
but the English are m 
learned as would Men from this D 

tion. We meet but few who kna 
arts ax o perfei tion ■, « bether it 

is that thegcnei.il itv are inca| 

extensile knowledge, or thai theanthon 
of ihosi e not adequate in 

tots. In China the emp If takes 

cognisance of all the doctors In lh 

dom who profess authorship, In I... 

every man may t can 

write; for they have l.y law a liberty, not 

if saying what tin 
- dull at tl 

Man in Black, where writers could be 

in sufficient num m off 

• 

the pre.-. 1 at Grit imagined thai theti 
learned tethod 

of instructing the « 01 Id, But, tool 
this objection, my companion 
thai the doctors "f colli 
and that some of them had actually ' 

their I 

tinned he, " to see a collection of au 
I fancy I can into.. 
lo a club, which asseml 
at seven, at the sign of I 

Islingta of the 

last and the eniei I 

ensuing nation : we 

house 

c time before the usual h 

ling 
My friend took this opportnni 

letting me into the I 

cipal members of the club, not even the 
;. who, it serin-, 

author himself, but preft 

telle 1" tin- -ititalion as a rev 
forme i 

"Th. be, "of our 

i- 1 lot ten Nonentity, a metaphy- 
sician. Ic think bun a profound 
scholar; but, as hi 

a that par 
generally spreads ! 

and is icckotw 



"32 



THE C/T7ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



he writes indexes to perfection; he 

I essays on the origin of evil, philo- 

- upon any subject, and 

ill. ins up an answer lo any book upon 
| -lour bouts' warning. You may 

distinguish him fiom the rest of the coin- 

Cv his long gray wig and the blue , 
kerchief round his neck. 
"The next to him in merit and esteem 

is Tim Syllabub, a droll creature: he 

imes shines as a star of the first 

magnitude among the choice spirits of the 

be is reckoned equally excellent at 

a rebu ""g. and an 

brum lot the Tabernacle. You will know 

bm I . iv Eneiy, his powdered 

rt, and broken silk stockings. I 

eeds Mr. Tibbt, a very 

useful hand ■■ be writes receipts for the bite 

t<l | hi I throws off an Eastern 

n; he understand 

liusincss of an author as well as any man, 

cheat him. 

Yon in lish him by the peculiar 

rlihn-i igure and the 

Of his eoal ; however, though it be a 
tently tells the co 
i ii. 
Squint is the politician i 

eckes for I'ailia- 

- addresses 10 bis iV- !l ' rv, 

i >mmanders ; 
res the history of every new play, 
I ii|>on every 
was proceed- 
ing in ;. «hcn the host came 

runnin ranee, 

beset with 

. 

m\ a ui n . "1 be going; 

i|'|i"i' i icliirn 

end the occurrences of 
LETTER XXX. 

China : 1 .till OcndltHe lo write, expecting | 



that you may receive a large number 
letters at once. In them you will find 
rather a minute detail of English pecu- 
liarities, than a general picture of their 
manners or dispositions. Happy it Wtrt 
for mankind, if all travellers would thus, in- 
stead of character! le in general 
terms, lead as into a detail of those minute 
circumstances which first influenced their 
opinion. The genius of a country should 
be investigated with a kind i if experimental 
inquiry: by this means we should have 
more precise and just notions of Ii 
nations, and detect travellers themselves 
when they happened lo form wtung 
conclusions. 

My fiiend and I repeated our visit to 
the club of authors; » 
entiance, we found the memoa 
assembled, and engaged ins ; 

The poet m shabby finery, ho! 
mantis . was earnestly en- 

deavouring to persuade the company lo 

■ in read the first book of an i 
poem, Which be had composed the day 
before. But against this all the members 
warmly Objected. They knew no 

why soy rm mber of the club should 
be indulged with a particular h< 
when many of then! had published whole 

volumes which had never been looki 
They - i the law should be ob- 

served, where reading in compmr 

It was in vain thai the 

poet pi aded the peculiar merit of his 

. he spoke loan assembly insensible 

monstrances: the book of laws 

pened, and read by ll 

where it was ex; 

.n, should presume lo 

( manuscript, and should be cl 
one shilling an hour while he conli 
reading: ihe said shilling to 
distributed among the coin; try, 
recompense for their trouble.' 
i ';i r poet seemed al I 

Eenalty, hesitating whetna 

e should deposit the fi 
poem ; but, looUii -riving 

two strangers in (he n 
fame outweighed his prudence, and laying 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



the sum i nblished, he 

live. 

n " < ienllemen," 
esent piece i 

tss like pap I 

r Didoa 
nature. 
■ mi'II endeavour to m ... 

:i mine, and hear with 
the same enthusiasm with which < 

i lie poem begins with the de- 
bedchamber: the 
sketched in my own apart- 
nilemcn, 'hat 
the hero." Then, putting him- 
il \n orator, with all 
i- of voice anil action 1 



■ K o'er the way, 
KarsooS lil.iclc chain- 



.-. bull and Pa 



■ 'ij bloodi of Dmry Lane: 
lonely room, from t»i. 
The U lied beneath a 

lied with paper, lent a ray, 
I the slate in which he lav ; 
I - beneath the tread ; 

unc of giKi'e was there in view, 

Martyr dtew: 

howed hi* lamp-black 

l . he view* with keen desire 
itu of a fire: 

-cored, 
I the chimney 

I hi* brow* instrvl of bay : 

last line he seemed so much 

ntlcmen '. " :hcre is 

; Rabelais' bed- 
o il. 
A cap by night— a stocking 

There ise, and troth, ami 

in llie trifling compass often lillle 

>uch employed in self- 
v, who 

II./ 



and found nil, however, ready lo applaud. 

inimitable, onothi 
it was damned line, and a third cried out 
in a rapture, CorusiMal At last, address- 
ing himself to the president, "And 
Mi. Squint," says lie, "let us have your 
I I the presi- 
dent, taking the manuscript out ol 

author's hand, "may this glass suiTocaie 
me, but 1 think it equal to anything i 

up the | ireing it into the aul 

. "that you will gel great honour 

when : 

i" put it in. We will not mtrndi 
.lure, in desiring to he 
t present; c UH 

are satisfied, perfectly satisfied." The 

author made two or three at'. 

it out a second time, and the pra 

nude 01 many lo prevent him. 

h with reluctance, he mi at burl 

1 to sit down, contented with the 
lendations for winch he had paid. 
When this tempest of 

blown over, one of the con 

i the sobjl 

•nt, since pi .Mild hardly 

" Would yon think it, gentlemen, ' 
continued he, " 1 have actually v. 
cteen prayers, twelve b 
jests, and three sermons, all at trie 
sixpence a-piec- ; and, what i- still more 
bookseller has lost by 
the bargain. Such sermons would once 
have gained me a pi II; bul bow, 

alas ! we have neither , nor 

humour among u- Positively, if this 
season does not torn out better than il has 
begun, ualcM the ministry commit some 
blunders to furnish us with a new topic of 
uic my old business of 
working al the press, instead of finding 
it employment." 

The "hole club seemed to join in con- 

dcuining the season, as one of the worst 

thai h id come for some lime : a gentleman 

itnrlyobserred thai the nobility were 

■ ion at 

i. " I know in.! ban it bap| 

5nd lie, "though 1 follow them up 

iotion. in. % iradt. 'Wv* Vomsks, 



»« 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



the RTd! are as inaccessible as a frontier 
at midnight. I never see a noble- 
.alf opened, thai some surly 
stman does not stand full in 
the breach. 1 was yesterday to wait with 
in proposal upon my Lord 
posted my- 
f at h niing. and 

as he was getting into his coach, thrust 
propo.al til . folded up 

the form of a Idler from myself. He 

and, 
the hand, consigned it to his 
respectable per- 
ge Iia1i.il it as his master, and put it 
; srler ; the porter 
ing ; and, 
toe, put 

"To I pitch .ill the nobility," 

" I am sure they have of late mod me 

■entle- 

e arrival of 

,1 line 
i-ancgyric, which I 

' 

trbecdled n3k fi 

In this I whole 

tlcoming nil grace to hu native 

no) forgetting the loss Frano 

ItaJy would matafli in their arts by his 

h for a bank- 

; up my verses in 

'crown to B 

Barer. My 
gfSOBj 
fter lour boon' absence, 
which time 1 li d the life of a fiend. 
i lettei four times as big as 
■ 

fnK a tcturn. I eagerly took the 
packet Into nw hinds, that trembled to 
receive il. I ie time unopened 

lent for my 

ii." 
hitherto been silent, " is created as 



much for the confusion of os authors ai 
the catch-pole. I'll 1c i -v. geo 

Burn U| as true as that tl 

is mad -When I v 

of my first book, I owed mj 
suit of clotl 

ow, and may be any roan's case as 
well as mine. \\ 
of clothes, and hearing that rr 
very well, he sent for his money . 
upon being paid immediately. Th. 

that time nch in fame — for my 
tn like wild-fire — yet I was 
short in money, and. being unable to satisfy 
his demand, prudently resolved to k 
my chamber, preferring a r 
o»n choosing at home to one o 
choosing abroad. In vain the bailiffs used 
all their arts to decoy me from n 
in vain they sent to let nic know that 
emu wanted to .speak with ■ 

\t tavern ; in vain they came with 
an urgent message from tny aunt in the 

;. ■; in vain I was told that ■ 
cular friend was at the point of i 
and desired to take his last farewell : 

was deaf, fa oclc, adamant; th 

- could make no impression 00 DB 1 
hard heart, for I effectually kept my libetl) 
er stirring om of the room. 
"Tl. 
when one morning I received ■ 
splendid message fn mi the Karl of Dooms 
day, importing, trial he had rt 
and was in I th every bit*. 

be impatiently longed to see the ai 
and had some designs which might luiu 
out greatly to my advantage. I pat] 
upon the contents of this message, 
found there could be no deceit, for the 
was gilt at the edges, and the bearer, 
was told, had quite the looks of a 

man. \\ ttness, ye powen, how my hca. 

triumphed at my own import! 
a long perspective of felicity before me 
' ISte of the time- v\ 1 11." 

nevcr forsaken : I had prcpal 

ipcei h for the i 
five glaring 
indtwi 

morah) oler to bepuiiclu.il 

coach, ani" 
•v to drive lo thi 
and house mentioned in his lordship' 



u. \ I 

5 



THE C/T/ZF..V OF THE WORLD. 



m; 



j.i.-ii. ■•- 



I had the precaution to pull up 



the I." 1 mankind, and, big with 

. fancied the coach never went 

fast enough. At lengih, however, the 

noment of its stopping arrived : 

ic time I impatiently ex] 

■ trans- 

• kea previous view ofhia 

. 

->ison to my sight ' — I found 

in .in elegant street, but a 

in's door, but 

Dunging-house ■ I found 

the coachman had all this whili 

drivii \ I ; and 1 saw the bailiff) 

wiih b '.', coming out to secure 

me." 

To a philosopher no circumstance, 

l lP w e t CI trifling, is too minute ; he finds 

tinmenl in occur- 

r by the rest 

Ulklnd as low, trite, and indifferent ; 

it is from the number of these particulars 

which to many appear insignificant, that 

tabled to form general 

this, therefore, must be my 

excuse for sending so far as Ch . ■ 

i Miners and follies, which, though 

. serve more 

truly to characta than 

— Adl 



ITER XXXI. 

To thi 

yel brought the art 
of gardening to il on with 

e them. Nature i* now followed 
y : the 

longer 

i their nati' re per- 

wind along the valleys; spon- 

■ is flowers take place of the finished 

ind the enamelled meadow of 

ghsh are far behind us 

lie power of uniting in- 
struction nuh beaut/, m will 



v conceive my meaning, when I say 
that there is scarce ■ garden in China 
which does not contain some fine moral, 
I under the general design, where 
lom as he n 
feel- the force of some noble truth, Dj 
delicate precept, resulting from thi 
position of the groves, streams, or gi o 
Permit rne to illustrate what 1 mean 

lion of my garden- Sly 

ill hovers round those scenes of 
former happiness with pleasure ; 
find a St OJ ing them at this 

distance, though but in imagination. 

¥ou descended from the house between 
two groves of trees, planted in such a 
manner, that they were impenetrable to 
the eye j while on each hand the way 
was adorned with all that was bcauliiul 
In porcelain, statuary, and painting. This 
passage from the house opened into an 
area surround 

and shrubs, but all so disposed as il 
was the spontaneous production of nature. 
As you proceeded forward on t his lawn, 
to >"iir right and left bin 

opposite each other, of very din 1 

design; and befoie yui lav a 
temple, built rather with minute elegance 
than ostentation. 

The right hand gate was planned with 
the utmost simplicity, or rather nidi i 
ivy clasped round the pillars, the I 
cypress hung over it ; time seemed to have 
edall the smoothness and regularity 
of the -lone : two champions, with 
club.-, appeared in the act of guarding its 

, dragons and serpenl 
in the most hideous attitudes, to deter 
i from appri rtd the 

perspective view thai lay behind . 
.lark and gloomy to the last degree ; the 
stranger was templed to enter only from 
the motto, — PerviaVirii ii 

The opposite gate was formed in I 

different manner : the architecture was 

light, elegant, and inviting ; flowers hung 
in wreaths round the pillars; all 
finished in the most exact and masterly 
manner ; the very stone of which : 
built still preserved its. polish ; nymphs, 
' by the hand of a master, in the 
most alluring attitude . ! the 

stranger to appt09.<.\\ •, Vvv'&.t ^ vtov \»l 



136 



behind I the eye could reach, 

riant, and capable of 
affording cn< ire. The 

itself contributed to invite him; for OVO 
the gate were written ids — , 

FACIU3 Dl 

■lis lime I fancy you begin to per* 

to represent the road to Virtue, the oppo- 
.- more agreeable passage to Vice. 

m natural n, • \. it the spec- ; 

1 to enter by the 
g.ilc Vfbicta •'!:•_! e-« 1 Inm so many allure- 
ments. I always in these cases left liim 
. but generally found that he 
took to the left, which pro: 
entertainment. 

Immediately upon his entering the gate 
of Vice the trees and Dower) were dis- | 
posed in such a manner as to make the 
most pleasing impression ; but, as he 
walked farther on, lie insensibly found the 
garden assume the air of I wilderness, — 
the landscapes began to darken — the paths 
ite — he appeared to go 
downwards — frightful rocks seemed to 
id — gloomy caverns, tin- 
es, awful ruins. 
uried bones, and terrifying sounds, 
caused by unseen waters, began to lake 

!ilace of what at first appeared so lovely : 
rfn to attempt returning ; the 
i- too much perplexed for any 
but SO the way back. In short, 

iently impressed with the 1 1 ■ -r- 
rors of what he saw, and the imprudence 
choice, I brought him by a hidden 
Icr way back into the area from 
1 first he had strayed. 
gloomy gale now presented itself 
and though there 
I little in its appearance to tempt 
lus en iy the motto, 

dually proceeded. Thedorki 

B frightful figures that 
lees of 
a mournful green, conspired at ! 

t him : as he went forward, however, 
dl began to open and w car a TOO 

I >eds of 

Bowers, tree* loaded with fruit or blos- 

CCted brooks, unproved 
IK ; In. iiov. found that he was 
he proceeded all 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 






grew more beautiful ; theprosp 
nt higher; even the air n 
to become more pure. Thus, please 
happy from ni 

led him to an arbour, from when 
iew t lie garden and the I 
tr around, and where he might own, 
that the road to Virtue lermin.v 
Happiness. 

Though from this description yon may 
imagine that a vast tract of ground was 
necessary to exhibit such a pleasing % 
i, be assured, I have seen - 
gardens in England take up ten times the 
which mine did, without half the 
A vi iv small extent of ground is 
enough for an elegant taste ; the l 
ired if magnificence is in 
There is no spot, though ever so little, 
which a skilful designer might not thus 

oi to convey a delicate 
gory, and impress the mind with truths the 
leful and necessary. — Adieu. 



LETTER XXX II. 

To thi j.nnt. 

In a late excursion with my friend 
the country, a gentleman with I 
riband tied round hi- .', 1 in a 

chariot drawn by six horses, passed swiftly 
by us, attended with a numen 

. and coaches filled w ith 

women. When we were recovered from 

the dust raised b) this cavalcade, and COuM 
continue our discourse without <\.\<i, 
suffocation, I obsci 

that all this e, which he 

l to despite, would in China be 
■ 1 with the utmost reverence, be- 
cause such distinctions were alwaj 

I of merit : i 

darine's retinue behv B 

of hi- abilities or • 

"The gentleman who has now ; 

us," replied my companion, "has no i 

from hit ""ii merit t" disth i 

is enough fur him that one of his ancestors 

"ssesscd of these qualit 
dred years before him. There w as a time, 

i. when his fami' I their 

title; j long since degem 

amihisauo ore than a century. 







the crriZEX or the world. 



iieen more and more solicitous to 
keep up the breed of their dogs and h 

Mint of their children. This very 
i mpleos he seems, is descended 
men and heroes; 
iluckily, his great-grandfather mar- 
ina she having a 
■n for his lordship's groom, 
-omchow crossed the strain, and 
in heir, who took after Ins 
i in his great love to gi 
a violent 
X passions have for some 
generations passed on from father • 
and arc now become the characteristics 
of the family, his present lordship being 
ly remarkable for his kitchen and his 
slal.i. 

It such a nobleman," cried I, "de- 
serve? our pity, thus placed in so high a 
h only the more ■•■ 
ntempt A king may confer title-, 
is personal merit alone that ensures 
respect. I Ided I, "that -uch 

pised by their equals, neglected 
and condemned to live 
• in voluntary dependants in irksome 

ire Still under a mistake," replied 

on, "for, though this noble- 

r to generosity : though 

renty opportunities in a day of 

letting his guest- know how much he 

-sessed 
neitrn : fit, nor wisdom ; though 

■ others by his con- 
fer known to enrich any 
■t, f<a all this, his com- 
he is a lord, 
most people desire 
in a companion. Quality and title have 
such allurements that hundreds are ready 
i,- up all their own importance, to 
. little, and to pall 
mint, merely to be 
though without the least 
ng their underst.i 

inong their equal-, but those 
are despised for company where they are 
I in turn. You saw what a 

-. card-ruined beaux, and 

capt.-o llingtomake 

linue down to his 



country seat. Not one of all these that 
could not lead .1 more comfortable lift a| 
home, in their little lodging of three slul- 
'Acek, with their lukewarm dinner. 
served dp between two pewter plate, 
a cook- -hup. Yet, poor devils! they 
are willing to undergo the impertinence 
and pride 0! theil entertainer, merely to 
be thought to live among the great; thev 
are willing to nmerin bondage, 

lhej are taken down 
ove hi- lordship's taste upon 
every occasion, to tag all his Stupid obser- 
vations with a 'very true,' to praise his 
stable, and descant upon his claret and 

"The pitiful humiliations of the gentle- 
men you are now desenh 1, "put 
me in mind of a custom among the Tartars 
of Koreki, not entirely dissimilar la 
we are now considering. The Rn- 
who trade with them, carry thither a kind 
of mushrooms, which they exchani 
furs of squirrels, ermines, sables, and foxes. 
These mushrooms the rich Tartar- lay up 
in large quantities for the winter; and 
when a nobleman makes a mud) 
feast, all the neighbours around are in- 
vited. The mu-hrooms are prepared by 
boiling by which the water acquires an 
intoxicating quality, and Is a sort of drink 
which the Tartars prize beyond all other. 
When the nobility and ladies are assembled, 
and the ceremonies usual between people 
of distinction over, the mushroom broth 
goes freely round ; they laugh, talk double 
emtau/rr, grow fuddled, and become ex- 
cellent company. The poorer sort, who 
love mushroom broth to distraction as 
well a- the rich, but cannot afford it at the 
first hand, post themselves on these occa- 
sions round the huts of the rich, and watch 
the opportunity of the ladies and gentle- 
men U they come down to pass their 

liquor; and holding a wooden bowl, 

little alter 

lured 

with the intoxicating quality. Of this they 
drink with the ntti 

thus they gM as drunk and as jo\ 
Iters. 
" I lappy nobility I" cries mycompaniin, 
"who can fear no dhninv v^a» 

unless by being scuecv v,-\\\v Wre-tugari , «A. 



•3» 



THE CITIZEN' OF THE WORLD. 



th 

: 



who when most drunk arc most useful ! 
Though «t have not this custom among 
US, I foresee, that if it were introduced we 
mighi linve many a toad-eater in England 
to drink hum tfae owl on 

occasions, and to praise the flavour 

u| In- int. I. hip's liquor. As we hi 

ferent das* , who knows but 

v sec a lord holding th' 

uiinistiT.a knight huldii> _ irdship, 

• drinking it doul 

tilled from llic 1- .in-, of the knighthood ? 
. pirt, I dull neve* for the future 
hear a gnat man's tlatieriMs haranguing in 
his praise, thai 1 shall not fancy 1 behold 
the wooden bowl ; fur I can sec no reason 
■hy a man, who can live easily and happily 
at home; should bear the drudgery ■ 
conim and the impertinence of his enter- 
tainer, unless: intoxicated with a p 
fur all thai waaqnality; unless he thought 
thai whateva came from the great 

delicious, and had the tincture of the 
mushroom in it." — Adieu. 

LETTER XXXIII. 

To the time. 

I am disgusted, O Fiim Hoam ! even to 
sickness disgusted ! Is it possible to beat 
the presumption of these Islanders, when 
they pretend to instruct mc in tin 
monies of China t They lay it down as 
a maxim, that every person who comes 
from thence must express himself in meta- 
phor, swear by Alia, rail againal 
and behave, and talk, and write, like a 
Turk or I'cr-ian. They make no dis> 
tin. I mil between our elegant manners and 
ubarities of our Eastern 
neighbours. Wherever I come, I raise 
either diffidence or satcffushinent : 

me no Chine ! 1 am formed 

more like a man than a monster ; and 

wonder to find one bom five thou- 
i with 

say they, 

eOMTed his educa- 

I nmlon 

e common sense ; to be lx>m 

tense I 

i in disguio 
has nothing of the true exotic barbarity." 






I yesterday received an invitation from 
a lady of distinction, who, it seems had 
collected all her knowledge of ' 
manucrs from fictions every day propa- 
gated here, under the titles "i Eastern tales 
and Oriental histories. She rccei\. 
very politely, but seemed to wonder that 
1 ii- fleeted bringing opium and a tobacco 
when chairs were drawn for the rest 
of the company, I tied my place 

on a cushion on the floor. It was in vain 
that 1 protested the Chinese used i 
as in Europe; she understood decorum 

too will to entertain me with the ordinary 

civilities. 

I had scarcely been seated ace 
to her directions, when the footmi 
ordered to pin a napkin under my chin .- 
this I protested again-!, as being HO 
Chinese ; however, the whole con. 
who, it seems, were a club of connoisseurs, 
gave it unanimously against mc, and the 
nankin was pinned accordingly, 

It wa- impossible to be angry with 

people who seemed to err only h 
excess of politeness, and 1 -at con: 
expecting their importin now II 

an end : but, as soon as ever dmn. | 
served, the lady demanded « I 
for a plate of bear's claws, or a si 

nests. As I 
which 1 was utterly unacquainted, I was 
desirous of eating only what I kiu v. 
therefore begged to be helped from 

f that lay on the side tabli 

t at once d 
company. A Chinese eat beef ! thai 
never be : there was no local propi i 
se beef, whatever there mignl 
Chinese phi id my enter- 

. " 1 think I have some rca 
fancy myself a judge of these matter 
short, the Chinese never e.it beef ; si 
t be permitted I 

al Pekin ; the saffron and i i 

iocs in perfection." 
I had no sooner begun to eat whal 
laid before me, than I found the 
company as much astonished asbefoi 
1 made no use of ray chop- 
tli-maii, whom I lake to 
author, harangued very learnedly (as lll_ 
company seemed to think) upon the use 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



>19 



of Ihem in China. He 

ig argument witli himself 

without once 

might be supposed 

ileiicing ihcinquii 

k my silence 

igacily, 

Ihe triumph : 

neously as if 
He atti 
lad nothing of tl 
uge; show, 

1 have been 

forehead broader. In 

ned me out of my 

"led the rest 

to I".- <>i lii — opinii 

' expose hi ■ 

»ted, that I had nothing 

n manner in my delivery. 

great reader, "is 

n,— mere chit-chat and coni- 

• is nothing like sense 

■ mi style, where nothing 

sublimity. Oh ! 

grand 

voyifjcr, of i '.igs of 

here all 

. magnificent, and unin- 

ilft." -" I have written many a sheet 

of Eastern tale myself," interrupt! the 

ritic to 

say but thai I have stuck close to the true 

I ' Ml pared a lady'- chin 

the mountains of B 

■ louds that 

! f riches arc men- 

mpare them to the flocks that 

• Tefflis : if poverty, to 

il the brow ol Mount 

Baku. I have used thee and than upon 

; I have described fallen stars 

; mountains, not forgetting the 

too Bill you shall hear 

lly begin — ' Ebcn-benbolo, 

Ban, was born on the 

'°6Sy of Benderabassi. His 

Inter than the feathers which 

■a>t of the penguin ; hi 

were like the eyes of doves when washed 



the morning ; his hair, 
which hung like the v. i 1 ]. •«■ weeping over 
the glossy stream, was so beautiful that 
it seemed to reflect its own brigl 
and hi- Id .leer 

which fleet h to the tops of Ihe mounl 

, there is the true 
you ; every advai. 
is only i deviation from sound, I 
tales should always be sonorous, lofty, 
musical, and unmeaning." 

iilfl not avoid Minlmc. io h 
I attempt to iostn 
in the true Eastern idiom ; and after he 
looked round me for appl 

.ether lie hi 
travelled into the East i to which he replied 
in the negative. 1 demanded whether he 
understood Chinese or Arabic; to which 
also he answered as before. " Then how, 
sir." said I. " l.iii you pretend to determine 
upon the Eastern style, who i 

Minted with the Eastern wrii 

Take, sir, the word of one who is pro- 
fessedly a I 1 who is actually 
acquainted with Ihe Arabian writers, thai 
what il palmed upon you daily for an 
imitation of Eastern writing no way re- 
v-nil, le- their manner, either in sentiment 

ordiction* In theEast simile-, ere seldom 

>nd metaphor- almost wholly un- 
known ; but in China particularly, the very 
reverse of what you allude to takes place : 
a cool phlegmatic method of writing pie- 
vails there. The writers of that country, 
ever more assiduous t,, instruct t!. 
please, address rather the judgment than 
the fancy. Unlike many authors of 
Europe, who have no consideration of the 
reader's time, they generally leave more 

to be understood than they ejrpi 

"Be ' from 

an inhabitant of China the same ignorance. 

me unlettered simplicity, thai 
find in a Turk, Pci-ian, or nativeof rem. 
I liinese arc versed in the 

well ai von, and are masters of several arts 
unknown to the people ol 
of them are instructed not only in their 
own national learning, but ai 
well acquainted with the Ian 
learning of I i lUch 

is not to be taken, consult your <vmv 
travellers on litis, \\eaA, «\yo »Sfcvrav, "Seal. 



140 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



holan of Pekin and Siam sustain 
igical theses in Latin. "The college 

iprend, which is but a league from 
Si.iin,' says one of your travellers, 'came 
in a body to salute our ambassador. No- 
thing gave mc more sincere pleasure, than 
>M a number of priests, venerable 
both from age and modesty, followed by 
a number of youths of all nations, Chinese, 
Japanese, Tonquinese, of Cochin China, 

and StUD, all Willing to pay their 
respects in the most polite manner imagi- 
nable. A Cochin Chinese made an ex- 
cellent Latin oration upon this occasion ; 
" e was succeeded, and even outdone, by 
student of Tonquin, who was as well 
•killed in the Western learning as any 
scholar of Paris.' Now, sir, if youths 
never stirred from home are so per- 
fectly skilled in your laws and learning, 
surely more must be expected from one 
like me, who have travelled so many thou- 
sand miles ; who have conversed familiarly 
for several years with the English factors 
established at Canton and the missionaries 
sent us from every part of Euro|>e. The 
unaffected of every country nearly re- 
semble each other, and a page of our Con- 
fucius and of your Tillotson have scarce 
any material difference. Paltry affectation, 
strained allusions, and disgusting finery 
arc easily attained by those who choose to 
wear them : and they are but too fre- 
quently the badges of ignorance or of 
J stupidity, whenever it would endeavour 
lo please." 

I proceeding in my discourse, when, 
looking round, I perceived the company 
no way attentive to what I atterj 

much earnestness, to enforce. One 

lady was whispering her that sat n 

tudying the merits of a Ian. I 

third began to yawn, and the author him- 
p. I thought it, there- 
high time to make a, retreat ; i 

the company seem to show any regret at 

my pi for departure! even the 

no had invited me, with the most 

insensibility, saw mc i* 

hat, and rise from my cushion ; not 

I to repeat my visit, because it was 
found that I lien ling rather a 

reasonable creature, than an outlandish 
IdioL— Adieu. 



LETTER XXXIV. 

Tt the 

The polite arts are in this country subj 

many revolutions as its laws 

politics: not only the objects of fancy a 

but even of delicacy and taste, are 
directed by the capricious inilui: 
fashion. 1 am told there has been a time 
when poetry was universally encouraged 
by the great ; when men of the first rank 
not only patronised the poet, but produced 
the finest models for his imitation. It was 
then the English scut forth those glo 
rhapsodies, which we have so often 
over together with rapture: poems In 
with all the sublimity of Mcnciu . 
supported by reasoning as strong as that 
of Zimpo. 

The nobility are fond of wisdom, bnl 
they arc also fond of having it * 
study ; lo read poetry required thought ; 
and the English nobility were not lb 
thinking : they soon therefore placed their 
affections upon music, because in thil 
might indulge a happy vacancy, and yet 
still have pretensions to delicacy and taste 
as before. They soon brought their nume- 
rous dependants into an approbation 
their pleasures; who, in turn, led their 
thousand imitators lo feel or feign simili- 
tude of passion. Colonies of singers were 
now imported from abroad at a vast ex- 
pense ; and it was expected the English 
would soon be able to set examples to 
Europe. All these expectations, however, 
were soon dissipated. In spite of the zeal 
which fired the great, the ignorant vulgar 
' refused to he tanght to sing; refused to 
undergo the ceremonies which were to 
initiate tin m in the singing fraternity: 
colony from abroad dwindled by 
y were of themselves 
uni. nunately incapable of propa; 
the bri 

Music having thus lost its spin 
painting is now become the sole obi 
fashionable care. The til 
in that art is at present tin 
in every fashionable society ; a well-timed 

shrug, an admiring atril 

otic tones of exclamation, arc suf- 
qualifications for men of Ion 
cumstances to curry favour. Even i 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



ire themselves early 

in handling i lie pencil, while 

tation, 

•h ilie manufacture] of their 

of the English are not content 
with giving all their time to tbii 

le young men of distinction are 

■ to travel through Europe, with no 

that of understanding 

On I I from 

i of curiosities to that gallery 

te the prune of life in 

i ; skilful in pictures, ignorant in 

rible to be reel. 

ir follies lake shelter under 

licacy and taste. 

iruc, painting should have due en- 

inter can undoubt- 

much more 

I manner than the upholsterer : hut 

lid think a man of fashion makes but 

hi exchange, who lays out all 

">e in furnishing h lich lie 

employed in the furniti 

■.in who shows no other 
of taste than his cabinet or 
ht ns well boa.l tu me of the i 

.- kitchen. 
■ oilier motive bat vanity, that 
i the g| an uioidi- 

i for pictures. After the piece 
■-■I at eight or ten daya 
) , the purchaser's ple-tsun 

; all the satisfaction he can 
rs; he may 
the guardian ol .i treasure 
i.inucr of use ; his 
If, but 
who is generall) 
ready to feign a rapture 
10 the | 
of a picture buyer, a:, 
iliccnce of an 

ive enclosed a letter from a youth 

father 

: in which he appears addicted 

mor, 

itur.il disposition, and fond of 

csame time, early 

illeries 




as the only proper schools of improve* 
ment, ami to consider a skill in picl 

pr o p ercst knowledge for a man of 
quality. 

"My Lord,— We have been but two 
ll Antwerp; wherefore I have sat 
down, as soon as possible, to give you 
some account of what we have seen since 
our arrival, desirous of letting no oppor- 
tunity pass without writing to so good a 
father. Immediately upon alighting from 
our Rotterdam machine, my governor, 
who is immoderately fond of paii. 
anil at ihe s.iiuc lime an excellent i 
would let no time pass till we paid our 
respects to the church of the Virgin 
Mother, which contains treasure beyond 
estimation. We took an infinity of pains 
in knowing its exact dimensions, ami dif- 
fcred half a foot in our calculation ; so I 

nion. 
I really believe my governor and I could 
Ived and died there. There is 
scarce a pillar in the whole church that 
is not adorned by a Rubens, a Winder 
Meuylen, a Vandyke, or a vYouvetman, 
Wint attitudes, carnations, anddnp* 
1 am almoM induced to pity the English, 

who have none of thou pieces 

among them. Ai we were willing to let 

sip no opportunity of doing busins 
immediately after went to wait on Mr. 
i you have so frequently 

nded for ln> judicious collection. 

iiieo5 are Indeed beyond price 

so good, lie showed us one 
of an officiating ilamen, which he lh 
to be an antique ; but mi governor, who 
is not to be deceived in Uttse partii 
soon found it out to be an arrant riufue 
eenlo. 1 COUld not, however, sufficiently 
admire llie genius of Mr. Ilugcndor; 
has been able to collect, from all 
of the world, a thousand things which 
knows the use of. Kxccpt your 

ior, 1 do not know 
anybody I admire so much. He I 

mom- 

io lake the 
whole day before us, we sent our eompll- 
mentstoSlr.V.in Sprockki 
his gallery, which re,|iiest lie vct<j ^cAwkVj 
Complied v. il\i. H'vi y^xWrj TCvSiWiXto. 



I4J 



THE C/TIZEX Of THE WORLD. 



I feet by twenty, and is well filled; 
but wli.it surprised me most of all •■■■ 
sec a Holy K . i mil v just likeyourLoid 
which this ingenious gentleman B 
me is the true original. I own tin 
me inexpressible uneasiness, and I 
it will to vmir Lordship, u 1 had flattered 
II that the onl was in your 

Lordship's possession. I muldadviseyou, 
however, to take yonri down, till its merit 
can be ascertained, my governor ss 
me, that he intends to write a long disser- 
ts prove its originality. OneonVhl 
.sliuly in this city for ages, and still find 
something new. We went from lids to 
the cardinal's Staines, which arc 
really very fine ; there were three spihtrin 
ted in a very masterly manner, all 
arm in arm : the torse which 1 heard you 
talk so much of is at fast discovered to 
be a Hercules spinning, and not a Clco- 
patrsj bathing is your Lordsh i p I: ■ 
jectured : there has been a treatise written 
to pro\ 

" My Lord Firmly is certainly a Goth, a 

.11 the world for painting. 

lei how any call him a man of taste. 

ugh the streets of Antwerp a 

few days ago, and observing the nakedness 

of the inhabitants, he was so barbarous 

as to observe that he thought the best 

method the Flemings could take « 

■ II their pictures, and buy clothes. Ah, 

H ro« to Mr. 

cabinet, an lay we 

chsjl see the curiosities collected by Van 

Ran, and the day sfter we shall pay a 

. and after that — 
but 1 find my piper finished ; so. with the 

Ulcere wishes for your Lordship's 

happiness, and with hoj>cs, after 1 
seen Italy, SnU centre of pleasul 

by the care and expense 
his been generously laid • 

y la . I remain, nj Lord, 



I ETTER XXXV. 

tAt umy 

*f A'-- 

ive of 
r. but nature IJtd 

mbservienl !.■ you : a 



commands my body, but you are i 
ofmy he.irt. And yet let not thy inflexible 
nature condemn me when I confess, 

: my soul shrink with my circum- 
I feel my mind, not less than 
my body, bend beneath the rigo 
servitude ; the master whom I serve grows 
every day more formidable. 
reason, which should teach me to 1 1 
him, his hideous image fills even my 
dreams with horror. 

A few days ago a Christian slate, 
wrought in the gardens, happening to 
enter an arbour where the 

lining the ladies of his harem wiili 
coffee, the unhappy captive was in- 
stabbed to the heart for his intrusion. 1 
have been preferred to his place, which, 
though less laborious than my former 
. i- yet more ungrateful, as it 
brings me nearer him whose presence 

. sensations at once of 
apprehension. 

Into what a state of misery arc the 
modem Persians (alien : A nation famous 
King the world an exa m ple of free- 
dom is now become a land of tyrants, and 
■ den of slaves. The houseless Tartar of 

liatka, who enjoys his fieri- 
his fish in unmolested freedom, mny l>c 
envied, if compared to the thousand 
pine here in hopeless servitude, and curse 
the day that gave them being. 1 
just dealing, Heaven ! to render millions 
wretched to swell up the happiness of a 
few ? cannot the powerful of this earth be 
happy without our sighs and ti 

ever) luxury of the great be woven from 
the calamities of the poor? It must, it 
nnisi surely, be that this jarring discordant 
life is 1-ut the prelude to some future 

nj : the soul, attuned to virtui 
shall go from hence to fill up the uni 

-hall be n' 
shackles to bind, nor no whips to thri 
where I shall once more meel my I 
miiIi rapture, snd 
where 1 - 

■ 
Lou for all i 
iluced me. 
The wret I tunc has mfl 

master has lately purchased several slate 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



'43 



of bolh sexes ; among the rest, I 

i aptive talked of with admira- 

Tlie eunuch who bought her, ami 

who is accustomed lo survey beauty with 

les her atten- 

ti hei beauty, ll 

ihat she refuses the warmest 

- of her haughty lord : he has 

even offered to make her one of his four 

ill". ii changing her religion, and 

ming to his. It i> probable she 

i refuse such extraordinary offers, 

'icr delay * intended lo 

enhance her favours. 

I hove just now seen her ; she inadver- 
U-nllv 

[writing. She seemed to regard 
the li' ■-• with fixed attention : 

there her most ardent gaze was directed. 

Genius of the sun ! whal unexpecu 

what animated grace ! hei 

seemed the transparent covering of virtue. 

Celestial beings could not wear a look of 

men perfection, while sorrow humanized 

Iter form, and mixed my admiration with 

I rose from the bank on which 1 

be retired : happy that none 

-uch an interview might 

fatal. 

ve regarded, till now, the opulence 

power of my tyrant without 

in with a mind inca- 

ef enjoying the gifts of fortune, 

him as one 

loaded, rather than enriched, with its 

favours; but it present, when I think that 

■ : 1 1 y for hirn ; 

mi- should be lavished 

'!' feeling th. 

I own I leel a 
lo which I have hitherto been 

But let not my father impute those un- 
titling a cause as 
, let it be thought that 

K pupil of the wise fum 

■ so degrading a 
:;ly displeased at 
• so unjustly disposed of. 
» hich I leel is not for 

ityof him for 
ideed I 




pity her : when I think that she must only 
share one heart, who deserves to command 
a thousand, excuse me if I feel an emotion, 
which universal benevolence e 

As I am convinced that you take a 
pleasure in •' "f liuiiiani: 

■ icularly pleased with 

ability 
with which I felt this beautiful -lunger's 
distress, [have for a while forgot, ii 

the miseries of my own hopeless situa- 
tion : the tyrant grows ever} day re- 
severe; ami line, which Othei 

ndsda mt" umdei 

.i in- severity.- . 

LETTER XXXVI. 

Frvm tki m 
The whole harem th a tumul- 

tuous joy : Zeli-, the beautiful c 

has consented toembnuse the religion of 
Mahomet, and become one o 
of the hi tidions Persian, It i- imp- 
to describe the transport thai sit- on every 

i this occasion. Music and feu 
fill every apartment ; the mosi mi 

ecms to forget his chains, an, I sym- 
• i the happiness oi 
The herb we tread beneath our feet i- not 
made mure for our use than every slave 
around him for their imperious master ; 
mere machines of obedience, they wait 
With «ilent assiduity, feel his pains, and 
rejoice in his exultation. Heavens! how 
much is requisite to make one man happy ! 

' ihe most beautiful slave 
I among the number, have gol OH 
prepare for carrying him in triumph to the 
bridal apartment. The blase of perfumed 

are to imitate the day : the d 
and singers are hired at a v.: 
The nuptials are t" he I DO the 

approaching feast of Barboura, wl 

hundred tacts in gold are tobedbti 

among the barren wives, in order to 

from the approaching union. 
1 will not riches pi . ,, hun- 

dred domes' ,ti.e the tyrant in 

their souls, are commanded lo weor . 
of joy. and they arc joyful. An hundred 
r> are ordered to attend, u 
ears with praise. lleawvsj, »y£- 
commandin£\>ca,\)\\;, *ics,fai a&mv\.\»svv_e 



144 



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die 



and scarcely receives an answer ; even love 
itself seems lo wail upon fortune ; or though 
the passion be only feigned, yet it wears 

appearance of sincerity ; and 
greater pleasure can even true sincerity 
> i iiiV i . or what would the rich have more ! 
Nothing can exceed the intended mag- 
nificence of the bridegroom but the 
dresses of the bride : six eunuchs in the 
Hfflptuoai habits are to conduct him 
to the nuptial couch, and wait his orders. 
Six ladies, in all the magnificence of Persia, 
are directed to undress the bride. Their 
business is to assist, to encourage her, to 
divest her of every encumbering part of 
her dress, all but the last covering, which, 
by an artful complication of ribands, is 
purposely made difficult to unloose, and 
with which she is to part reluctantly even 
to the joyful possessor of her beauty. 

Mosl.vlad, O my father, is no philo- 
sopher : and yet he seems perfectly con- 
tented with ignorance. Possessed of num- 
es, camels, and women, he 
desires 00 greater possession, He never 
1 the page of Mcncius, and yet all 
I res tell me that he is happy. 
give the weakness of my nature, if 
feel my heart rebellious to the 
dictates of wisdom, and eager fur hap|ii- 
t his, Yet why wish li >r his wealth, 
with Ins ignorance? to be, like him, inca- 
rimental pleasures, Incapable 
of feeling the happiness of making others 
inc ipable of leaching the beautiful 
iphy? 
What '■ shall I in ■ transport of p 

E've up the golden mean, the universal 
innony, the unchanging essence, for 
■ .session of an hundred cuncls, as 
beautiful horses, 
•venty-threc fine women. lit 
tne iu the centre I degrade me 
i the moW degraded I pare my 

its, ye i*»"'.r. "i" [leaven ! ere I would 

inge. Wh.it I part 
with philosophy, which leaches me lo 

itifying 

•st my 

serenity in 

i.ki oi lortufei . I'lnl" i'|iliy, by 

Which even BOVJ I serene, and 

. much at ease, lo be persuaded to 
wiih n !..i .my Other enjoyment ! 



Never, never, even th 
spoke in the accent 

informs me the 

bride is to be arrayed in a ti- 
and her hair adorned with the ' 
pearls of Ormus. But why tease you « ii h 
paiticulars, in which we both are so little 
concerned ? The pain I feel in sepai 
throws a gloom over my mind, win 
this scene of universal joy I fear may 
i ibuted to some other cause : how 
Wietcbfld .ire those who are, like me, 
denied even the last resource of misery, — 
their tears!— Adieu. 

LETTER XXXVII. 
Fr*m the m u m , 

I begin to have doubts whether wi 
be alone sufficient to make u- happy 
whether every step we make in rcfini 
is nol an inlet into new disquietudes. A 

mind too vie us and active serves only 

to consume the body to which n is j 

as the richest jewels are soonest found to 

wear their settings. 

When we rise in knowledge, as the 

Erospcct widens, the objects of our regard 
scome more obscure ; and the unlettered 
vs arc only directed lo 
the narrow sphere around h 
Nature with a finer relish, and tastes her 
blessings with a keener appetite, than the 
philosopher whose mind attempts to | 
an universal system. 

As I was some days ago pursuing this 
subject among a circle of my fellow-; 
an ancient Cuebre of the number, equally 

for his piety and wis 
seemed touched wiih my canveraatioo, and 

Bo illustrate what I had been 
ing with an allegory taken from the 

shall 
. " thai I In y who travel 
in pursuil of wisdom walk only in a 
circle; and after all their labour, at last 
return to their pristine ignorance : and in 
I o we shall see, that enthusiastic con- 
fidence or unsatisfying doubts terminal 
all our inquiries. 

"In early I lines, before myriads of nal 
covered the earth, the whole human m 
lived together in one valley. The 
inhabitants, surrounded on every si 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



Hi 



irld but 

. ere confined. 

fancied the heavens bent down to 

. and formed an im- 

Nonc 

I ired lo climb the steepy 

m order to explore those regiona 

■ ; they knew the nature 

of the ikies only from a tradition, which 

mentioned their beinc made of adamant: 

up the reasonings of (he 

nquiry. 

" In tin- sequestered vale, blessed with 

all tin Nature, 

.hi, the refreshing breeze, 

• hrook, and goltlen fruitage, 

■ ied happy in 

. in each other ; they desired no 

new of none 

n, pride, and envy, were 

among them ; and from 

peculiar simplicity of its p.. 

called THE VAL1 

n unhappy youth, 
ing than the rest, undertook to 
1 in 1 examine 
h were hitherto deemed 
The inhabitants from below 
i al his intrepidity; some 
i led his courage, others censured his 
. er, he proceeded t< 
the place where the earth and heavens 
seemed to unite, and at length arrived at 
for height with extreme I 
lity. 

■ lo find the skies 
is he expected, within his reach, but 
His amazement 
ide-extended 
side of the 
■ to astonishin. nt 
Ty, at a distance, 
iful and alluring than even that 
hind, 
he continued to gaze with wonder, 
a Genius with a look ofinfini 
;, offered to be hi 

. distant country which 

Ci much admire,' says the if 

it lentimen 
every sensual banquet ; 



enjoyment, and still more blessed in I 

perfect octtsctonsnesi of their own felicity ■ 

ignorance in that country is wholly un- 
; all there is satisfaction without 
alloy, for every pleasure first undergoes 
the examination of reason, 
am called the Genius of Detnonstl 
and am stationed h 

..(venturer to thai land of hap] 
through those intervening regions you see 
overhung with fogs and darkness, and 
horrid with forests, cataracts, caverns, and 
various other shapes of danger. Uul follow 
me, and in tune I may lead you to that 
distant desirable land of tranquillity. 
" The intrepid traveller immediately put 

himself under the direction of the ' 1 
ih journeying on together • 
slow but agreeable pace, deceived the 

l.y coovers 
The beginning of the journey seemed to 
promise . but, as they pro- 

cceded forward, the shit more 

gloomy and the way mon intricate; they 

often inadvertently approached the brow 
Of MBM frightful precipice, or the brink 

of a torrent, and were obliged to measure 

back their former way : the gloom in 
ing as they proceeded, their pace become 
more dew; they paused at I 
frequently stumbled, and their distru 
timidity increased. The Genius of 1 >e- 
ration now therefore advised his 
pupil to grope upon hands and feet, as a 
1. though more slow, yet less liable 
to error. 

" In this manner they attempted to 
pursue their journey for some time, when 

re overtaken by another * fenius, 
who with a precipn ined travel- 

ling the same way. He was in- 
known by the other to be Ihi 
Probability. 1 1 e 
wings at bjabacki which incessantly v 

apidity of nil mo- 
tion ; his countenance b confi- 
dence that the ignorant might miatal 
sincerity, and he 1 which 

d in the middle of his forehead. 

. ted he, ap- 
proaching the mortal pilgrim, 'if thi 
travelling to the i IH tv, 

let the 
giriaano 

\. 



«46 



THE C/T/ZE.V OF THE WO 



ward so slowly, and is so Intl.. 
with the way* Follow me, we shall soon 
perform the journey lo where every plea- 
sure waits our arrival.' 

"The peremptory tone in which this 
;c, and the speed with which 
he moved forward, induced the traveller 
to change his conductor, and leaving his 
BlOdesI companion behind, he pro*.' 
forward with his more confident director, 
seeming not a little pleated at the increased 
velocity of his motion. 

E" But soon he found reason to repent 
Whenever a torrent CTOntd their «.w, his 
guide taught him to despise the oh 
by plunging hitn In ; wl, 
ited, he was directed to Ring I" 
forward. Thus each moment miraculously 
escaping, his repeated escapes only - 
to increase his guide's temerity. He led 
him, therefore, forward, amidst infinite dif- 
ficulties, till they arrived at the bordersof an 
ocean, which appeared unnavigable from 
the black mists that lay I nrfacc. 

Its unquiet waves were of the darkest hue, 
and gave a lively representation of the 
various agitations of the human mind. 
I he Genius of Probability now con- 
fessed his temerity; owned his being an 
improper guide to the t inn Of i 

v. a country where no mortal had 
ever been permitted to arrive ; but, at the ' 
same time, offered to supply the traveller 
not her conductor, who should carry 
the LARD OK CONFIDENCE, a re- I 
lion where the inhabitants lived with the 
,'iillity, and tasted almost as I 
mm ii satisfaction as if in theui 
i u'.iY Wot waiting forareply.he stamped I 

■•ii the ground, and called forth 
r, a gloomy fiend of the ! 
servants of Arimanes, They 

re up the reluctant savage, who seemed 

'.o bear the light of the day 1 ii- 
enormous, his i 
• I hideous, his aspect l»etrayed a thou- 
rying paasia ! forth 

ocked 

ling him ob 

he assnmi 
ilily. 
" ' I have • died you I rles the 



OF DOUBTS, into the t IND 01 

, I expect you will | 
commission with punctuality 
you,' continued the Geni 
traveller, ' when oner I have 
fillet round your eyes, Ii 
suasion, nor threats tin 

• you to unbind it, in i 
round ; keep the fillet ' 
ocean below, and 

lire." 
"Thus saying, and tin traveller's eye 
covered, the Demon, mul 
curses, rawed him on his back, and in 
stantly, upborne by his stn 
directed his Right among 
Neither the loudi 

to unbind his eyes. Tin I '• 

Ins flight downi 

surfac 

some villi I in ) lit 

sarcastic tones oi contempt, vainly en 

him to look i 
hut he still conn 
covered, and would in all • 
have an ved al the happy land, hai 
flattery effected v 
not perform. 1 ■ 

io the | n 
land, and nn universal shout ol j 

i ivnl, The u 
travelli 

for country, at length pulled the filli 

hise)' urea to look round hie 

But he had I the band too 

not vet above half way over. 

I hovering in the 
air, and had produced those sound 
in order to deceive, was now freed fre 
on; wherefore, t! 
heel traveller from hislmck, !l 
happy youth fell 1 

4" scent oin wheno 

ic nc seen to t - 

I KTTBR XXXVIII. 

ifi It fnm ,'■• 
l-Hto/tluCereft.'iiinl Azadtmy jil f 
in t 

oenio, the Grecian, hod demo 
• xcited a uni 

i he surrounding multitude, he w 



'\ 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



iily struck with ihe doubt, that what 

must certainly be 

g j and turning ton philosopher who 

Stood near him, " Fray, sir." says lie-, 

" pardon me ; I fear I have been guilty of 

irdity." 

than him, 

llitude ; you know 

that f equally det to (he great: 

yet v. n irastancea have concurred 

to the latter part of the 

reign, that I 

I praise; 

I can i Dg the crowd, 

ICC, just in their unanimous appro- 

• think not that battles gained, do- 
• extended, or enemies brought to 
>re the virtuesw hich at present 
i Imiralion 

■ ly famous for his victories, I 
i regard his character with indlf- 
x ■ the boast of heroism in Ihls 

! age is just 

. rank, 

i I now begin to look with 

Ibes to man. 

.line in this aged monarch which I 

. niu li 

- one of the most 

tinmen!, is ll 

all kit 

flhe virtue I m 
■ administration of justice, 
mr. 
ill virtues this i- the 

• has a 
All men, even tyrants 
. lean to mercy when unbi 
: the heart n 
les to forgiveness, and pursuing 
the dictates of thi 

lisfaction lo 
tltihty. What a thorough love for , 
tii'.- public, wh.it n trons command 

it a finely-conducted 
jtnlgmrnt. ■ eposes 

heart, 
the future interest of his people 
non ! 

11 natural bias for 
- friends for 



opposing his own feelings, but reluctantly 
refusing those he regards, and this to 
satisfy the public, whose cries he may 
never hear, whose gratitude he may I 
receive ; this surely i- true greatness ! Let 
U fancy ourselves for a moment in this 
just old man's place ; surrounded by num- 
bers, all soliciting the same favour — a 

that nature 

the inducements to pity an 
before us in the strongest lignt, 
a! our feet, some ready to resent a ri 

suppose our b a shnalio 

y we should find our- 

apt ti> act ihe character of good-natured 

men than of upright ma 

What contribute 
all other kingly virtues is, thai 

I with ■ due than of am 

and thOH who | ■ 

fluenced by greater motives than empty 
fame: thepeople are generally wellpli 
with i remit tod all 

ace of humanity ; 
it is the wise alone who are capable of 
discerning that impartial justice is the 

' mercy : they know it to be 

difficult at once to compassionate 

iidemn, an object thai plead 

I have been led into this commonplace 
thought by a late striking inst 
ountryof the impartiality of justice, 
and of the king's inflexible resolution of 
inflicting punishment wi 
due. A man of the hr-l quality, in a (it 
either of passion, melancholy, or madness, 
murdered his servant : it was expecled 
that his station in life would have li- 
the ignominy of his punishment j however, 
arraigned, condemned, and under- 
went the same degrading death with the 
meanest malefactor. It WU well 
sidered tliat virtue alone is true nob 
and that he, ■■ 

beneath the vulgar, has no right to I 
distinction! which should be the n . 
only of merit : it was perhaps consi 
thai crimes were more heinous ai 
the higher el cssity 

them to fewer temptations- 
Over all the F.ast, even ( hlM not et- 



1 4 8 



The cmzE\' of the world. 



of such a crime, might, by giving 

.me to the judge, 

•ciilence. There arc - 

i it's, even ii. the ser- 

". Hi! is entirely the prop master: 

..ve kill-, his lord, he die* by the most 

i.uing tortures ; but if the C 

! are reverted, a small fine buys off 

the punishment of the offender. Happy 

the country where all are equal, and where 

who sit as judges Gave too much 
integrity to receive a bribe, and too much 

honour to pity, from a similitude of the 
le or circumstances with their 
Such i- Engl ind : yet thin 
that it Uy lamed for this 

strict impartiality. There was a time, 
even here, when ti ! the rigours 

of the law, when dfenified wretches 
suffered to five, and continue for years an 
to justice and nobility, 
i neighbouring country, 

foi the mot) icandaloui off! 

ion is still alive among them who 
has more than once deserved the most 
ignominion- Ills being 

of the blood royal, however, was thought 
a sufficient atonement for his being a 
tee to humanity. This remarkable 
personage took pleasure in shooting at 

low from the top of his , 
palace; and in this most princely amuse- 
ua.ly spent some time 

length arraigned by the 

person whom in this manner 

he had kill nitty of the 

. and condemned ;•> die. His 

merciful monarch pardoned him, in con- 

: ii hi of his rank and quality. The 

onrepenting criminal ioon alter n 

his usual entertainment, and in the same 

manner killed another man. lie was a 

! lime condemned ; a 1 
think. ceivedhisms 

n ! Would you believe il I A third 

of the 

■ a third time, therefore, 

i.im guilty — 

h, for the honour of humanity, 1 

1 : will 
yon not think me dcs. 



inhabitants of Congo? Alas I the sti 
is but too true ; and the country 
it mi I regards itself as the 

politest in Europe 1 — Adieu. 



LKTTER XXXIX. 

From Lien Chi Attangi to , Aft 

AlMlUi.i.ini 

Ceremonies are different in 
country; but truepolitt i 
the same. Ceremonies, which taki 
much of our attention, are only an 

which ignorance assumes in • 
imitate . which is the result oi 

and good nature. A ] 
of those qual 
had m i .ml. i- trul; 

and if without them, woult 
clown, though he had been all his life ; 
gentleman usher. 

How would a Chinese, bred up in the 
formalities of an Eastern court, beregi 
should he carry all his good manners be 
ypnd the Great Wall 1 How would an 
Englishman, skilled in all t! > 
of \V c.tcin good breeding, a] 

:u entertainment? Would ! 
lie reckoned more fantastically savagetha 
his unbred footman ? 
Ceremony resembles that be* 
which circulates through a country by il" 
royal mandate ; il 
real money at home, but is entirel) 
if carried abroad : a r> 
attempt to circulate his native I rash f 
another country would be thought 
ridiculous or culpable, lie is trul) 
bred, who know- when to vain- and »h» 

national pecul 
which are n gardi i by some » ith o 

er of taste at one 

arc polite all til 
World over, but that fools arc pMite onl 1 

.0 home. 

I have now before mc I wo 

written by 1 . one 

d, and 
the otl ■ 

•. all the btnu "/,.»,/.-. as stl 
dards of taste and models ol true 



THE CITIZEX Of- THE WORLD. 



149 



oth give us a trtie idea of what 
11 their ado 

D 

.hall be at liberty 
i he Knutlish lady writes 
thus to her female confidant : — 

tie, I believe 

• .lotiel will • he is a 

rtible fellow, tbnt is liar. So 

•rightly, and 

eably, thai I vow 

is the Marquis of 

■ . Italian greyhound. 1 lir.i 

Ira at Rani nines there : 

melagh.and Kanc- 

g without him. The ni 

1 complinu ' 
momma and me i.i the 
He looked all the tint 
mpudenoe, that positively 
he had something in hi- bee gave me u 

a pair-royal of natural- 

: oo mamma 

■ next morning to know how 

Rap went 

n at the door ; bi 

i thought he would have rattled 

the house di rve up to the 

len in the prettiest 

e has infinite taste, thai 

Mamma had -pent all the morning at her 

head ; but, for my part, 1 was in an undress 

eivc him; quite easy, mind that ; no 

way disturbed at his approach: mamma 

Klo be as dtga^,,- as 1 . an 
lively 
killing devil ! We did nothing 
■ ■"tjli oil the lime he staid with us; 
id so many very good things 
::r.t he mistook mam ma for my 
sister, al which she laughed ; then 

itural complexion for paint, at 
jhed ; and then he shewed us 
a picture in the lid of his snuff-box, at 
which we all laughed. He plays i 
so very ill, and is so very fond ol 

ih such a grace, that positively 
mo; 1 have got ao 

heart. I need not tell 
you that he is only a colonel of the train- 
bands. I am, dear Charloi 
ev«, BW.1 



The Chinese lady addresses her confi. 
dant, a poor relation of the family, 
the same occasion ; in which -he seems 
to understand decorums even better than 
theWextem beauty. Von who have resided 
so long in China will readily acknowledge 
the picture to be taken from nature ; 
by being acquainted with the Chinese 
customs, will better apprehend the I 
meaning. 

FROM VACUA TO YAYA. 

" I' ipa insi.t- upon one, two, three, four 
hundr. 

before he parts with a loc 
how I wish the dear creature n 
to produce the money, and pay pan iny 
fortune ! The colonel i- 

man in all Shensi. I he t . . k 

he paid at our house — m 

ing, and cringing, and stoj 

fidgeting, and going back, at 

forward, there was between hii 

one would have though: .1 the 

seventeen books of ceremonies nil by heart. 

When he was come into the hall, he llour- 

n- hands thlW limes in a very _ 
ful maniH-i. ho Would I 

, nourished hi four times | upon 
this the cola tad both ilms 

continued lloiiri-hing for some minutes In 
the politest manner imaginable. I was 
I place behind the screen, 
where I saw the whole ceremony through 
a slit. Of ibis the colonel was sen 
for papa informed him. I would haw: 
the world to have shewn him my 

little -hoes, but had no opportunity, U 

he first time I hud ever the hai 
of seeing any man but papa, and 1 low, 

toy dear Yaya, 1 thought my three 

I actually have tied from mv 

looked most charmingly i he 

toned the best shaped man in the 
whole n he is \eiv fat an 

short; but even those ni 

are improved by his drees, wn 
fashionable past • Hi. head 

was close shaven, all but the cinwn, and 
the hair ..I' tl tided into a most 

beautiful tail, thai down to bit 

heels, and was terminated by I hunch of 
yellow rose~. •:x\v«VRi.'fcift 

1 cou\d easWy yciccvstVcXva.^' 



»5° 



THE C/T/ZEX OF THE WORLD. 



highly i utthen 

i Yaya, were 

tible. He 1. dfastly 

in the wall during the whole cere- 

- 1 1 1 - i I sincerely believe no accident 

.!y, or 

Hex a polite silence 

hours, he gallantly begged to have 

the singing women introduced, purely for 

it. After one of them had 

i some time entertained as with her voice, 

ic colonel and she retired for some 

minutes together. I thought they would 

never have come back : 1 must own he 

IS I in ■!<-• creatine. Upon his 

return they again renewed the CO 

and he continued to gaze upon the wall as 

usual, when, in lea than half on hour 
bo ' bill be retired out of the room 
r. He is, indeed, a most 
.ituie. 
" When he came to take his leave, I he- 
whole ceremony began afresh I papa would 
c door ; but the colonel swore 

utli turned 
down dun permit bun t" stir a single 
• obliged to com- 
ply. As soon as he was got to the door, 
Eapa went out to see him on horseback : 
ere they continued half an hour bo 
and cringing, before one would mount or 
the other go in ; but the colonel was at last 

victorious. He had scarce gone an bun- 
fed paces from the house, when 
running out hallooed after him, ' A 
lurney;' upon which the colonel returned, 
■•uld see papa into his house before 
er he would depart. He was no sooner 
got home than he sent me a very fine 
present of duck eges painted Of twenty 
I li generosity, 1 own, 
has won me. Ihaveevi. I trying 

over the eight letters of good fortune, and 
have great hopes. All 1 have to apprc- 
i icd me, and 
IC close shut 
air, when he COIMS to have 
may shut me 
up a second time, me back to 

as fine 

been to 

iiiig 1 am 

e a new /iv my hair, the 

beak i 



nose ; the milliner from whom we bought 
that and our ribands cheated us as if 
she bad no conscience, and so, to quiet 
mine, I cheated her. All this is fair, 
you know. I remain, my dear 
your ever faithful 

LETTER XL. 

Fnm Lirn Cki Alttlngi to Ftm HomM, 
PrtmieM ,y thtCm 

in Chi 

YOU have always testified the hi 
esteem for the English poets, and i', ■ 
them nut infi 

or even the Chinese, in the art. Cut it is 
now thought, even by the English them- 

, tlint the race of thi 
extinct ; every day produces some pathetic 
exclamation upon the decadence of 

and genius. Pegasus," say they, 

slipped the bridle from bis mouth, 
urn modem bords attempt to dire. : 
flight by catching him by the tatl. " 

\ I I. my Friend, it is only among ilie 
ignorant that such discourses pi 
of true discernment can see scvera] 
still among the English, some of whom 
eounl, if not surpass, their ; . 
The ignorant term that alone poetry vvhii li 
is couched in a certain number of syllables 
in every line, where a vapid thought is 
drawn "tit into a number of verses o! 
length, and perhaps pointed with i! 
at the end. Hut glowing sentiment, strik- 
ing imagery, concise expression, i 
description, and modulated period 
fully sufficient entirely to fill up my I 
tt, and make way 

If my idea of poetry, therefi 
the English arc not at present so d< 
of poetical merit as they seem to imagine. 

I can see several poets in disguise among 

them, — men furnished with I 

'. sublimity of sentiment, and gran 
deur of expression, which constitul 
character. Many of the writers of 
modem odes, sonnets, tragedies, "i 

. it is true. it 'he name, 

though they have done 
rhymes and measure syllab 
together : their lohnsi 
are truly poets . though, for aught 1 
a «ingle v 

III eut language the 



V OF THE WORLD. 



>5> 



cations: th. 

ths, enriching 
alive funds, a i i r i employed in new 

adventures. The olher follow- with more 
cautious steps, and though slow in Ins 
90S, treasures up ever)' useful or 
pleasing discovery. But when once all 
the extent and the force of the language 

wn, the pot 
hi* labour, ana is at length overtaken by 
us pursuer. Both characters are 
i one : the historian and 
file, ami leave- 
distinction, except 
ilarly return- 
the decline of 
; cm learning, Seneca, though he 

much a poet as 
[inus, though but a critic, 
. I ollonius. 

that poetry 

itinued, bul altered among the 

the outward form 

seems - ! iiT mil from » li.it il WOS, but 

aintinnea internally the 

: i remains, whether the 

by the good writers of 

or the prosaic nu 

by the good writers of this 

here the practice 

.lge appears to me superior : 

.train! of numbers 

milar sounds ; and this restraint, 

instead of diminishing, augmented the 

of their sentiment and style. 

■ rcl to a fountain, 

truth of this maxim in | 
■,iv fine wrilei 

ould lie 
ipl as difficult as t'i i, 

till another reason in 
ice of the last age, to be drawn 
The 

numbers in verse 
are cnp.ililc ot infinite variation. 
not ■ •■ of modem 

»erv: > of whom have .my idea 

hi the 

fctlllr i 



poem ; but rather trout the example of 
their former pocls, who were tolerable 

of tins variety, and also G 
capacity in the language of still admitting 
various unanticipated nu: 

r.il rules have been drawn II 
varying the poetic measure, and critic 
have elaborately talked of accent] and 
syllables; but good sense and a fine 
winch rules can never leach, are what 
alone can in such a case determine. The 

■■is flowmgs of joy, or the interrup- 
tions of indignation, reqii. placed 
entirely dilferent. and a structure con- 
sonant to the emotion' they would express. 

■dons, and aumbc 

with tli . make the whole secret 

Item as well as Eastern poetry. In 
a word, the great faults of the modem pro- 
fessed English poets are, that they seem 
to want numbers which should v:iry with 
the passion, and are more employed in 
describing to the imagination than striking 
at the ::eu. 

LETTER Xl.i. 

To the 1,%1'it 

time since I sent thee, O 

disciple of Confuei aant of the 

grand abbey, "r mausoleum, of the kings 

and heroes ol this nation - 1 have since been 

iced to a temple, not so ancient, but 

nir superior in beauty and magnificence. 

In tin-, which is the most considerable of 

the em | mcfip- 

id the dead, but all is 

elegant and awfully simple. There are, 

. .i few rags hung round the 

I cose, been taken 
enemy in the present war. The 

which they on* composed, when 

new, might b ring of 

China ; yd this wise 

fitted "ut ■ fleet and an army in 
ordei to wife (hern, though now gi 

oil, and scarcely capable of being patched 

I handkerchief By this conquest 

have gained, and 

I. Is 
the honour of European nations pi 
only in tattered silk" 
In tli «u permitted ta remain 

I VCR -ystfi 



•5* 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



1C 



tlie English, you might from my ■', 

tion be inclined to believe them as grossly 

idolatrous as the disciples of Lao. The 

idol which they seem lo address stride; 

like a colossus over the door of the inner 

temple, which here, as with the Jew*, 

temed the D I part of the 

building Its oracles are delivered in no 

hundred various tones, which seem lo in- 

■:•: worshippers with enthusiasm and 

an old woman, who appeared to 

be tlu -uployed in various 

attitude] as the (ell the inspiration. When 

it began to speak, all the people remained 

lent attention, nodding assent, 

looking approbation, appearing highly 

i by i hose sounds which to a stranger 

Kent inarticulate ami unmeaning. 

\\ hen the idol had done speaking, and 

the priestess bad lacked up it-, lungs with 

almost all the company 

; the temple, 1 concluded the service 

was over, and taking my hat, was going 

to walk away with the crowd, when I was 

i b\ the Man in Black, who ? 
DM thai the ceremony had scarcely yet 
begun. " What !" cried I, "do I not see 
the whole body of the worshipper! 
the church ? Would you persuade 
al snefa numbers who profcM religion 
and morality would) in thil 
manner, quit the temple before the N 
was concluded? V mistake: 

Kalmucks would lie guilty of 
^•h all the object 
of their worihip was but ■ joint-stool." 
to bltnh for his country- 
Ig me that those whom I 
mnninf • only a parcel ol niu-i- 

cal blockheads, whose passion was merely 
for sounds, and whose beads- are ns empty 
I ase : those who remain be- 
hind, BtVS he, are the true religious ; they 
make useof music to warm their heai 
lO lift ili, in |o .1 proper pitch 

in lour, and you will 
s there arc some among u. 

l * looked rmmd me m directed, bnl 

which 
one ot the « 

I, not In ad- 
, but to hit mistress; a 



third whispered ; a fourth took snuii 
the priest himself, in ■ drowsy tone, 
over the t/iitics of the day. 

"Bless my eyes!" cried I, as I hap- 
pened to look towards the door, "what 
do 1 see? one ol" the worshippers fallen 
leep, and actually sunk down on his 
fl ! He is now enjoying the I 
of a trance, or does he receive the influ- 
ence of some mysterious vision* " — " 
alasl" replied my companion, "no audi 
thing ; he has only had the misfor!' 
eating too hearty a dinner, . 
impossible to keep his eyes open." Turn- 
ing to another pan of the temple, I 
perceived a young lady just in thi 
circumstances and attitude : 
cried I ; "can she, too, have ovei - 
herself'.'" — "i Hi, fie!" replied my friend, 
"you now grow censorious. She 
drowsy from eating too much! thai i 
l>e profanation. She only sleeps OOV 
having sat up all night at a I . 
"Turn me where I will, then," says I, "1 
can perceive no single symptom oi 
tion among the worshi] | 
that old woman in the corner. w | 

bind the long sticks 

mourning fan ; she indeed seems 1 1 
edified with what she heai 
replied my friend, "I knew tve - 
find some to catch yon : 1 know her; ili.it 
is the deaf lady who lives in 1 1 

In short, the remissness of beh; 
in almost all the worshippers, and 
even of the guardians struck r* 
surprise. I had been taught to 1 
that none were ever | r. moled to offii 
in the temple, but men remarkable for 
their superior sanctity, learning, an 
titudc ; that there was no such thin; 
of as persons being introduced into tin 
church merely tool 
vide for the younger blanch of a 
family : 1 . their nun 

Dually -el upon heavenly things, ti 
see their eyes directed there al> 
I from (heir behaviour to p 
their inclinations correspond 
duty, but I am since informed, t 
some are appointed to preside o»' 

they never visit j and, while thi 
receive all the money, are content' 
letting others do all the good— A 






THE CIT1ZEX OF THE WORLD. 



'53 



LETTER XI II. 

fnm /»>« • 'ft, l*f 

Htrmleii ll',in,i.''ir, !,:':.■ : 

ntinuc to condemn thy 
I lil.ime that an 
>ys iliy happiness ? What yet 
cd banquet, "hat luxury yet un- 
irded thy painful adven- 
tures? Name a pleasure winch thy native 
amply procure : 
might not have been 

•hen such toil, and such 
r, in put. mt of raptures within yuur 

•IMC? 

will say, excel us 
::i arts, — those SC 
which bound the aspiring wish, ami those 
irhich tend t" gratify even unre- 
sire. They may perhaps outdo 
us in (he art! of building ships, i 
cannon, or measuring mountains ; but arc 
iperior in the greatest of all arts — the 
art of governing kingdoms and otui 

ry of China 
with : [rope, how do I exult in 

of that kingdom which 
deriv. il from the inn. 

in ancient I 

fished Inch nature and I 

seem to have dictated. The duty of 

children to their parents — a duly which 

nature implants in every bl 

the strength of that government which 

has subsisted for time immemorial. I- dial 

lence is the first and greatest requisite 

i by this we become good 

■ our emperors, capable of 

villi just tulKirdination to our 

J dependants on 

llcivcn; by this we become fonder of 

r to be capable of exact- 

ni others in our turn ; by 

• good magistrates, for 

-son to 

would learn to rule ; by this 

ate may be said to resemble 

Inch the emperor is the 
rmd friend. 
In i . sequestered from 

Idered them- 
selves as the fathers of their people j a 



race of philosophers who bravely com- 

idolalry, prejudice, and tyranny, 

at the expense of their private happiness 

and immediate reputation. Whenever an 

. tyrant intruded into the 

administration, how- have all the good 
and great been united against him ' 
European history produce an instance like- 
thai of the twelve mandarines, who all 
resolved to apprise the vicious emperor 
Tisiang of the irregularity of his conduct? 

first undertook the dangerous 

.s cut iii two by the 

the second was ordered to be tor- 
mented, and then put to I cruel death ; 
the third undertook the task with 
pidity, and was ii: Sed by the 

- hand ■ in this manner the} 
suffered, except one. But. Ml to I" 
turned from his purpose, ihe blmVC IUT* 
vivor, entering the palace with the instru- 
ments of torture in his hand, " Here," 
cried he, addressing himself to the throne, 
"here, O Tisiang, are the mark- 
faithful subjects receive for their loyalty ; 
I am weaned with serving ■ tyrant 
now come for my reward, 1 The em; 

struck with his intrepidity, instant i 

gave the boldness of his conduct, and rc- 
I his own. What European annals 
can boast of a tyrant thus reclaimed to 
lenity? 

Winn five brethren had set upon the 
great I with Ins 

A four "f them ; he was strug- 
gling with the fifth, when his g 
coming up were going t" cut the conspira- 
tor into a thousand pieces. " \< . 
cried the emperor, with a calm and placid 
Cipimteiiance, "of all his brothers he is 
the only one | at least let one 

| of the family be suffered to live, thl 
I aged parents may have somebody left to 
feed and comfort them." 

When Haitong, the last emperor of the 
house of Ming, S»w himself 1 
his own city by the usurper, hi 

• ue from hi- palace a ill 

1 give the 

enemy battle ; but they forsook him. 

thus without hope-, and choosing 

death IB to fall alive into the 

hands of art iveA Vo Viv. ^siesssv, 

I coriducUi\g_ kn \\y.Vi 0>a.vAt£>.\sx % » wk- 



'54 



THE C/T/ZEX OF THE WORLD. 



actio; 

No 
avarii 



child, in his hand ; there in a private 
arbour, unsheathing his sword, he stabbed 
the young innocent to the heart, and then 

despatched himself, leaving the foil 

words written with his blood on the bor- 
der of his vest : " Forsaken by my sub- 
i abandoned by my friends, use my 
lody as you will, but spare, O spare, my 
people I 

Aa empire which has thus continued 
i bly the same for such a long suc- 
cession of ages ; which, though at last 
conquered by the Tartars, still preserves 
its ancient laws and learning, and may 
more properly lie said to annex the dotol- 
of Tartary to its empire, than to 
admit a foreign conqueror ; an empire as 
large as Europe, governed by on * law, 
ackowlcdging subjection to one prince, 
and experiencing but one revolution uf 
any continuance in the space of four thou- 
sand years : this is something so pecu- 
liarly great, that I am naturally led to 
despise all other nations on the compari- 
son. Here M MC no religious persecu- 
no enmity between mankind for 
dilfcrence in opinion. The disciples of 
ICeon, the idolatrous sectaries of 
ind the philosoph col children of 
Confucius, only strive to show by their 
actions the truth of their doctrines. 
Now tum from this happy, pt 

to Europe, the theatre of intrigue, 
5, and ambition. How many revo- 
lutions does it not experience in the com- 
even of one age! mid to whnt do 
these revolutions tend but the destruction 
of thousands ? Every great event is re- 
plete with some new calamity. The 
seasons of serenity alt rvflE in 

Dries seem to speak only 
torm. 
There we see the Romans extending their 
iwer over barbs . ind in turn 

Itag a prey to those whom they had 
conquer...!. \\ . ice tho ■■ bail ■ 
when beoeo ujed in con- 

tinual war with the followers of Mahomet; 
more dreadful still, destroying each 
her. We see councils in the i 
.uthori/.ing every Iniquity — cr; 
ling desolation in the count! 
as well as that to be conquered — excom- 
• tions freeing su! Baton] 



allegiance, and persuading to sedll 

blood flowing in the fields and 

— tortures used as irgua 

the recusant : to heighten t!. 

the niece, behold it shaded nidi 

rebellions, treasons, plots, politic- 

poison. 

And what advantage has any !■■ 
of Europe obtained from 
Scarce any. Their dissensions, for more 
thin a thousand years, hav. 
make each other unhappy, but hi 
riched none. All the great nation- 
nearly preserve their ancient limits ; none 
have been able to subdue the other, 
so terminate the dispute. France, ir 
of the conquests of Edward the I 
and Henry the Fifth, notwithstanding the 
efforts of Charles the Fifth and Philip the 

!. still remains within 
limits. Spain, Germany, Great Britain, 
Poland, the States of the Nort! 
still the same. What effect, then, !, 
blood of so many thousands, the de 
lion of so many cities, produced I 
thing either great or considerable. 
Christian princes have li . iniuh 

from the enemies of Christendom, but 
they have gained nothing from each i 
Their princes, because they preferred am- 
bition to justice, deserve the charn.. 
. - to mankind ; and their pi 
by neglecting morality for opinion, have 
mistaken the interests of soc 

On whatever side we regard the h 
of Europe, we shall perceive it to be a 
tissue of crimes, follies, and misfortunes 
— of politics without design, and wars 
without ;n tins long 

human Infirmity a great character, or a 
shining virtue, may sometimes happen to 

.is we often meet a cottage or a 
cultivated -pot in the most hideous wil- 
derness. But for an Alfred, an Alpl 

lerick, or an Alexander 111 
meet a thousand princes who have dis 
graced hum ■ 

LETTER XLIII. 

From Litn Chi Altangi t* Fhih I/Mm, fttt 
rmiJfHt pf tkt Cmniwiiiil A.-,%Jtm} st 
Ptkin, m CAiMj. 

ive just received ■ re, tlisi 

■ ii', the poet and phlloSOphel 



THE CfT/ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



■55 









-. is dead ! He is now beyond 
the reach of ihe thousand enemies who, 
while living, degraded his writings, 

character. Scarce a page 

r productions that does not 

betray the agonies of a heart bleeding 

..'urge of unmerited reproach. 

Happy, tli'.- last in escaping 

alnnuiy ! happy in leaving a world 

that was unworthy of him and his 

writings ! 

Let others, my friend, bestrew the 

hearses of the great with panegyric ; but 

■neb a loss as the world has now suffered 

me with Granger emotions. When 

a philosophe onsider myself as 

i patron, an instructor, and a friend. 

idcr the world as losing one who 

to console her amid't the 

lotions of war and ambition. Noture 

day produces in abundance men 

filling all the requisite duties 

• ihe is niggard in the 

exalted mind, scarcely pru- 

- in a century :i single genius to 

- n a degenerate age. Prodigal 

luction of kings, governors, 

md counicrs, she 

rgottcn, for more than 

Uld years, the manner in which 

ICC formed the brain of a Confucius ; 

he has forgotten, when 

■ bod world gave him so very bad a 

iny friend, this malevolence, 

irsued the great, even to 

more than fiend- 

: embittering the lives of 

us more wise and 

tippy? 

ay eye over the fates of 

ihers, who have at dif- 

ind, 1 

ith the most 

inity. When 

e stripes of Menrjus, the tor- 

• howl of Socrates, and 

hen I hear of the 

ihe imprisonment 

the indignities suffer 

mtshment of Cartesius, 
the Infamy of Bacon, and that even Locke 
>ped not * roach : 

when I think on such inbjecl 



i most to blame the ignorance or 
the vill.vniy of niv fellow-creatures. 

Id you look for the character of 
• anotlg the journalists and illite- 
rate writers of the age, you will there find 
him characterised as a monster, with a 
head turned to wisdom and a heart in- 
clining to vice: the powers of his mind 
and the baseness of his principles forming 
a detestable contrast. But seek for his 
character among writers like himself, and 
you find him very differently described. 
You perceive him, in their accounts, pos- 
sessed of good-nnture, humanity, gieatness 
of soul, fortitude, and almost every virtue ; 

in tin- description thou lit be 

supposed best acquainted willi his cha- 

ue unanimous. The Royal Prus- 
sian, I Diderot, DA lei: 
and Fontenelle, conspire in drawing the 

. in describing the friend of man, 
and the patron of every rising genius. 

An inflexible perseverance in what he 
thought was right and a generous di 

of flattery formed the ground v. mi I. 
of this gTeat man's character. From '. 
principles many strong VtrlOi 
faults arose: as he was warm in hi- friend- 
ship, and severe in his resentment, all that 
mention him seem possessed of the same 
qualities, and speak of him with rupture 
or detestation. A person of his eminence 
can have few indifferent as to his character: 
every reader must be an enemy or an 
admirer. 

This poet began the course of glory so 
early as the age of eighteen, and even 
then was author of a tragedy which de- 
serves applause. Possessed of a 

my, he preserved hit Independence! 
in an age of venality : and supported the 
dignity of learning, by teaching his con- 
I iters to live like him, 

■uirs of the great. He was banished 
his native country for a satire upon ihe 
royal concubine. He bad accepted 
place of historian to the French kin. 
refused to keep it, when 

presented only in order that he should be 

I 

The great Prus-ian received bun as an 
ornament to his kingdom, and had 
enough to value his tnetiAaSt&n, wA^xtS*. 
by his ui-.U>kuowv \\\ \H» ws>s*v. \* 



•56 



THE C/TJZE.V OF THE WOE LP. 



continued, till an intrigue, with winch 
the world seems hitherto unacquainted. 
obliged him to quit that country. His 
own happiness, the happiness of the 
monarch, of his sister, of a put of the 

Tired nt length of courts and all the 

lollies of the great, he retired to Switz- 
erland, a country of liberty, where he 
I tranquillity and the muse. Here, 
(bough writl te for magnificence 

1 at his table 

I and polite of Europe, who 
were attracted by a desire of seeing a 

i from whom they had received so 
much -..ill- faction. The entertainment 
inducted with the utmost elegance, 
and the conversation was that of phi- 
hers. Every country that at once 
united liberty and science were his pecu- 
liar favourite-. The being an Englishman 
was to him a character that claimed 
:on and re 
Between Voltaire and the disciples of 
Confucius there are many differences ; 
jr. being of a different opinion does 
the least diminish my esteem : I 
am not displeased with my broth. 

■ - lo ask our father for 

manner from me. 

I .. i in- cnon rest n peace; hi- excel- 

Id me with 

; let the en- 
he ignorant ridicule his foibles : 

are tin in-, 1...- tnosl I 
— Adieu. 

II ITER XL1V. 

tit* Chi .1. 

/« /'rrria. 

to form a philosophic 

nich i- adapted to 

'■on in life, since every person 
who travels in tin- great ■ 

The differing ■ 
i suit different complex 
more various than the different pli 
appropriated to particular minds. The 

who have pretended to give 

lessons to instruct men in ha] 
have described their own particuhn 

ug ours , have only 



loaded their di-ciplcs with constraint, 
without adding to their real felicity. 

If 1 find pleasure In dancing, how ridi- 
culous would it be in me lo pit 
an amusement for the entertainmi 
cripple: should he, on the other 

his chief delight in pt 
would he be absurd in recomr 
same relish to one who ; power 

of distinguishing colours. Gen 
tionsare, therefore, commonl] I 
to be particular would exhao 
since each Individual may require 
ticular system of precepts to dii 
choice. 

; y mind seems capable of enter- 
taining a certain quantity of happi 
which no Institutions can increase, ' 
cumstances alter, and entirely i; 
of fortune. Let any man compai 
present fortune with the past, and he "ill 
probably find himself, upon I lie whole, 
neither better nor worse than formerly. 

Gratified ambition, or irreparable cala- 
mity, may produce transient sensations 
of pleasure or distres 
niav discompose in proportion a- 
arc strong, or the mind i, pliant to then 
impre_--:L.n. But the soul, though si iii-i 
lifted op by the event, is evi 
rated upon with diminished iiillueni 
at length subsides Into the level 
usual tranquillity. Should some 
pected turn of fortune take thee (ton 

-. and place the'e on a throne, exul- 
tation would be natural upon ll 
bin the temper, like the face, nouli 
me its native serenity. 
Every wish, therefore, whit 

pect happiness somewhere chu 
i i cry in-Ill 

teaches ui that w e better bj 

being | thing new, 

■ 

are, on] 

because 1 1 contracts debts wl 

pay J it calls thai ■ p 

we have found it, will 
nothing to our happ 

To enjoy the prcn nt, a il 
for the past, or solicitude foi 

en the advice rather of poei 

And ret I stems 

more rational than is generally imagined. 



the c/nzn.v of the world. 






ly general precept respecting 
pursuit of happiness, that can be 
applied with propriety to every condition 
The man of pleasure, the man 
! the philosopher, are 
C'"|n»n I in its disquisiti 

9 not find happiness in the : 
■ nt, in "hut shall we find it* cither 
on the past, or progr 
le future. But let as - 
are capable of prodm i Ion. 

A remembrance of what is post and 
i whal is to come seem 
IM two (acuities by which man 
• from other animals. Though 
- enjoy them in a limited degree, 

yet tht ken up in the 

the past and the 

Man, on th ilrary, endeavours 

--, and experiences 
of his miseries, from these two 

I .line-. 

I» this superiority of reflection a pre- 
i which we should boa 

hould thank nature? or 

i misfortune of which we should 

and be humble? Either from 

or from the nature of ; 

v makes our condition more 

ne a privilege of calling up, by 
if memory, only such passages 
■a were pleasing, unmixed with such as 
might then i 
.. ippiness, | 
nant than 

not I he case: the past is never 

leeable 

e, which tarnishes all its 

membrance of an evil 

in it nothing agreeable, and to 

dier a good is always accompanied 

with regret. Thus we lose more than we 

gain by the remembrance. 

ur cxpect.v 
the future to be a gift more rlil 
evco than the former. To fear 

is certainly a mosl 
agree tion ; and in exp 

we expericn 

look, the 

prospc 

have left pleasures wc shall neve 



enjoy, and therefore regret ; and before, 
we see which we languish lo 

possess, and are consequently uneasy 'ill 
hem. W i- there any m 
i lie present, uncmbittered by 
such reflect i o ns , then would our state be 
isy. 
This, indeed, is the endeavour of all 
mankind, who. untutored by philosophy, 
pursue as much as they can a life of 
amusement.- tion. Every rank 

in life, and every site of understanding 
seems to follow this alone; or nol 
suing it, deviates from happil 
man of pleasure , 
profession; the man of business , 
it not less, as cn I > labour he 

undergoes is only dissipation in db 

The philosopher himself, even while he- 
reasons upon the subji H un- 
knowingly, with ■ new of dissipating 
the thoughts of what he was, or what he 
must be. 

The subject, therefore, comes to this : 
Which is the most perfect sort of dis- 
sipation, —pleasure. Bui philo- 
sophy? Which best .elude 
those uneasy sensation, which M 
or anticipation produce? 

The enthusiasm of ; harms 

only by Intervals. Thi rapture 

lasts only for a moment ; and all the 

senses seem so comhin. soon 

nito languor by the gratifies] 

tie of them. It is only among the 

we hear of men changing to one 

delight, when satiated with another. In 

nature it i- rerj different I the glutton, 

when sated with the full meal, i- un- 

Sualitied to feel the real plea- 
linking ; the drunkard, in turn. 
few of those transports which lovers boast 
in enjoyment ; and the lover, when cloyed, 
notion of every other appetite. 
. full Indulgence of any one 
■ 
in ill, is placed in a ch 
and < 
Interval which i 

present 

he has already rol ■' 

a mind thus 

turally recti cask at. 

future ^ the IC&ectai \vnc\s, tatt \\c 



I S 8 



THE CfTfZF.y OF THE WOULD. 



happy, and knows that he cannot be so 
BOW i he sees that he may yet be happy, 
and wishes the hour was come : thus 

period of his continuance is miser- 
able, except thai very short one of imme- 
diate gratification. Instead of a life of 
dissipation, none has more frequent con- 
versations witli disagreeable self than he : 
his enthusiasms are but few and transient ; 
his appetites, like angry creditors, con- 
tinually making fruitless demands for 
what he is unable to pay ; and the | 
his former pleasures, the more strong his 
regret, the more impatient his expecta- 
tions. A life of pleasure is therefore the 
inpleasiny life in the world. 
1 Libit has rendered the man of be 
more cool m Ins desires ; he finds leas 
regret for past plcasures,and less solicitude 
for those to come. The life he now 
though tainted in some measure with 
i not afflicted so strongly with 
I, and is less divided between short- 
ire and lasting anguish. The 
pleasures he has enjoyed are not so vivid, 
■■ has to expect cannot conse- 
quently create so much anxiely. 

The philosopher, who entendshis regard 
to all mankind, must still have a smaller 
concern for what has already affected, or 
may hereafter affect, himself: the con- 
cerns of others make his whole study, 
and that study is his pleasure ; and this 
pleasure is continuing in its nature, be- 
cause it can be changed at will, |i 
but few of these anxious intervals which 
are employed in remembrance or nntici- 

tiation. The philosopher by this means 
cads a life of almost continued dissipa- 
tion ; and reflection, which makes the 
ncss and misery of others, serves ai 
a companion and instructor to him. 

In a WMF'I, poritlw happiness is consti- 
tutional, and incapable of UlCTeAEej misery 

Bciol, ami generally proceed] 

our folly. Philosophy can add to our 
ness in no other manner but by 
diminishing our misery: it should not 
pretend to increase our present stoi 
make us economists of what we are pos- 
sessed of. The great source of c 
lies in regret or anticipation : he, therefore, 
is most wise who thinks of the present 
alone, rrgarJlcss of the past or the future. 



This is impossible to the man of pleasure -, 
it is difficult to the man of business ; 
and is in some measure attainable bv the 
philosopher. I lappy were we all bom phi- 
losophers, all bom with a talent of thus 
dissipating our ov eading 

them upon all mankind !— Adieu. 

LETTER XIV. 

Frvtn I.itii Chi AttmHgi !>• Fufi Henw, Firjt 
■ I the Ctrtmtiial Acndrmr st 
PttiK, in CkiH*. 

Though the frequent Invitations I n 
Iron men of distinction here might excite 
the vanity of some, I am quite mortified, 
however, when 1 consider the motto 
inspire their civility. I am sent li 
to be treated as a friend, but to 
curiosity ; not to be entertained so much 
as wondered at ; the same earnt 
which excites them to sec a Chinese \ 
have made them equally proud ol 
from the rhinoceros. 

11 the highest to the lowest, this 

people seem fond of rights and mi 
I am told of a person here who 
very cumfortablc livelilM.nl by m 
wonders, and then selling or showing them 
to the people for money : no matter how 
insignificant they weie in the beginning, 
by locking them up close, and shi 
for money, they soon become \ 
gies ! His first essay in this way \ 
exhibit himself as a wax-work 
behind a glass door at a puppet 
Thus, keeping the spectators at a pi 

., and having his head ad. 
with I copper crown, he looked exto 
"natural, and very like the life itself." H 
continued this exhibition with succi 
an involuntary fit of sneezing brought him 
to life l»eforc all the spectators, ni, 
scquently rendered him for that time 
entire]) ie peaceable inhal 

of o catacomb. 

: mined to act the statue no more, he 
next levied contributions under the figu: 
of an Indian kin;; ; and by pointi 
face, and counterfeiting the savage 
he frighted several ladies and el: 
with amazing success i in this mi 
therefore, he might have lived very 
fortably, had he not been arrested 






v (ran- 
d for a 



THE C/T/ZE.X OE THE WORLD. 



159 



Was contracted when he was 

in wax-work : thus his face 

i ii involuntary ablution, and 

md himself reduced to his primitive 

n and indigence. 

og freed from gaol, 

grown wiser, and instead of 

ng himself a wonder, was resolved 

riders. He learned the 

ng up mummies ; was never at 

i artificial Jnsus nature; nay, 

of his own manufac- 

■ ir of rarities : but 

the learned Cracovius Pulridus has 

>:aken to refute in a very elaborate 

Hi i was nothing more than 

an baiter ; yet by this halter he gained more 

by all his former exhibitions. The 

peo('I. . I nl got it in their heads, 

i iminal was to be 

hanged with a silken rope. Now there 

was nothing they so much wished to see 

as this very rope ; and he was resolved to 

he therefore got 

one made, not only of silk, but to render 

Inking, several threads of gold 

ftcrmixed. The people paid their 

:c silk, but were highly 

hen they found it was mixed 

into the bargain. It is scarce 

'" mention, that the projector 

almost what it had 

cost him, as soon as the criminal was 

;ed in hempen materials. 

heir fondn - one would 

that, instead of desiring 

to »« thmgs as they should be, they are 

itous of seeing them as they 

not Ut lie A cal mill four legs is 

I, though never so useful; ljut 

iQt two, and is 

hing mice, it is reckoned 

lan of laste i 

m. A man, though in 

an atrial genius, 

:t if stuck over with 

is like a porcupine, his fortune 

1* ma I . and he may propagate 

th« breed with impunity and ipplai 

□ in my neighbourhrod, 
igh she 
ciably well. 



v get employment. Hut 
obliged, by an accident, to have both her 
hands cut off from the elbows, what wOOM 
in another co un tr y have been her ruin 
made her fortune here: she was new 
thought more fit for her trade than 1> 

15 flowed in apace, and all people 
paid for seeing the mantua-mak< 
wrought without hands. 

iiknian. showing me his coll. 
of pictures, stopped at one with peculiar 
admiration : " There," cries he, " is an 
inestimable piece." I gazed at the picture 
for some time, but could see none of those 
graces with which he seemed enraptured ; 
it appeared to me the most paltry piece of 

the whole collection: I therefore demanded 

where those beauties lay, of which I was 
yet insensible. "Sir," cries he, " the 
merit does not consist in the piece, bnl in 
Ihe manner in which it was done. The 
painter drew 0".- whole with his foot, and 
held the pencil between his toes : I bought 
it at a very great price; for peculiar merit 
should ever Dc rewarded." 

Hut these people are not more foul "I" 
wonders, than liberal in rewarding those 
who show them. Krom the wonderful 
dog of knowledge, at present under the 
patronage of the nobility, down to tin 
with the box, who professes to show " the 
best imitation of Nature that was ever 
seen," they all live in luxury. A singing 
woman shall collect subscriptions in her 
own coach and six; a fellow dtaU make a 
fortune by tossing a straw from his ' 
his nose; one in particular has found i hat 
eating fire was the ino.t ready way to li\e ; 
and another, who jingles several bells 
fixed to his cap, is the only man that 1 
know of who has received emolument 
from the labours of his head. 

rang author, a man of good-nature 
and [earning, wai complaining to me some 

■go of this mi-pl -ity of 

the times. "Here," sivs he. "have I 
spent part of my youth in attempting to 
instruct and amuse my fellow-creature*, 
and all my reward has been solitude, 
poverty, and reproach ; while a fellow, 

Eossessed of even the smallest share of 
rldling merit, or who has perhaps learned 
to whistle doable, is rewarded, appl.i 

MCdl " — " VvnVvce, -jww^, T&asvV 



|f*.0 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



says I to him, ".ire you ignorant, that in 
so large a city as this it is belter to be an 
■muring thu * useful member of society? 
Can you leap up, and loucli your f< 

lieforeyou come to the ground ';" — 

" No, ir. " — " Can you pimp for a man of 

quality 1 "—" No, sir." — "Can you stand 

liorsci at full 

-" Can you sw illou- a penknife? " — 

I do none of these tricks." — " Why 

tli.'ii," cried I. "Hi' ic is no other prudent 

uhsistence left, but to apprise 

the town tliat yon speedily intend to eat 

i own nose by lubscripl 

vt frequently regretted tli.it none of 
our Eastern posture-masters, or showmen, 

have i: d to England I should 

be pleased to see that money circulate in 
Asia, which is now sent to Italy and 

i order to bring their vagabonds 
hither. Several of our trieki would un- 
doubtedly give the Englisli high satisfac- 
tion. Men of fashion would be greatly 
I with the postures as well as 
i of our dancing girls; 

»nd the ladies would equally admire the 

Mtductors of our fireworks. What an 

iblc surprise would it lie to see a 

huge fellow with whiskers flash a charged 

blunderbuss full in a lady's face, without 

hair, or melting her pomatum. 

hen the first surprise was over, 

she might then grow familiar with danger; 

and the- ladies might vie with each other 

tiding lire with intrepidity. 

Hut of all the wondei !. the 

useful, and I should fancy the most 

fle-a-ang. would 1"' the Jass of 

"Mich reflects the mind 01 well as 
ody. It i- nid that :! 
u'-..l I.' in ike hi 
their heads and their he i these 

- every morning : while the lady was 
at her ti 

houldcr; and it i that, 

lundred win 
aglio, not one was found whose mind 
was not even more beautiful than her 
person. 

1 make no doubt hut a gloss in this 

country would have the effect 

I nglish ladies, concubines and all, 
'• cut very pretty t 
in to faithful a monitor There, 



pen to peep over a lady's shoulder 
while . e might I 

neither gaming nor ill-nature; 
pride, debauchery, nor a love of ga 
\Ve should find her, if any sensibli 
appeared in the mind, more careful 
tifying it, than plastering up the trie 
decays ol the person ; nay, hmci 
to fancy, that ladies would find more ; 
pleasure in this utensil in private, than in 
any other bauble imported from I 
though never so expensive or amusing. 

LETTER XI.VI. 

To the MOM 
UPON finishing my last ]e-tter 1 ret 
rest, reflecting upon the wonders of the 
glass of Loo, wishing to lie possessed of 
one here, and resolved in such cose to 
oblige every lady with a sight ol it lot 
nothing. What fortune denied me waking 
fancy supplied in a dream : the g 
know not how, was put into my pccsi 
and I could pere. 

Siroaching, some voluntarily, others driven 
inward against their wills, by a set i 
contented genii, whom by intuition I knew 
were their hu. bands. 

The apartment in which I was to show 
away wasfillcd w ith several gaming-1 
as il just forsaken ; the candles were burnt 
to the socket, and the hour was five < 
in the morning. Placed atoneendof t 
room, which was of prodigious let 
could more easily distinguish 
figure as she marched up from the door; 
but, gins', my surprise, when I couir 

■ vc one blooming or 
able face among the number Th 

1 attributed to the earl 
kindly considered thai the face ol 
just risen from bed ought al 
a compassionate advocate. 

Th. in t pi rsort who came up in orde 
to view her inlelleein ' 
moner's wife, who, as 1 oftei 
being bred up during her i 

! ted tomak 
up the defects of breeding and si - 
by the magnificence of her dress and til 
-s of her amusements. " Mr. 
Showman," cried she, approaching, " [ am 
told you has somethingto show in that th 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



i6t 




■ in the inside 

. I ,ini sure n will 

v. — Arc we 

• my*, I ab- 
; for I would m ■ 

id so I 
of my 

: itely presented i 

. after having 
li difficulty escaped the small 

rror— that mirror 
.1 the flatter) of every ' 

■ the comph- 
to see what had s< i 
. she no Ion 

I, and 

|uilted 

by the hand of 

happy 

S. w ith 
. 

locked 
single lool 
fy her curiosity : I held 
. and she shut her 
! prevail op 

i going 

my li tnds, and break it 

- time, 

I red. 

. r-r when she de- 
' I) free- 
' culc lo pcrfi 

you, my dear, 

peep. 

• hgvire 
of sucli an 

• ed the 



ow the world will be complaisant 
mind 

into tlic bargain " 1 bdu my glass 

i. .mil, must 
I with the reflection. The lady, 

she never could think ~1, 
•me. 
Upon her dismission, ■ lady ofdj 

!v hauled along to the 

Sby lier husband. In bringm 
he came tn >t to the glass him- 
self, hi* iniml appeared tinctured with 
Immoderate nd 1 was go 

ich him for a 
. but when the lady cam 

it a as seen thai he had but too much i 
for hit 
The 

. and then n< 
Upon apptoachin 

the* ill-looking bli mind ; 

set .iii ig, Hut I conld 

find shi In lh« iv.uk ; for 

as the 

generally broke out on another. I 

after three or foul licgan 

to make the ordinary I 

: her hair. 

The company now made ■ 

woman oflearning, who . 

for bet ■■ , 1 could wish had 

cleaner. " Sir," cried the lady, ' 

nd, which held .i pine! 

" 1 -hull 

tO tnv view :i mind with whi,. 

long studied to be id | but, in 

orr'er to 
must ii. 
permitted to look o\ 1 

osee lll-i 

It amusing 
female '* OS'S' 



l6i 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 




They bad hated her from the beginning, 

■mil no 

al laugh. Nothil ' otude 

like hcni could have withstood their rail- 
'Oil it, however : and 

I tran- 
quillity she assured the company, thai the 
whole was a deteftio •.■ism, and that she 
■ i well acquainted with her own 

mind, to believe any false rep 
from another. Thus saying, -lie n 

with i sullen satisfaction, resolved not to 

mend her faults, but to write a criticism. 
OB the mental retl. 

I nni.t own, liy tin time I began my- 
self U suspect the fidelity of my mirror; 
for as the lad to have 

the merit of rising early, since the;. 

lOthing 
I quality pictured upon iheir 

iniiui- in iiu reflection i 1 was n 

therefore, to communicate my ins] 

LBtellectuaJ countenance 

■re fair than any of the rest, 

- iu all, 

foibles. " I ov< n. young 

" that there are 

upon thai mind of yours -. but there 

il sllll ..lie Which I do lii.t s..i : 

— I mean that of using betimes in the 

ng ; 1 fancy the gloss false in that 
j oung lady smiled at my 
simplicity ; .■.!!'!. m ;i!i a blusl 

he and the whole company had been 
I night gaming. 

ne all the ladies, except one, 

i ely, and dis- 

iwman : 

■• who 

\ to neglect herself, and was nc- 

lould take a view ; 

of the room whtie 

II contiuued sitting, I presenl 

Here ii «.; 

'lie faithful mirror. 
■ uiiwi itten |' 

■ii I., the writer's 
hand, 

" I In- 

■M HI 

the 

.lll'l tins M.illl.ll)' 



ladies, obeying the summons ouuc 
in, acknowli 

there was some truth in the pit tare, 

; had been deaf, 

dumb, .mil ■ ter cradle l 

1 hi-, much of my dream I distinctly re- 
member; the rest was filled a ilh chimeras, 

enclwnft ns, as 

usual, As you, my dear Funi 1 1 

an. particularly versed in the interpretation 

■ - midnight warnings, what pli 
should I find in your explanation ! But 
that, our di- : uts : I make no 
doubt, however, but that, from my di 
tion, you will very much venerate thi 
qualities of the Knglish ladies in general, 
since dreams, you know, go always 

contraries.— Adieu. 

LETTER XI.VII. 

Frvm Lin Chi . ,.'.',r>.-,-, la Ifimgft. a Sim 

...I... 

bu4 letten l ad seemingly 

i wisdom, yet tempested up by a 
thousand various passions. You » 
fondly persun I my formei ' 

still influence your conduct, 
mind seems not I 

body. Knowledge, wisdom, erudition, 
arts, and elegance, what are they liut the 
mere trappings of the mind, il* the\ 

lo increase the happiness of 1 lie pos 
.' A mind rightly insll 
school of phi] nee the 

Stability of the oak and the flexibility of 
lie. osier, The truest manner of lessening 

■ nil - i- in -hi ink from their pressur 

On in. 

The fortitude of European >age- 
a dream ; for where lies the m 

•; i.t f. .Mm 
Sibling our 

able, thai arises: only fi 
tution ; that is a bl 
granted by II' IYC&, and uluehnoarli 
ire, no instituiions improve. 
If e, our feelings, we only 

arlifn . ■ nr to persuade 

that we enjoy privileges which we .. 
Thu-. whili 

'eel at one 
all the pangs of eternal misery ami all 
■ 



■aaal 



TIIF. CITIZEN OF TIIF. WORLD. 



<°3 



, (I bad do design i" buy), 
ii surprised me 10 see a young prince in 

1 I. HI- |, "'Ill, .lit 

. and assiduously learning the 
stantly remembered to 
other; and, alter the usual comph- 
. 1 stood by while he contlnu 
on. As everything done by 1 he 
rich is praised ; as prim .veil as 

in China, in iwers; 



irld thai havi 

-I mean tin 

i the doctri 

.11 humility. 
out "f pain ; w hen mis- 



■ •11 tyrants three ..r four persons, who bad thi 



is inir iJuty, 

dissipation for support, 

1 ieudship, "i From 

»ho loved u, into 

Phil iv son, have long de- 

i.ist the pas 
ill our nusei 

x of our pi 

uid all 
1 philosophy, should tend 



ance of gentlemen, were 

comfort .hhI applaud him .11 every - 

i tell, thai 11 struck me with 

eable seasati 
who by bis station in life bad ii in hi. 
■ nil I., thousands, thus 

his mind 11m to w 
an. I .11 the same time limself 

improving in taste, and RUiag his rank 
with proper decorum 1 
A • (tempting to 

• with 



rini.lv .in abs ol me, I : 00 isii , upon hi. lordship 1 ! 



; to virtue, 
may be compared 
bottle. armies are ready every 

ntci : not .1 single vice 
■ u] opponenl . 

lie by a 

11 ither. 

I Willi 

as my little 




desiring my opinion ol ■ Chinese scroll, 
intended for the frame of a pjctm 

him. thai a mandarin of China 

thought .1 m intance with such 

ical trifles below his dignity. 
This reply 1 used the in.l 
some, .mil the contempt of othi I 
could hear the ni 

tment. 
msiderlng thai it ma in v 
igainsl people who bad so much to 
id them, I b 

■ 
redoubled their laughter; but. nol 



1 .11 the rail] 

lat ii would rdity 

■in, though .ii of placing our afli 

md adding, 

ir, that ii ■■■ ■. ■ ml. I ...in- 
isure of bear' p 

; 1'.. 1 what ■ cried the great ling his 

brush in water, "let us have n rallty 



linsl friend- 
lieu. 

1 TER xi.vnr. 



in ; i( we iniisl b 
be without any moral." I on 
to bear; and. while he bi 

- follows : — 

" In th onbobbin, « hich, 

by ill,- 1 hi!. . Wnc 



paint. mining II. ■je»-s »%o 




there reigned a prince endow el w ith every 

npUshmeni which generally distin- 

II I- I "..111 IV 

i the sun. The -.mi. tu 

which he » i 

. IS Miller to look 

down and admire him. 

" His mind ns not less perfect than 
his body • be knew til thing',, without 

ins submitted then works to 
i ; and so penettating was he, 
le could tell yen thi i book 

iking "ii the cover. He mad 

ill w nil sur- 
prising (acuity ; song, epigram, or rebus, 
I! one to him, though it was ob- 
lie could never finish an 11 

iv who presided .u Ins 
Iniili had endowed him with almost every 

ine. his 
ere read) to acknowledge he 

Chein nil ; and, for I 
t knew nothing to the contrary. A 

: name 
suitable i" In- merit ; and he was 

ibbinet.which 
■■.tightener of tht 
he was very powerful, as 
all the neighbouring 
■Iv '.ought his alii 
In. daughter, di 

retinue imaginabli . 

one lime 
■ 
hundred foreign princesses, 

timent and beauty, each alone 
■ nt io make -even hundred ordinary 
ippy. 

i in -ncli ■ variety, the genc- 

. would very Willi 

\ll. for none unci illantry 

I 

vli 

ii ighlcr 

hi i I- . w Inle 

lll 1 1 1' I 

'■i<\y blacken her nails 



fter numberless disappointments o: 
the one side and the olher, he madechoi 
of the incomparable N.inhoa, Queen 

■:i-. 

" I he preparations for the roj 

or the envy of the d 
. need no description j both the cam 
and the otbi i - could 

he : the beautiful princi 
amidst admiring inultiti 
couch, where, after being divested ol every 
encumbering ornament, she w 
■ ol the youthful b 
id not keep her long in expei i 
erful than I ' 
and printing on her lips a burning 
the attendants took this as a proper 
idraw. 

"Perhaps I ought to have mentii 
in the beginning that, an 
ipi.dii 

breeding mice, which being I 
harmless i astime, none of his com 

dissuade him from i he 
pt a great varii 
pretty little animals, in the most beautilul 
. enriched with diamonds, rubies, 
cmcrald>.peails,. 
thus be inm 

day in com I little 

i nes. 

i to proceed the prill 
cess were now in bed . one with 

the modesty and Pear, which i- nainr.il to 

when the i 

wards tin- outsid 

il the most beautiful animals in the 
world, a white mouse with 
playing aboul the floor, and , 
hundred prcti) tricks, lie 

. ol blue n. 
while mice wiih yell 

mouse with 
had long en 

altera] 

but it w.i- fled in a mi 

..I ii. ijion this oi 




THE CITIZEX OF THE WOULD. 



I of the 
; even (he bed where the princess 
b) was not exempt from the inquii 

tnd the 
uile naked, hut no 
e mi i" he round; the prino 
vclf was kind enough to assist, bat still to 

' ' cried thi i nice in 

agony, 'how unhappy am I to he thus 
ire, was so beauti- 
ful an give half my 
'..ess, to him that 
1 ■■ I . though not 
in the lattei part of his 
iinfort him as well 
as (he he let him know that he 
1 mice already, which 
-.1 sufficient 
i like him. Though none of 
yes, yet he should learn 
i hat they had eyes. She 
profound moralist) 
Is must be borne, and 
- lamentations were vain, mid 
man was born to misfortunes ; she 
ited him to return to be 

• our to lull him on lu i 
: but sidl the print 
tinned 'ie ; and regarding her 

r whit ll li 

nei .1 io deep in 

or indulge himself in the 

easuresofmatnmony.till he had 

Colonel Leech, i rietj his 

how .Io yon 
.■■u think I 

brand! 

ii'l you 
iw slip- 
I lul pray, " 

I would gi\.- a thou- 

n the colouring of 

1 ask 

R XL1X. 

Tit t/U 

I, ",,t that 

■m what they IN 
never engaged their word for 



anything v. 

■as the case 

ofBoobennin, ■■•■ h I all night to 

lament lu- u. i!i,- p 

who echoed groan fin 
, morning came, he published an edict, 
offering half hi- kingdom, and Ins pnn- 

bring him the while mouse with tin 
eyes. 

"The edict was scarcely publi 
when all the trap.- in the kingdom. 
1 baited with . 
taken and destroyed ; but still the nuu h- 
wislied-for 

number. The pd wn afiSCDV 

bled more than on 
but all tiki 

thing, n there were two com- 

plete vermin killeis and three professed 
1 rat-catchers of the number. Krcruciu 
. on extract! 
eat from all parts of the 
• : Inn though tli i well. 

i in them i n ranee 

that his faithful 

arch with then li 

nh all Iheir loyally, they failed 
1 
iighl. 
The prince, therefore, u.i. R 

to lie two nights in one place, till he had 
found wbal i pulling 

) ah. on attendant 

..nicy, and travel 
many a desett, and ..ro-sed many a 
high hills, anil down Ion. 

Inquiring wherever he ■ 
but no ft hil id. 

"A '.inicy. 

ling himself from the heat 
of the mid-day sun, under the arching 

-I In • pur-int, he pen 
an old woman, hidcou ■ 

ing him ; by her stoop, and the 

wrinkle, of hei I i.-d at 

five hundred >cars old; and the 

i than 

.' cried the crea- 
ture, ' what has led you so uv.uvs vV 
miles [rom }Out own V\v>^,o-qwi > . n*\\t>.v m 



166 



THE C/T/ZF..V OE THE. Wo R I. Ik 



■k for? and what induce-, yonl 

Into ill-- kingdom of the Emmets?' The 

excessively complaisant, 

told lic-r the wholi e times over ; 

lie wu h.u . ng. ' Well,' 

such we was, ' 1 

promise to pur you in i of the 

■ ■-, ami that 

ion.' — 
lion, 1 cried the prince In ■ 
re; 'name a thousand : 1 -lull un- 
dergo them nil whth pleasure.' — 'Nay, 1 
lipted the old fairy, ' I ask bul one, 
and that not very mortifying neither ; 

only that you instantly consent to 

is impossible to express the prince's 

confusion at this demand ; he loved the 

but he detested the bride: he 

he desired time to think upon 

the proposal : he would have been glad to 

at on such an occasion. 

. cried the odious fairy, ' if yon 

demur, I reh d my promise; I do not 

tree my favours on any man. 
I [ere, youmyattendants/criedshe, stamp- 
ing with herfoot, • let my machine bedriven 

toons treatment. She 

I r spoken than Iter Eery 
i the air. drawn b) I 
just going to step in, when the 

prince relln ted, that now or never was the 
ed of the while i, 
ting his lawful princess 
lling on his knees, he im] 
n ing rashly rejet 
nun h I hut well-timed compli- 

■ ous l< *r of appn il 

hurch, 
together In a 
.a as the ceremoi 

. who was to the 

ill-. I the bride '»i her promise, 
led she, 

lie you 
sight in the royal 

1 runs. | 
| 
id a woman 
>e by night and a woman by <lay ? ' 



Though the prince was an excellent I 

how to determine ; 

bul at lost thought it in" to hs 

recourse to a blue col that bad fol 
him from his own dominions, an 
ijiuntlv amused bun with its convi i 
and assisted him with its advice: hi 
this ijt was no other than the faithful 

thoa herself, who I 
with him all his hardships in this di- 

" By her infractions he was determined 
in his choice, and returns ».i;ry. 

Eruileiitlv observed, that l have 

em sensible he had mi mly fb 

,l.e of what she hail,' and i 
her personal qualifications, he thought 
several reasons, be most cm 
: ii the continued ■ woman b 
and appeared a mouse by night. 

"The old fairy was a good deal moitih 

at her husband's waul ol gallantry, though 

she was reluctantly obi amply: 

y was therefore spent in the 

polite amusements j the gentlemen talked 

-mm, the lai 

At lasl tin- ha] py night drew near, the 

blue cat still stuck by ill. 

and even followed him lo the bridal 

mint. entered the cba 

wearing a train fil 

by porcupines, and all 

with jewel-, which served to renda h 
. 

into bed to the pri ting her pi 

« hen he insisted upon seeing her in 
-pe i 'fa mouse. Shchadprori 

and no fairy can break her word ! wh 

UBuming the figure of the m 

beautiful nun 

and played about wnh an infinitj 

'i agony nI i. 

e about thi 

i.i tin 
nonae immediately to perform with 
perfect knowledgi nd i 

grace and greati 

had long waited for tht opportunity 
shape of a cat, nYv tantfywith 

. and eating it up in i 
I "I a moment, 
n resumed her natural t 
" The prince now found that he had 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 






been under the power of enchant- 

genuine 

comploion of his soul : he now taw that 

- an illiberal 

ining a 

than r\ prince, Ail his mcan- 

itaredhiminl 

the discreet princess's pardon a hundred 

The priri i 

their palace 

«nd reigned many years, with ail that 

erfectly con- 

their. former adventun 

'.ice their affections an trifles 

. .L-nr, will hnd those trifles 

at last become their most serious concern." 

— .Vlicu. 

LETTER L. 

. Pint 

•f tlu CertM '.-«x >*' 

kino. 

'lishman what nation in the 

edom, and he im- 

Ask him 

i incipally coi 

tly sdent. Tins happy 

pre-eminence does not im t lie 

han elsewhere, for in this particulai 
I them : nor 
does it arise ' 

tntries pay m 

• strained by 
i] le are burdened 
nor docs it particularly 
urily (>f t Tieir pr ■ 

ired in every 

Mow, then, re more free — 

re- than the 
of any other country, or 

im of government whatever? 
in their enj 
advantages of i 

'-•gativc borrowed from 
I severity "i thi 

g the 

In - li the 

ugcil, the laws may be _ 



A without danger: for though the 
people should be unanimous i 
of aojr one in particular, yet still tl 
an effective power superior to the p 

le of enforcing obe 
it in iy be i aculeate ft 

either toward.-, the support or v 
of the community. 

But in all those goiernmctus 
laws derive their sanction from tin i 
alone,' 

without bringing the constitution into 
danger. They » ! lav in 

such a case are those \ be it, 

by which means i| 
fluence.but it- amotion. In every re| 
the lav 

stitutioi . [hey most 

Astatic husband, 

i he knowi himself im] 
Thus. in Holland, Switzerland, andi 

new WW are nut It 

I ones are observed with unremit- 
ting severity. In such republics, there- 

i e slaves to 1 
Owl) making, little less than in unr 
monarchies where they are slaves to 
the will of one subject to frailties like 

In England, from a variety of happy 
accidents, their constitution i 

h, or, if you will, i 

permit a relaxation 

to remain sufficiently sir era the 

people. This is the mi 

civil liberty of which we can form any 

Idea: here we see a greater nun 

..in in any other country, while the 

ie time obey only -in.h 
immediately conducive in tl.' 

man] unknown; some kept In be i 

anil enforced upon proper 

grow obsolete, even without 
the it. 

There is scarcely an Englishman who 
ilei cry ilny ofhu 

uhii.ll. in 

-, he would 

<ng at 

turtial amwscmenis, \.\iV.\w; •^Wih. 



its 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORI.P. 



hundred other induce* are forbid end 
ented. These prohibitioniarc useful ; 
lent in their magistrates, 
.111.1 happy for i' thai they are 

not el I none but ilie venal or 

them. 
. like .in Indulgent 
'. Mill Uee| . though tlie 

child - corrected. Wen 

pardoi ise into enormity, 

ikelyto obstruct the hap 

thai | iume bet terrors, 

imish those fault* -lie had so often 
. "ke.l with indulgi I - to this 

' hi.- 1.-." - thai an Engl 

the freedom he enjoys sdperiot to 

more popular government : 

the constitution 

democratic form, evcry 

diminution of the regal authority, Is, in 

iliniinution ■ ■ dom ; 

. i\ attempt i" render the ■ 

lopular nol only impain nato- 
:..u even will at last d 
I constitution. 

I to last only for a time: it grows 

rigid » 

mi. I the old continue in fora . I 

are op. inrdened with a multi- 

(lUcit) >.i legal injt 
id expect redress, and nothing 

: thus 

ili. ; people of Rome, a few great ones 

mnd more i i under 

■ uouwealth, in which tl> 

1 I, in which 

.led wil li rigour. They 

hem to 

is of softening the 

The . of England Is al pre- 

sent p. 

oak and the flexibility of the l> 
ui should the p. 

. iry freedom, and fancy ' 






ing m"i 

be very much mistaken, 
iewel pluck. 
of majesty would only lie made nst 
a bribe i.. corruption : it might enrich the 
i. but would 
in fad Impoverish the public 

the 1*. .ni.in senators, by slow- rind 
eptible degrees, b 
.pie. yet --lill flattered them with a 
show of freedom, while thei. 
were free: so it is possible for a bo 
■ in. I up loi privili . 
into an exuberance of power them- 
selves; and the public I dually 
lent, while some ..I is indh 
vern. 
If then, my friend, there should in 
this country ever be on the throne a 
who, through good nature or age, 
give up the smallest part of hi 

.uld come a 
1 and popularity- 
have room for no more.— Adieu, 

LETTER LI 

A ( tvai vesterdu) ■.■ ■ lUfnst 

i 

by my old Men 
companion, who Introduced 

d pretty much like him 
gentleman made several 

egged of me to impute his inl 
to the sincerity of his respect and the 
warmth of his curiosity. 
A I 

when I find them very civil without 
1 answered the strut 

caresses at first with reserve; win 
. instantly let in. 

a-helhei lie had 
lished 

suspicions. 

" I 

1 wnllli 

!. in iii. do 

I very 



THE CIi THE IVOR I- P. 



. iew, i m.v 
or a sc < t may amuse a summer 

. Imt iill 

• trade." — 

perusal." — 

; but, 

hi, I will vail : 

he Inide : my books nt 

ilnge of being 

u is my way lo clear 

old lo ihe trunk-makers every 

■nly warn books to be 
ike them the finest things in 
nay pretend to 
; Nut that is not my way; I 

ho the 
i.ince, should the people 
such .1 in 'ii is a rogue, 
him dow n in 
ery in.in bui 
i learn new sentiments, bui t" 

ir," interrupt* d I, 
■ « rote ilp 
lie s, , bol 

■ I,.,.,!;-, iller, " I onlj draw 
ii.l though I .mi 
.in in 
I have a fai 
■ 

■ 
i Imprimis, a trans- 
for the 
under- 

with a 

iers of 

. 

Iiy a In. ill' ill I lltiil, 







lilackleAtl 



; 1 should be glad lo see some 
manuscript, a history or an 

iic-. the man of 

, " now you speak of an epic : 

' \ii.r I i 
ere you will, it will lie 
f.iiiml replete with true modem hut 
. ii i- filled wiih Btro] 

wit anil More in every line." — " Do yon 
call ili of the pen strokes!" 

replied I ; " I i can see no 

other."— "And pray, sir," retained 
" wool do you call them? Do yc 
anything good now-a-days, thai i- DOl 
filled with strokes — and 
well-placed dash makes half the «it of 
out writers of modern burnout I b 

.1 pie. I | OtHffl 

merit ujion earth than mm hondn 

live l.reaks, seventy-two ha-ha's, 

iliings, and a garter. A 

i.il ..If, and bounced, and cr: 

and made more spot! than a I'm".' 

. I hen, -ir, you were a 

-i.ler.i '— " It urn 

the pil | ; but, upon the whole, 

I e.i .1 much boast of hut winter 1 

i aed by two murders : but Ihen 
I lost by an ill-tuned charity sermon. I 

. in.il i Suide 
I 
..ii by ii... band of a 

, ; filled with gi ""I llni 

en. I 101 

Imt ii.. ; ii" ili. II moral lurking 

i ill-nature'' in the 

sidered, that moral ami humoui at the 
same time were Quite overdoing the bull* 

; " I'.. •.. hot pel, 

. the 
book was published 

of all ! 

published. 

" I < Of who never left 

: Of &.Yv M'gMWCTkS. -, 



CIT1ZE.V O. 



WORLD. 



of cooing Inl 

thai hi 

nothing d 

him with pens and paper, l&d planted 

him, at the banning of every month, as 

a ccn ks of others. In , 

short, I found hii ■ ■■ ; no merit 

could • i : hut what i- mo 

markable of all, h« ever wrote best lad 

est when drunk." — " But .ire there 
not some works," interrupted I, "ih.it. 

from the very maimer of their com- 
position, must be CXempt from cliticl-ui; 

partici 

il>, law- ? "— " I ii 

replied the 
"even though you wrote in 

would have a pluck at you. 

Suppose you thoold take it into your 

Ik. id in pablilh B book, let it be a volume 

ilnese letter*, for instance | « rite 

I -Imw the 

Cold hate written better, .should 
ith the most local cxaclnc- . 
to the manners ami customs of the 

country from whence yoo come; should 
•If to the narrow limits 
of Eastern i 

simple and perfectly natural, he has then 
the itrangcat reason to exclaim Me may, 
with a 9neer, send you hack to China for 
readers. Hi rve that, after the 

first or second letter, the iteration of the 

lame aimpli ibly tedious; 

but the wn; . 'he public. In 

a ease, will anticipate his censun 

with all your nninstraefJve 
simplicity, to be mauled at discretion." 

ed I, " but in otder lo 
mil. whai I 

of the public, 1 would, in such 
a case, write with all the know! 
was mauler of. As I am not 

I wi mil I not sup- 
press what little I had ; nor would 1 
iid than nature has made 

■'•. -eller, 

1 have you entirely in our 
■: unnatural, un-1 lite out 

meously sen 
le fry. Sir, we 

bunt vou down like a rat" — " H 

1 I, "sure there arc but 
the door must cither be shut 




or it must be open. I iiiu-1 rill. 
or unnatural. " — " Be w I.. 
will, w lie you," return 

booksellci, "and prove VOU a dunce in 
-pile of your teeth. Hut, -ir, it i- timc 
tli.u 1 should come to bu mi I 

DH in the pre-- a history of China ; 
and if you ii ill but put your name lo 
ill. ii, I -hall repay tip 

with gratliade."- 

I, "put my name to a work which I 

nut written! Never! while I n 
proper respect for the public and m\ 
The blunincs- ol my reply quite abated 
the ardour of the book 
tion ; anil, after about half as hour's 
di sagreea ble reserve, he, with -nine cere- 
mony, took his leave and withdrew. — 
Adieu. 



LETTER LII. 

Tc Ik* mini. 
I\ all Otho 

I, the rich are distinguished by their 
. China, and most 
of Europe, Ihose who are posses 
much gold or silver put some Ol i' 
upon their clothes ; but in England 
those who carry much upon their 

m trked for having I''' little in their 
pockets. A tawdry outside is Kg 
U a badge of poi 
cm -it at home, and gloal overtheii 
-and- in silent satisfaction, are gen 
found to do it in plain cli 

This diversity of thinking from (be 

■I the world which pre 
was at first at a I ount Em : but 

am .-ince informi 
duced by an intercourse N 
and their neighbo 

1, and very poor, daubed wit' 
lint all the gilding on the outside. I 
means laced clothes have been bi 
so much it- 1 ..t, that, a: 

-en their mandarines ai 
of finery. 

1 must own mi 
simplicity ; I am no more for osten 

;lth than of learning : the person 
who in company should pretend to be 




/'///■ V.VRLD. 



he person 
in . bul resembling 

I I > Wear all 
world in a bob 

■ 1 into a con 
I men 1 bai 
Upon entering the room, I 
.-'uli awe at the grandeur of 

gold must b< 

a prince of the blood ; he in i 

minister ; .ill lii 

>iN inferiority 
i-ius mind, all at- 
discourse, How 

11 more vulgar than 

eti <1 from personages of 

lion. If these, thought 1 to 

I with : 
il I continu- I te their dress! 

id not 

Hut 
o wonder nt the 

i found 
■ be equally surprised at the 
; for upon I lie entrance 
I man, dressed in 

■ 
ner im- 

) intended who should be 

cwhal resembled 
(Coll ir. 

know the cause of so much 

■ if the room, and found thai 
ompany consisted of no other 

. 
in order 

and the 

' l.-man whom I saw enter 
the country, and 



:ig the new manner of 
liing up the rudiments 
..I his rural minuet. 

longer surprised at the au- 
uhich my friend assumed an 

them ; nay, was ev< n di 

ton education,) QUI he had not 
kicked of tli. m 

-l.ilr-. "Uh.il," -.ml 1, "shall a Id Of 
such paltry fellow 

ii the 

transit! I half an hour? I 

be some law to t mani- 

fest a breach of privilege ; they should go 
Iron house ti h the 

Instruments of their profess 
round then necks; by tins means we 

distinguish and 
them in a style of becoming contempt.* 1 
- "Hold, ir.y friend," replied my com- 
panion, "were your reformation to take 

plaec, as dancing masters and i. 
hi w mimic gentlemt n in sppearani 

then find our line gcnllcmu. 
forming to theirs. A beau might lie 
on, with ■ 
fiddle-case hanging at Ins neck by 

cane, might 
carry a fiddlestick. Though to be as 
dull as a first-rate dancing m 

I uith proverbial justice: yet. dull 

-. many a line gentleman set 
rd of pob'tt 
i.i.i only the perl vivacity 

air. but the Bat insipidity of Ml eon. 
lion. In short, if you make a law . . 

dancing masters imitating the fine gt 

man. you should will) as much reason 
thai no line gentleman shall imitate 

the dancing masti 

After I had lift my friend. 1 made 

towards home, reflecting as I wen) upon 
the diffii ultj ng men by 

their appearance. Inv, r, by 

the freshness of the evening, 1 did riot 
return directly, hut went to ruiniii 
what had passed in a public . 

Here, is 1 Ml upon 

■ 
sympathy which nature iii bloom m 
a disconsolate figm 

no way to enjoy 

rarity of the tessuL 

Hi.-, &TCSS WM n\vacn!cfo \xrjcjvA fc 



I 7 2 



THE CIT1ZEX OF THE WORLD. 






on; a threadbare coal, of the rudest | 

■ ',- ; n shirt, though dean, yd 

nely coarse; hail ned to 

ions of the comb; 

.mi] all the rest of his equipage impressed 

with the marks of . iverty. 

\- he continued to sigh and I 

every symptom of despair, I was naturally 

led, from a motive of humanity, to offer 

comfort and assistance. Von knew my 

heart ; and that all who are miserable 

! iim a place there. The pensive 

-ation ; 
Imt at last j peculiarity in my 

accent and manner of thinking, he began 
to unfold himself by degrees. 

I now found th.it he was not to very 

he at first appeared ; upon my 

offering him iieoe of money, he 

H ithout appearing 

li •! generosity. It 
i- true, be sometimes interrupted the 

conversation with a -igh, and talked 
pathetically of neglected merit j vet —till 
I could perceive a serenity in lii- COUB- 

it, upon a closer 
bespokv rent. 

I |". n ■ pause in the conversation 1 

was going to take my leave, when he 

begged 1 v. n him with my 

ny home to supper, I was Mr* 

Cit Mich a demand from 

osity, 1 accepted his invitation ; and,u 

[ felt some repugnance at 

with one who appeared so very wrd 

Ig alacrity. 

Still, as ne approached nearei home; his 

nod humour p r opoitionahh seemed to 

At last he stopped, not .it 

the gate of a hovel, but of a magnificent 

' When 1 cast my eves upon 

all the turoptnoUS elegance which i 

..;, and then 

\'. hen I 10 miserable 

ink that all 

tin- li ■ him; yet in fact | 

it ill. I. Numerous servants ran tl - 

.'. iih -dent a-si.luity ; 
of beauty, and ID 

■n ; a 

it supper w I : in 

• 1 the person whom a little 

before I had sincerely pitied to be in 



reality a most refined epicure. — one who 

courted contempt abroad, in i 

wilh 1(1 

eminence .it home — Adieu. 



LETTER LIU 

/•.'« tht mine. 

HOW often have we admired the 
quence of Europe! that strength of think 
ing, that delicacy of imagination, 
beyond the efforts of the Chinese them- 
selves. Mow were we enraptured with 
those bold figures which sent every senti- 
ment with force to the heartl How have 
we spent whole days together, in lea 
those arts by which European « 
got within ml led the 

ii.intincnl : 
But though we have learned n. 
the rhetorical figures of the I 

to be one or two of grt 
here, which have not yet Invent 
China. The figures I called 

Bawdrj and 
fashionable, none 

BCfa a nature, that the merest 
blockhead, by a proper use of them. 
utation ol a » ll ; tl 
lesl capacitii 

would be ashamed 

It has been observed, and I 1 ■ 
with some truth, that it is v 
for a dunce to obtain the reputation 
»it ; yet, by the assistance of the 
Bawdry, this mar be easily 
a bawdy blockhead often passes 
of smart ; 

li a lad) lething 

said upon that . >' she 
i dl. u itii the hi ... 
fashionable pruriency, there arc for 
thing.- ready on the 

Bt .test has 
give mosl pleasure to a fi 

men, who, 
dead to other sensations, feel 
the allusion with doubl 
organs of risibility. 

a rites in this mann 
is generally sure, therefore, of having I 



THE CITIZF.X OF THE WORLD. 



'73 



rnfl his 
eny be 

being 

. cilaneum I 

da pill. Hi* pen 

in (Ik- -.nil..- Ii-lu 

i apothecary, buili being 

end. 

h [his manner of » riling be 

to the taste of gentle- 

i fashion here, yet still 

-e in being equally 

mil gentlemen of Benin 

lerably 

■ relish .1 nruricnl joke 
I with critical propriety ; 
ill) higher g 

.11 

lought 

..re by 
. .t bravely 
■i only 
wlliJl ibis 
lnil even .vli 

Vet so ii 

- now cai r\ 

lie cushion ■ 

■Mil ... 

■ 

bridling lo 
iht-ir guests, by 
i dinner in the kitchen, 
up to table. 

'i fully 

I .ul.ir 
il which keeps Ins 

hiiliien reoeasea of the 



lb ." Ii this figure be at pre- 

I inueli ID fashion ; though r 
feasors of it b) the 

great, bet judges of litem 

.- : yet a i- only a 

. hen, by tins 
..i writing, the gentli 
D'Urf -li authors, 

acquin lion, and became 

the favourite ol a king. 

The works of this original gi 

though the; never travelled abroad to 

t liin.i, and ive reached 

terity at home, were once (bund Upon 

i made the 

subject of polite, 1 

vena t ion, " I las ram i Mr, 

: no- thine, the) ■-. 
a most facetious pi. ire, my lord, 

all theworld must have seen it; D'Ui 
certainly the al creatnrc alive 

In. impossible to read bis things and live. 
ere ever anything io natural and 
hen the Squire and Bi 
!. the ci ll.ii? And then the dim- 
they both End in broaching the 

We have certainly nothing "f this kind 
in the language. In tins manna 

or though rl 

■ ■( eacel him in v. It, th< » 

lliei.- are several very dull (eUows, 

M 11". b. 

ii b brilliant and 
pleasing; with a little 

■ loud laugh, and a slap oi 
shoulder,- -the most ignorant are fun 

tion. But the 
finds ii impossible to throw hi 
shrugs, or his attitudes upon par* i , na 

in.l, I- 

printing his • but, 

nuitv, 

iations w< 

sine of c* 

Dut I 



'74 _____ 

another figure, called I od few 

indeed are found lo excel in 
not possessed of the other. 

•onion com i Be best 

.di i. by hr.t 
hi writing Id 

i attempt al 
humour, whicfa will past upon nu 

ii in reality. To - nailers 

with the most perfect 
familiarity : in one page the author is to 
nuke iin-iii ■ low bow, tod in ti 

lo pull lliem by (hi must talk in 

, and then send them DO bed, ill 

order lo dream lot the solution. He must 

.i.elf, and hi and his 

manner, and what he would lx? al, and his 

own import un e, and his mother's impor- 

, with the mosi unpitying prolixin ; 

tad then testifying hii contempt 

i but himself, smiling without a 

id without «it professing vivacity. 

leu 

LETTER I IV. 

F'PMt Al . 

I dough naturally pensive, yet 1 am lead 

irid take ever) "iiportu- 

Unutldng the mind from 

From this motive 1 am often found 

mi |he centre ..I a crowd ; and wbl 

told, am al t 

nliout being 

v any, I join in whatever goes 

nl ; work my pas&ii ins into n simi- 

hiude of frivolous earnestness, shout as 

they shout, and condemn as they happen 

approve. A mind thus sun'. 

while below its natural standard i- quali- 
fied for .stronger flights, is those first 
who Mould spring forward with 

Aiiia. ted by the lerenity of the evening, 

mi in. ud in. I I lately went to ease upon 

the puhlis 

near the t it) 1 1 

■ 

We bad 



THE CJTIZBN Of THE WORLD. 



I could perceive : 

and by his irecpieutly 

■idy who followed: we now i 
right, then to the left : as u 

-till went faster ; but ill oin ■ 

the person whom he attempted to i 

hunted us throtiijh every doublin 

1 upon us each moment, so thai at 
I still, resolving ; 
could not avoid. 
I hi! pin-. ie up. and joined 

us with all the familiarity of an old ae- 
nueintance, "My dear Drybonej" cries 
roy friend's hand, "where have 
you been biding this half a century? Posi- 
tively 1 had fancied you were gone to 

cultivate matrimony and your estate in 

the country." During the reply I had an 
opportunity of surveying the appearance 
of our new companion : his hat was 
■ I up with peculiar smartness : his 
looks were pale, thin, and sharp; round 

hi. neck he wore a broad b] 
and in hi. bosom a buckle studded with 
glass] his coat was trimmed with Mi- 
ni. hed twist ; he wore by hi- side s 
with a black hill ; and his stockings of 
silk, though newly ws grown 

yellow by long service. I was SO much 
ed villi the peculiarity ■ 

that I attended only to thelettei paitofray 

friend', reply, in which he complin 

Mi. 1'ihbs on the taste of his i 

the bl. 

pshaw, Will," cried the figure, "no more 

of that, if you !"\ 

flattery, — on my soul I do; and yet, in 

be sure, an intimacy with the great will 

impnn 

- much as \ 

i among them. m»\ w< 

quarrel with one I 

ing II the) wen ... 
a- no Lord Mudler, one of the 
natuied en 
lemon, I should my,. 

i ..!' their admin i 

dine at the I I 

My lord was there. ' Ned . 

• I'll hold 

1 can tell wheic you were poaching 




' Poaching, my lord . 
id have missed ahead. . 

ad let the girls poach for 

■ 
,■] still, 
th.' " 

mpanion, \\ itli looks of infinite 
ir fortune is as much mi- 
ni such com- 
replied the other: 
—but let it go no farther 
ecret— five hundred a year to 
begin with — ray lord's word of honour for 
it. His lordship took me down in his own 
thari' , and wc ha 

intry, where wc tall 
"—" 1 fancy you forget, sir," 
Id us but ilr 

in tewn. "— " Did 

replied he coolly; "to be sure, 

ed in town '. 

mber, I did dine in 

I .lined in the counl 

i know, my boys, I • 
Hy ilic by, I am grown as 
i in my eating. I'll tell 

■ Mice) party of 11- i" dine 

i d piece, but let it 
—Well, there hap- 
pened moe lo 
I, I'll hold a 
iv done lir.t, that 
you are an honest 
i for a 

time we 
but I 
i." 

in Qu- 
inary a 

■iry than his 
him this il . 
tags; if thenext, in cmbi' 
jstinctii'n ol 
I familiarly I 

r, li.'lli 

mad.- hull 

An agree* i.. lie un- 



Willi ' 

though all arc- sure ol it- ending with 

& demand on their i 

conduct, he 
may thu- ...irn i precarious 

but wh met on, the giai 

which is incompatible with bur 

will he find himself forsaken by ill ; 

donned in the decline of life la 

imily whom i 
thereto undergo all theingenuil 
contempt, to lie employed onl 
ii|...ii the servant-, or a bugbear to 
the children into obedience." — Ad 



LETTER LV. 

TO tlu MM. 

tpt to fancy 1 have contracted R new 
acquaintance whom it will be no easy 
My little beat 
overtook me again in one . 
public walks, and slapping me on the 

shoulder, saluted me with an air i.f the 

-i perfect familiarity. His du 

lie as usual, except that he had more 
i in his hair, wore a dirtier shirt, 
■ pail of temple spectacles, and I. 
hit arm. 
As I knew him to be a liaimles-. 

tag little thing, I could mm return Ms 

walked forward on term- ..f the n 
intimacy, and in a few minutes dis. 
all the usual topics prclimi nan ti 

aiir.n. The oddities that marked 
his character, however, soon 
appear; he I 

-. who, by their maimer of return- 
ing the compliment, appeared perfect 
Bra. At intervals he drew out a 

ming to take 
before all the company, with much 

iduity. In this mi 
he led me through the length of tin 
walk, fretting at his alisui 
fancying myself laughed at not It 
him by -very sped 

to the end • 

ion. "Blast . . 

i.i thin in m> 

I stage W* 



cirrzE.v Of the world. 



ah*!)* 



be seen." — "No company 1" inter 

npanv, where there is 

: ' why, man, there's loo ranch. 
Whal .-in.- the thousands thai haw 

':" — " Lord, 
.(-turned he, with the utmost 

good humour, " you teem immensely 
ncd ; I'm. blast me, when the world 
the world, 

My Lord Tri] >. Bill Squash 

the Crcolian, and I, mmftimw nuke a 
i being ridiculous; and so we say 
tod do ■ thousand things for the : 
sake. Hut I see yon an.- grave, rod 

.1 fine grave senliniL-ntal companion, 

!l dine with me and my \\ lie •■ i 

I must insist on't. I'll introduce you to 

Mi-, ribba, .1 lady of as elegant qoalinca- 

in nature; sin- was bred, but 

ilni': ' anelves, nnder the in- 

•n of the Countess of All-night A 

1 -re of 

thai, — shi- will give us a song, you -hill 

WOhelmina 

iture ! 

I .i Iter t"i my Lord Drarastick'a 

eldeal -mi; hut that's in friendship, let it 

i i sht\ hut -i\ yearsold, anil 

amoet, anil plays on the 

nsely already. 1 intend she 

accomplishment. In th 

I learn that tanguaj 

I liii-s.ij, ing, m ; reply, 

■ '~. me by the arm, rod hauled me 

ted through many dark 

and winding ways; lor, from some 

res tome unknown, he seemed to have 

to the 
of a dismal-looking house in the 

■ 

ioor, which 

end an "hi and en 

show 

oost cbarmlag 



in the world out of mywindo 

see the ships sailing, rod the "hoi, 

try for twenty miles round, tip top, quit 

high. My I n \* ould g 

nic.is for SUCn a one ; but, 

1 sometimes pleasanliy tell him. I always 

love to keep my : 

my Friend] maj visit me the olteoer." 

By this time we i as high , 

the stairs would permi; 

lie towhal i" 
to call the lirst tloor <lov.n tl, 
and knocking at the il 
within demanded, " W 
co n du ctoi answered (hi Bui 

again n 

answered louder th t it I', fore ; anil ni 

cant ion - 

were got in, he « 
to his house uiili great ceremony, and turn- 
oman, xskc.l 

iier lad) 1 " ( '• I troth. 

shirts at the next door, because thej 

taken an oath against lending i 
any longer." — " M 
in a tune that faltered with conri 
"what does the idiot mean?"— 'I ke 
what I mean weel enough," replied the 
other ; " she's n ashing youi lw . 
— ." — "1- ii 

ni her we I 

he, turning to me, " to be I": evei 
family, she would never leain poli 

| 

li.imeni man, a fi 

inds, one of the politest men in the 

W'c waited 
all its furniture, « hicli 

ned ; o 

.: iu the oilier; a broken shec 



THE CITIZEN OF THE ll'OAV P. 



177 



• without a head, 

ml the 
tlry unframed pit 

' \\ hal do 

. done in the 

true keeping 
. it i- my own face, and though 
happens to be no likeness, 

i me an hundred foi its fellow, I 
r, for, hung it, thru woidd Iks 

. 
and .1 coquette ; much 
ill carrying the remains 
- 
ii such odious dishabi 

had staid out 
all tni 

ond of the horns. 

"Aih', indeed, inv dear," added she, 

turning to her husband, " his lordship 

■ health in a bumper."- 

es he ; " .1 <l< ..1 : ... id-natured 

ve given orders for 

e lini three of us ; 
v. ill do,- :\ 

lini.... |, a ."--" 1 ii « I1.1! do 

uy ih.Tr," interrupts 1'' 

. piping 
1 little "I ni 

. 
" it n il mint Ixiltled 

he sauce 

.ill ". 

I ' \ ' a abate, 

. but .it 
ncholy ! 

. alter having shown my 

ling to the 

iving the old 

I the door, I 

ing me 

I, would be ready at 

lout in Icm than 






from Fum II. 

hey vibrate througli the 
not more ph 
ear than the tidings of 

II. ..o hundred of thy 

. descriptive 
of the manners of Eu ope Yon have left 

HI the -He "f 

their mountains or 

ng 1 lie 
iment, and d 

In these letters I pen.' 
the operations "1 \ oar mind upon 

. rather than a detail of yotn 
luilding to 

your taking a draft of tlii~ n nr thnt 

1. ; of paying so many tomans for 

some in" wilderness. 

From your accounts o( Ku-sia, I learn 
that this nation is again n 

pristine bar! mi .: v ; thai 

bring about Ins vast designs. A savage 

may l>c r 

is are suffidenl to 

awfj the "bslruclions to agricnliin. 

it real 

I 81 degree of fertility : the Ru 
attach incient prcjt 

renew their hatred 

1 brutal a 1 

•hat the revolutions of wisdom are 
slow and difficult; the revohnni- nl folly 

precipitate and easy. " \\ t 
are no) 

.Ik more slowly in th( 11 
road to virtue, tha 

■■; since passion drags us 
while wisdom only | ointl out the way.' 
The Gens inl of 

the majesty of ancient 
from your account 
lion. The members of 

government 
seem feebly held •■ 

.( coontij u 



«-8 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



• .rliei nations makes one of the sir ■ 

of govern! 
some ■ ihIkiIji- 

ire proud of being 
■ 
blrlli, than by the mote well-known title 

: man. 

d in the 

oppo- 
which are now subject to 

tile- laws of llie empire, tching 

a propei I the yoke ; 

.in.l those which are become I 

i obedience, now begin | 
in ilin. . ing in their turn. The, 

struggles in ie, not 

ut to destroy, the 
tilution ! ii" 
ivernment mnil become despotic; ;1 
the other, several states will subsist with- 
out even nominal subordination ; but in 
i Ither i Genaai -'.union will 

more. 

den, mi the contrary, though now 

assertor of ii 

■.-.illy only hastening on to des- 

. while they pretend 

the freedom of the people, are 

-hing their own indepen 

ile w ill, however, at list 
»e the miseries of an iristo I 

. will perceive that the 
admin 

i than thai oi one only 
will fly from this most oppressive of all 

, which will ever he atten- 

endure nment, when 

■ 

'I he lower oroo - of people in q 
: .1 numl 

■. upon the I unity, 

potism 
icy. 
- redes are i 

the French, 
i\ vin- 
es Into freedom, wi,. n 
thai 'hose is (the 

liy the 
let only 
■ ran to 



mention privileges and frceilom, u 

ns from the ' 
with implicit humility , when this ii 
i, I cannot help fancying thi 
genius erf frc ntcred that 

dom in disguise. If tin 

.'. ill be laid 
the country will certainly oni 

W Inn I compare the figure whii h 
Dutch make in Europe with 

in Asia, I am struck with sui 
In A-i.i. I hnd them thi . of all 

the Indian seas; in Europe, the 
inhabitants of a paltry state. No I 

ons of freedom, 1ml ol 
no longer as I their righl 

courage, but b) negotia 
those who insult them, 
under the n cry neighbo 

Withoul ave the 

. and without virtue to save i 
their govi rnmcnl is poor, and 
wealth " ill serve Inn to invite some 
neighbouring m\ adec 

1 Ion. letters 

1 iini.irk, II 
Italy ; yel why wish for rel I 
only di 

that ambition and 
terrible in even n , lieu. 



LETTER LVII. 

1,,. 
a 

' hina, « In 

the world v. iih pi 
or rep 

In England tin 

I ; Iml if ar pro| 

a judge of gi 

irilics, ii i 



OF TUB WORLD. 






ims at 
:ion or cnl. I 

no way suq nd (he 

. the way In oilier 

nccrns of life ; lo see them 
ng the mini, i 

that 

/ thing. Imme- 

■ 

, from whence it eucu- 
till improving as il proceeds, i! . 

ild ; from thence il i- i 

n fire- 
ad children, who 
uglit lo regard his jud 
lord of perfection. 

.1 widen (tended 

all his 

dancing ma 
»h are a peoi 
and 1 to find them 

in their opinions by nun who 
: are incom- 

C being always 

red li the world only cm 

re surely improper iidges of 

■ boll ; 
ad to Jive into the 
. m heart, » i 

daily behold 

alation 

smiling upon every face? Kew of them 

- ils, the 

in any 

ption one ••' 

■ 



A nobleman has but to i, ink, 

volumes, and then 

hough the whole might have 
been before more disgusting than hi 
re&t*rol ing his name and title 

gives value to the deed, title ' 

equivalent to taste, imagini 
genius, 

oon as a piece, therefore, is pub- 
lished] the in 

author T d « i Where 

lies hi- ' !ati v, table does 

he keep i If he happens t" be pool and 
unoualified foi such ■ scrutiny, he and Ins 
works t-ink into irremediable obscurity, 
slate In- finds, that having i • ■ i upon 
turtle i- a mo . than 

nlly. 

ihion 

knowledge * ic has 

■ 

Id II L.l\ pll 

bUl In- pi 

i garded. 1 1 
a tiddler, w i ■ d, la 

bj ii ; 

while a gentleman performer, thougl 
most wretched sa throws the 

audience into The fiddler, in- 

by thinking; thai while the " : 

ill II 

for while the nobleman triumphs ii 
merited applause, 

:: a iih — nothing. 

The here, who ■ 

their pens auxiliary to 

• , mu-.t think them 

. ■ i . i •• . but i 
' they art : 

ni.in. though in rat;-, who has thi powci 

virtue iioi 
more real use than forty stupid brahn 

. though the) preached 

long. Thai man, V\\oviq\A tft to^> ■*?**» '>» 



i8o 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



ring even indolence inlo 
id who professes amnsi 
ims at reformation, is more 

:h in tWd 

, n ill] all their scarlet, and 
out in all the fopperies of .scholastic finery- 



LETTER Lvm. 
tawu. 

• Man in Black takes every 

tniiii v of inlroduc : 

o> ma. indulge rny speculative 

gratify my curiosity, I was by 

ly invited to a visitation 

To ind this term, you 

lenov, th il :i nu formerly the CU5- 

here for the principal priests to go 

about the country once a year.and examine 

upon the spot whether those ol tubordi- 

lid their d tl e quali- 

Red for the task ; whether their temples 

•pair, or the l.iity 
r I u n!i then ition. 

ition of this ii.it ■ 

to beexcecd- 
for m in) i 
ni ; for as the pi 

irt, in 

is quite out of the 

notion, H we add to this the 

Mine immemorial, 

I with 

ausi infallibly be served up by the 

■ that the I 
.'l :d. At pi 

if the church, in- 
m1 to visit his pri 

ne in .1 body once 

-it linn ; b us the 

duty ol patched in ■ day. 

When assembled, he In turn 

bow thi i. and irt 

ho 1' ive ne j 

. 
'I which he 

I into 
a com: nid learned 



men (for as such 1 conceived them) gav 

meno small p I ■ • 

tertainment would resemble I 

mental banquets so finely described by 

Xenophon and Plato j I was hopini 

Socrates would be brought 

door, in order to h.ai .. i. 

mt as for eating and drin 
prepared myself to be disappointed 

particular, I was appi 

and ten 

commended to the pi"i 
tianity, and I had 
mortification of the priest 
that I 

aid have in 

llle.lt. 

Upon being introduced, 1 
found i 

i lowevi r. I imputi .1 their florid lr> 
temperance, and their corpulency 
sedentary way of living. 1 
preparations, indeed, for dinner, but 
leu philosophy. The compan , 
gate upon the table with silent ext 
lion ; but '.hi- I easily excused. K 
m, thought I, an 
; they deliver nothing un.i.k: 
" Silences" says ' lonfui 
thai will never betray." Thi 

ii tli.ii mutual inslrui 
i ill think pi 

1 impatii 
to see if any were 

lie of 

I that there 

in lus neighbourhood that fam 

: a Inter. I his 1 thought a »crr 

bill just 
was going to second the remark, 
dinner which int..: 

conversation for to n time. 

The .i; ■■. hjch M 

sisted ol i i 

the philnsi 
. 1. 1 begin, ... the; ini| 
■I liuinnur. 

mouth with 

kept enough, though he 



the c/r/ZE.v or the world. 



181 



- (or having ii killed ten days before. 
■ I he, " it "ill be fonnd 
hi the true heathy ft 

hing of the original wildnes 

nl wiped lii .'. ii, my 

■ 
y line : everybody kni' 

on with 

partridges, 

interrupted erfind 

mywhere else." I lis lordship 

' i reply, when a tl 

rccom- 

' 
ered in ii- own blood." " Ifil has 
been smothered ui its blood, " ■ 

. helping himself, " we*U 
I his poig- 

I luoed a long 

which Hi. 
mil now lh.it lie was in luck, 
I lii, blow, assured the 
would tell them .1 good story 

olcnl fit of I ittghtcr him- 
iu heard in 

net 111 my parish who 

Aunt' 

— " — " 1 loctoi 

lordship, inter- 

1 drink 

So being fond of wild 

Mummery. " — " I ' 

'. gentleman who sat next to him, 
to u wing •■ 
this fanner being 

"— "11m!' and nob which 

" So, 

ol wild dm ■ inicry ; 

I, sir, it 

[I 

for ' 



: exquisite I i 
edifying discourse continued through 

one of tin- compai 
swallow or utter anything more 

It is very natural for men wi 
abridged in one execs to break into 
other. Thederg) here, parttcularli 
who are advanced In y<:u-, thinks ii they 
are abstemii 

lulge their other 
1 thorn censure. Thus some are 
found t" rise in the rooming emit 

w iili theit ci 
and, when that hai 
DO "iLei n-e mi tin. if they have 

ut to ruminate on the 
meal. 

A debauch of * 
donabli nsibly 

■ I, the melancholy rel 

and ill 

1 
: brings itu 

with it, and. U one Of linn own 
scs it, — 

11 moral, e*a 

I I ! 

this 1 have 1 

compai ilence 

round ' 

[some hungry beggar, with 

the windows, and thus g the 

our chins ; after nature 
all thai 
perty, ami 1 claim 

not tQ 

01 Instruct others, who e feel 

From the un- 

rns of an 111 

Bni though aeithe 




mSiSSSm 

i— ■InJillaiapwaaarTX 

y«n T7t.,iw 

I at latef aUtwal «• «*nr ,k < "J-™"* 
i u.<. 1 lit <■■■■»» mw.» 

aa , (r«Mrl, >« '<"*** » **" «*•• » "T 

m larar* w w w of aacapa. Daring 

laMn<< *iaraaotb« 

lie came, un- 






IU 
not pace 
•Ttfnj aw 

antral : tie wretch at i 

k> no ■rtffrr. iribcuw*. tl 
coariedag proves of ber i 
»>* jnrt going lo draw Ins aabre. ■ bra i 
principle of tiuk< repressed ns 
ami be resolved, after * »-. . 

pose of roe lo another matter i 

meantime he ordered me lo be con- 

in the strictest minner, and the next 

r.ea hundred blow* on like 

feet. 

ng came, I was ! 
ihe punishr 

even than 

•t the 
lie nuptials of Zcli 
Infill iii.ii of my punifbl 

iinlly dreadful, ws 

wii, ano were lavii 




CITIZEX OF TIIL WQRLP. 



person now thought only 

] 

With which I Ml bound, and. 

flew to 

for ill'.- inl 

>\ ithout 
'.hi my way 
ho made bill 

now a 

himself, iiii- 

.f ihe fleetest cowsere 
north- 
Is the Irirjj 
A. tii other! flying in the 

ed witboul notice, 
arrived at Terki, 
I within ili'.- bosom o( the 

though I find my 

| to mm~u.ll 
linir.ition for 

it. Tin nigh her 

person den i even 

>ia, yet is her 

Ijr. How very different 

■m.111 who 1 1 1 u ~ has cultival 

understanding, and been refined Into 

-. from tliu daughters of 
the I' 

i, .iii'l nuke 

lion. — 

LETTER i.\\ 

hj the 

nifving 

mill l<c 



she, with emotion, " since lo • 
numberless I 

this profiision, I! M seen to 

■ha* hoi little ii regards such a lile 

"' I'- 
ll i uriosity i? no 
impatience t" gratify it 

I when 
my deliverer 

i- prompted by duty. 
' y f.ir to lh' 
'he men are braver, anil the » 
more fair, than those "f Circa 
the valour of I 
ami where .1' ' iimh-iiI point! the 

of female beauty, I was tl. 

■ 
cliiM of hi- lie usi 'I fom 

ii. lh.- "illy ill.-. in thai boun 
to the- v "i Id, "i made hi- lil 
tion procured him aoai 

i" brill every family where he 

all tin- and fa.shii.ii 

"f 'iich as ihi- world 

U gh without f": taught 

ose «h" lived a- if iln j 

■■ My Intercourse with the gn 

affect.ii 'in. procured me many 

lovers ; Imi 9 deterred them 

passhu 

of meditating my luiiiri- ruin. In 
company I found myself addressed In a 
i other ladii ~ 

who -.- 

" All: |ini'l 

.ii life, » 'ii' 'lici in 

him. 

■ 



<■: 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



poll linn, served to lliruw me olTmy 
• so that 1 considered him as the 
sincere admirer I had. 
■ Designing lovers in the decline of life 

ore eVl * Skilled in all 

III.- u 

rtuoitv : .in.l I iv li iving 
lea p usion il'. in youthful admirers, b ire 

midity. 

tell llM.I .1 II 

. dl which 1 
it imputed to din"en nl flea -, be- 
l thought ii absurd to believe the 
real mo 

' \ hecontinuedtofrequentmyfather'e, 

,i between ilium l,ecaine every | 

: .mil .ii but, from the intimacy 

with a I was taught 

!-. Iimk upon him as. a guardian and a 

i I es- 

ilieh to make 

ih for an union, fur which he -coined 

-. but to which he feigned several 

; while, in the meantime, from a ' 

"'j".ii uf our being married, even* 

Othei admire! forsook inc. 

" I u. . awakened from 

losion, by an account of his being 

lady with a 
conaiderable fortune. Tin- a 
mortification to me, a- 1 had always 

1 him merely from prudential i 
ll ii had a very differenl 
upon my fuller, who. i.i.h and |'i--ionate 
by nature, and, besides, stimulated by a 
mistaken notion of military honour, ap- 
i his friend in such terms, that a 
nge was soon given and ace... 

" 1 1 . a hen I w at 

led by a message from my falher. 

who desired to ice me that moment 1 
rose a I following 

the mi llllllgi i only by another 

I not far from the 
where 1 found him— tl 
I honour, my only friend and sup- 
. the tutoi miou of my 

ivered over 
ind iu-i expiring. No tears , 
:-:h es- 
caped I .311 ulijcci '■' 

I -at down, and supporting his 
diastly 
.ore poignam 



than 6 : vants 

3C In lln- 
glooni n' no sounds 

neard bui In 
no object was presented but h 

tillcontinui Withsitenl 

anguish 1 hung ovet Ins deai 
w'nh my hand- itroveto stop the bli 
il Sowed from Ins wound- : hi 

fiat insensible, but at lost, turnin 

dying eyes upon nic, ' M . hd.l,' 

. i ii-. J :. 

ftteo your on u bonoui .mo stained 
will yet forgive yout by aband 
virtue you have undone me am 
yet lake my forgiveness with the 

ii may pity me.' 
He expired. All my sue 
Bed uitli him. Reflecting that 1 a 

il his death, whom ■ I apon 

earth — accused of betraying Ihi 
his family with In- latest breath— COM 
of mv nee, yei without even a 

ility of vindicating it— without 
tune or friends to relieve or pity me — 

Bed to infamy and the w in- 
suring world, — I called out upon tin 
body thai lay stretched before me, and in 
the agony of my heart asked, why he could 
have left me thus? — 'Why, n 
only papa, a ) ou nun mi 

ami y ' Ih, pity and re- 

lonc but you to comfort 
me 1' 

" I soon found that I had real can 
sorrow : that I was to expect nocomp 
from m< e from the 

other ; and that reputation was much 
useful in our commerce with mankind, 
than really to deserve it When 
came, I perceived myself red 
with contempt or detestation ; or 
ever I was civilly treated, il was fro 
most base and angenerous moti 

" Thus driven I 
virtuous, I v. :n order to i 

the anxieties of insupportable so 1 
obliged to take up with the company < 
characters -I lik 

I a ; fa! w Ih 

Among this numbci 
of the 
public ■ 

. infamy than 




m united u- ; I knew that 
ide ha insurable ; 

guilt. Though this lady had 

.Ji, yet 

■ much delicate sensibil 

; ii. she theref icd our 

e born, 

in Italy, where <-»ur cha- 

A-ould beunknown. 

[his I eagerly complied, and we soon 

the most charming 

eautiful province of 

11 nt ry. 

n tliis as .1 
virtue, an harbour where 
look with tranquillity on the 
i angry world, I should havi 
very different was her >:■ 

upon this situation only 

, which 

ient effrontery !•> satisfy 

A nearer ac- 

showed nit- the 

■ tci ; her mind, .is well 

, seemed formed only fur plea- 

■ 
' the imnii.cli.ite enjoyment. 
! for society aloni 

i than slit- w rote, and 
Iter than -lie lived. A 

Me life imaginable; such " 
insidcred the natu 

I .il! her 
;ure .ind .in 
of agony or "i bliss, She felt 

h who wants a meal. In 

• usually kept her bed, 

tly when in expectation of some 

I'he luxuriant air of the 

.'ion of her 

whose 

I refinement, 

!i tlie rememl 

■ •1 ry. 

ind my 

. unlit for all wich ly ; di 



i i rank 

inch should have 

my crime . in short, d< I WU 

Id vrhcR I [bund no pleasun 

stay. Thus determined, 
i i.c'l in onlcr to go by sea to Rome, 

to take tlie- veil : but 
even in bard fortune 

still attended me ; OUT ship was ta!. 

. and I 
amonc; the number, being made -Lives. It 
much the :ur ...f romance to 
inform you of my ili-lit— .•- ,,r oh- 
in this miserable state ; it i- enough to 
, that 1 have been DOUghl bj 
Ot, each of whom, perceiving ins 
reluctance, rather than UK violeni 
me to another, till it was my 1 
be at last rescued bj 

Thus ended her leiiii-.n. which 1 ha\c 
■i.t as soon as we are an.' 

Moscow, for which we intend t" 
shortly, you thall be inf. rn 

more particularly. In the meantime, the 

i' to my happiness will be 

to hear of yours. — Adieu, 

LETTKR LXI. 

Pftm Lift Chi AlhUtgi to Hinsfo. 

THE new- of your freedom lifts the load 
..! Conner anxiety from my mindi I can 

now think of my -on without : 
I bis resignation undei calai 

'uluct in extricating himself 

them, 

Vou are now free, just let loo- 

■ .adage of a hard ma-tei : tlii- i- the 

fortune, succeeding life will 

with hap|iin-- or misery. A few years' 

perseverance m prudence, winch a 

. i name for virtue, will 
. too eager an en 

irene the 

medal, an.! rttfa poverty, 

anxietj mpt, 

As it hi red, that no 

better qualita i , than 

,c, tev.^e\ \ fcsA. VA-yoiN 



i86 



THE CITIZEN OF THE IVOR LP. 



mine, even 

■ my i'.'.-.r. 

Ity upon this occasion. 
The ui.'-.', g men 

who h 

" ask one fn follow 

tome time; ihen to ask advice of 

.lli'.lhcr. and Una tO tint; BOOfa third: 

• nil unsteady, d» its chain, 

v change of 

people tuny 

ii !l von "i" jrom being anfil for onu pe» 

caliai •"' upations En life; l»nt heed them 

rollow 
m ,ih penevenni I ill be 

found . ii will be j 

In leaning 
tin- u-rful pari of every profession very 

i if the 
mind he a little balanced with stupidity, 
it may in this case In- useful. Great abiu- 

lies n hie i..» 

the possessors than modi I .ife 

has lie I to .1 race ; hut I he nllu- 

:ll improves by observing, that the 
ire ever the lensl d 
To know one profession only, is enough 

, to know -, mi. I ihi- (whatever 
the professors ma) tell jn 

learned, lie content's 
• >nc good employment ; 

us., .u .i time, people will 

■ 

i tailor i happened 

ler, "A 1. 1 

unhappy poor creatnre 

II ever tall 

-, I am 
■ i trade to have 

conjurer; " hat, 

.e in.i quite 
».il ; fa ii f.nl, I 

, in. I I will 
\..u " \ famine overspread the land : the 

. .u|. I not he will 
hui ii. i.t. with nil hi. !" 

I find none thai had mi 

•t'W 1 ' ■ him, till he 



tnil-T whose calling hi iierly 

despise. I . 

ftiei 

than pride and I u 

you must resent injuries at all, al 
suppress your indignation nntil you he- 
come rich, and then 

tient of a poor ni.in 
of .1 1 i-i i HI 1. 1 

him crashed, hut cannol defend 

. dues thai anger which is consnmed 

only in empty niei. 

Upon a lime, a g. 

;i.l n goose, in men I li- 
iices, is at* 
and exi 
nniunl, without thi 

that way, the 
immediately at him. Thi 
was het . would mail 

in it, and -upport her honour, whili 

big to flutter. In 
this manner she ■'■'. 
and thickens; nay, even the ii 

u to scamper. A loun 
however, happened to pass by, and ;1 

ii ii.. barm If he should lap a little of the 
thirsty 'I he go 
.1 him like a fury, 
■ 111 her beak, and flapped him w i" 
her feathers. The dog grev* 
had twenty time' agood mind 
a sly -nap ; hut suppressing his indigna- 
tion, because hi- ; nigh, 
pox i. he, " for a fool 
I sve neithei 
us to fight, at le .-I shot 
that fluttering and hissing of thin, 
.■lie day get thine m. IaU 

: thee " So mying, he wi nl for- 
I, quenched Ins thi 
spite of the | ■ flowed his n 

ithei obstruction to the fortune 

h it H Inle l! 

I giving nol 
' 
will "i theii ""ii, l. ..i. hi,. 

lersal sail 



THE C1TI. 



•E If OP ID. 




they at last fine] themselves miserably dis- 
nted : to bring the generality "f 
admirers on our side, it is sufficient to 
tttempl pleasing a vtry few. 

\ painter of eminence was once rc- 

l t" finish a piece which should 

the whole world. When, there- 

. I drawn a picture, in which 

his utmost skill was exhausted, it was 

i he public market-plat 

y spec- 
irk with a brush, which lay by, 
limb and feature which seemed 
. and in 
ilauded; bat each, v.dling to 
his talent at critii ism, marked w hat- 
he thought proper. At c> 
the painter came, he was mortified 
to find the whole picture one universal 
stroke that was not 
of disapprobation : 
trial, the next day 
resolved to try them in a different 
as be- 
i that every spectator would 
beauties he approved 
The people complied; and the 
nine, Found his picture replete 
tuty : ever) 
n yesterday condemned, now 
l the character of approbation, 
ies the painter, " I now find 
v to please one halt' of 
the world, is not to mind what the other 
rince what arc faulis in the 
i these, shall be by ihi 
OS beauties."- Adieu. 

ITER l XII. 

7> tht :.T*:r. 

A cit.M-.\i 1 1 • k. such U '"ii have repre- 

inion, which 

virtuous though loaded with 

Illy great. Many regard virtue 

e it is attended with applause; your 

1 ly f"r the internal pl< 

I wished thai ladies 

. i. f, ., 

ucb as have 

.mt to 

till) la 01 their learning, leave 



the duties of their own sex, in order 10 

ihe privileges of ours, I can no 
more pardon a fair on' 

to wield the dab of Hercules, than I 

him for attempting to Iwnl her 
distaff 

The modest virgin, the prudent wife, 
or the careful matron, arc much more 
ible in life than petticoated phi- 
losophers, blustering heroine- 
queens. She who makes her hi 
and her children happy, who reclaims the 
! trains np 

ladiesdescrib<.d m romance, whosewhole 
occupation is to murdei I with 

quiver or then ej 
Women, it has been obsenfi 
naturally formed for great - 

. i'Ut to soften ours. Their t< 
ness is the proper reward foi 
we undergo lot their preservatioi 

the ease and cheei fulness of 

on, our desirable m ihe 

fatigues of intense apph< 
. onbni d a itbin the narrow I 
laity: and, when 

beyond them, they move beyond then 
sphere, and consequently without gi 

ery unjustly 

■ long the female sex. Those 

who least deserved to be remend 

meet our admiration ami applanse; while 

many, who have been an honour I" 

iv. are passed ore» in - I 

OS no age b ed a -tionger 

'.iced fame than the 

present : the 5 nd thcThali 

of antiquity are talked of. whili 

character, infinitely greater ft 

Catharina bom near Derpal, 

a little city in Lit 
other inheritance than the virtues and 

frugality of herperents. Her father being 

dead, she lived with her aged mothci ui 

their cottage covered wuli rtraw; arid 

both, though very 

tented 

the world, by the labour of her hands 

Catharina spun, ' 

by and NM tomcWiVoS 6,cn<Aw«v -, <Sca!n 



ISS 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



when the fatigues of Uie day wen 

both would ntentedly by theit 

I enjoy the (ruga) well with 

Though bet fa ce a n d person wcie models 
of perfection, yet her whole ill 
seemed bestowed upon her mind; bet 
ni'iilicr taught her to rend, Mid an old 
ran minister instructed her in the 
maxims .'.nil ilutics of rehgion. Nature 
had fm ii'- In .1 her, not only with a ready, 
lmt ,i solid turn of thought, not only with 

ng, hut a right understanding, 
truly female accomplishments pro 

ations of marriage (rum 
the peasants of the country; butthi li 

were refused j for she loved her motlu rtoo 
tendcrli to I U ion. 

. .iiii.i was fifteen "hen her mother 
dit" I : she now thi her cottage, 

and went to live with the Lutheran minister, 
liy n hoin she had been instructed from her 
childhood. In his hoc ded in 

quality of governess to his children, at 
once reconciling in her character unerring 
prudence with surprising vivacity. 

old man. who regarded her as one 
of his own children, had her 
dancing and music by the masters who 

• family ; (li 
Continue I to improve till he died, by « huh 
• was once more 
erty. The count: 
wiu» at this tune wasted by 
miserable M 

' heavy upon 

I lie | r; wherefore l : hough 

posse- 

ii the miseries of hopeless indi- 

oi. I her | ri 

1 at last to travel to 
ler plenty. 

Wil w irdrobe pocked up in 

1 on herjourneyon foot : 

walk thro\igh a region miaer- 

i Mill more 

as each happened to become masters, 
taction : but hung 



ig lor the nil 

insulti . ' - 

■ 
it, " to follow the 

their instill 

violen 

dentally pass e in to hei 

ance: upon bis appeariug, the - 
immediate!) the: thanki 

she instantly recollected in I, 

OH of the Lutheran minister, her 
former instructor, beuefactor, and i 

was an hap] 

rina: the little -lock of money she had 
brought from home was by tin- tun 

ited •, her >; 

e, in order 

entertained her in their houses: hei 
rous countryman, therefore, | 
what I l.ii; hei clothes, 

furnished her with a hoi 

commendatii m to Mr. i ijuck, 
a faithful In. 

intendenl al Nfarienburgh. 

Our lieautiful Strang) 

. she was [ 
mediately admitted into the supei 

family, as 
daughters; and though yet bul 

showed herself capabll 

.1 only ill lirtlle, bul 

her master bimsell in a short lime offer 

her his hand, which, to his g 

hough! pi" 1 

!e of gratitude, the wasr 
to many hei deliverer only, i 

1 lost an anil, and w.is nil, 
disfigured by wounds in the service). 
In order, there!. 

from othei u the 

i n upon duiv. "he offer 
him her person, which he a, 
transport, and thi i rolcm- 

!.. ■ l. 

I,,; i line wen 

on which they were in.n 

soldier had now ii" tin 

called .. to ai 




V OF THE WORLD. 



ii with 

tit, and 

■ 

gh was 

. lhat not only th< 

si] the inhal 

ildren, were put to the 

. when (In 

CLind hid 

hitherto poor, bu 

irn what ii 

she !"-■- 
ind humility ; and I 

struck with hei beauty, 
under ihe direction • >f his 

was treated with 

ecl which her merit d< 

every day improved with 

istion, 

Minna h ip ■me in 

, liu, which 

. Lsked her 

ml !• I I landing 

II n young, lo 

i inquired 

und hei truly 
in prf. 



mud-w 

wandeti - ; ounded b] 

who find happinea in I 

rfj wanted a meal, i 
diffusing plenty upon whole 

To her [( .. p irl 

ill thi-. pre-' but to ber virtues 

She ever aftei retained those great quali- 
ties which lir-t placed her on .1 throne; 
and while the exta 
husband on of 

i tin n 

the iln; of her ..u n 

knighthood ; and 
filled .ill ii. 
. uii'.'. .mil mother, bi 

t. regretted bj all. — Ai 

ii ITER I. Mil. 

new revoluti itrange 

Bty I'll' nt.ince. 1 

'.\ ith trernolousexpectal 
agTeeaMy dii when 1 find my 

liy continuing in 

felicity. I ^ 

■ 
njj ..u ii i .'!. a It it i- only 

i. lity of my owl 
imaginary swiftness lo ■ !i ate 

Vet I 
China it-.-lf i 

L-eitful than fbrmerlj : ' 

- 

6 even to nature : there i 
I me cni| i 

■i as a 

0«. A 



loo 



THE CH. THE WORLD. 



;.?rs; when all were welcome who 
eilher cauu re the state, 

mire 

etneot, 

ami the very inhabits! .e each 

prosecuting their c>\\ n internal 

tec this degeneracy in i stale so 

- 1 to external revolution? : how 
that China, which i- now more 
: al than ever, which is less 

as, and em 

:| whence comes it, I lay, 
dining so f. 

■rely from nature, and 

".• result of voluntary degeneracy. I n 

two or three thousand years 

gre 't minds with .in effort resembling th.it 
which introdi 

mlinue lot an age, 

and manlcin >se into 

We little one 

alter the causes of this invisible 
of cncouragemcii. 

t. are 

hed to find every art and every 

..- decline, not considering that 

autumn is over, and fatigued natureagain 

lods have been remarkable for 
if men of a 
Statu* parti- 

cul« an nils in great abundance; some 

I 

different in 

herself in the production of 

(ic age 

Willi [hi 

:h the 
, or the goodness of an 

■\ then, atti 

ien in 
•_ges there has appeared some 

understanding, failed to bring his 



I arbarous age into refinement : all 

eemedto sleep, till natoi 
genera] call, and then the v 
seemed at once roll 

try countn. 
brightness ■ : seemed 1 

ory. 
Toil in eve: 

iiversal. At thi 

■ 
into refinement : 

. they had 
•ceding ages, Confucius and I'yil 
seem boni : 

Greece ae in China. ! 

I much about the 
continued for several centuries, till, m th 
, l 

of the East ; while about the 

Mcdicean family la 
raise i ■ from the ci 

part of the world in one age. and bar' 

blue of It.. 

whole world, and at another all mt 
icd tip in the profound'- ' 
i has been the situation 

nd such probably it will evel 
be. China, I have o 
dently begun to degenerate from its fill 
mer politeness ; and were the 

sidered, the decline would perl. 
to have already taken place. 
find am 

displaced for math 
-iiion, or metaphysical - 
we should find learning bet 
separate from the u-eful duties an 

than is til.: 
;!. We should rind every crea 
I the 
riling cool 
■ 
find fi 

ing to hazard much lor the sal 



aft 




THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



101 



1 noi now iiy de- 

! former ignoi 

1.I0111, while 

\dlCU. 

nil: I.X1V. 

il cjul a 
ubjects who 

r-l ,1 v ell, |i\ |.n anting 

. m hich 
ho are 

liis i> a 
ng ihe 

ilh such • 

tic I he king m wilh 

nd, and he 1- p 
his limb. 

i all hi- (internal fbrti 
Ihc honour of In- country 

,11 « illl IWil 

of blue 

1 :■:■.. mi; 

orluiic, 
him no 

ithnrily. II 
his publii 

ddition 
to a i I'icure? 






appetites, then 1 

1 with real amusement 

he, by h.i'. 
made two, thus enabled In enjoy two 
■ two 'linnet . d he 

■ I lli, 
111,. But, on ' . be 

Ends his desire foi 

rod In 

ol regard in;: 
great wilh tiny, I generally consider 

than with some [hue of o 

I look upon than as a set of good- 

1 people, 1 

1 10 thern-eh 

.ill iln. happiness they enjoy. Tor our 
pleasure, tad not 

qnied train, tin 
with all the gr;.' 

hi the pur- 

■ keep one fur ilu it own pli 
and the "il 1 

" Thai 

ippy, than in en- 

In think s" 1 

But thoagl 

ambitious, yet 11 is well foi 

rilling I'lo- 

If a did... 
duchess ire willing to carry a Ion 

for thi ihibil 

in public, «iih a hundred 1 

ink':- in their equipage, fur our 

t.iimni ni. Still -11 lull, li the " ' ■' 
selves ; 11 i- 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WO KIP. 



D 'ii'hnntr, v. . :ch pride in 

. ing with ■ anmbei of ji i i 

. 

I'V ->ii ■.!(! -l\ bos llowing him 

■I, thanked him for hit 

" Whal •" cried the 

replied the 

i have lei me look at 

■ >u can make 

. .u have the 

iployment I don'l much desire." — 

LETTER I. XV. 

To Ihl t.ni.: 

Tii'irr, ii nol very run. I of seeing ■ p 

I tin generally pleased with 

i it is 

i which such 

. 
withes u raises In nil. 
\\ all iiii. di 

Ived to 
i the mob, lo shout as they 

shouted, to fix with ear on the 

'i- objects, and p.ulk'ij 
a while the pleasure) and tlic Wis! 

the vul 

for some time, in 

iwd unluckil I 

•nl lure il in such 

a manner, thai I . unqualified 

irward with the main 

Thus 
dor of 

like one uf the in IW the 

ny. 

In this plight, as 1 a 

eagerness ili.it .• 

some bustle 

1 vi - wiili Liking a 

trarudi i they eoul I 

lltl that 

ted the 



horses' necks in another, my alteni 

died olT to an object more ■ 

ordinary than any I Ii id ■■ 

cobbler --lit in his r-t.ill by I 
and continued to work, while the 

by, without testifying the tm 
share o 
attention excited mine ; and as I stood in 

if his assistance, I thought il 
t.. employ a philosophic cobbler on this 

in. Perceiving my business, 

ied me to enter and -il down, 
took my shoe in his lap, at 
mend it with bis usual indifference and 

tat itiiinity. 
" ! I ■•■.-. , in;, friend," said 1 t" him, 
■ rinue to work, « hiie all the 
things ' iy your door?" 

master," returned l 
"fur those that like them, to be sure; but 

what are all those fine things I 

n't know what it is to be a col 
nndsomuch the better foryourselC Vom 
bread is baked : you may go and see sights 
the whole day, and eal a warm 
when v.iu come home at night; but fur 
roe, if I should run hunting after all these 
fine fulk, what should I get by my journey 
but an appetite, and, God help me '■ 1 have 
too much of that a i . ly. without 

stirring uiii !■ >r it. Yourpeople, who may 

■ a day and a -upper at 
are but a bad exai 
No, in. I hi, into this 

World ' mend old I 

no bu 

business with me." I here interrupted 
lum wiili a smile. " See i his last, m 
id this hammer; : 
and hammer are the two 
I have in this world : n 
my friend, because 1 want a friend. The 
pass by just now have 
Eve hundred friends because they I 
occasi . : now. wh 

my good friends hen-. I am vet 

le run aftei 
and fine thin lo hate my 

I grow sad, and have no heart t> 

nily served to raise my 
of a man 
natnr, into a phil" 

■ i y led him into a ' 



i 
i 

istory 



THE CITIZEN OF Till: WOULD. 



193 



adventures. "I have lived, 
he, "» wandering tort of a life mm Eve 
and nfiy years, here to-day, and gone to- 
11 n wai my misfortuni . 

ie fond of changing." — 
1 traveller, then, I 
surae," Interrupted I.— "I cannot boast 
of travelling," continued he, "for I 
tcver left the 

ree times in my life, that 1 can 
I nit then there is 1 
Ie neighbourhood that 1 have 
DOI lived in, at some time or another, 
settle and to lake to my j 
une street, some unforeseen ' 
■ f trying my luck 
emoved me, perh 

(rom my former cus- 

. while some more lucky cobbler 

into my place, and make a 

fortune among friends of my 

making : there was one who actual I 

inastall thatl hadleft worth seven pounds 

seven shillings, all in hard gold, which he 

had quilted into the waistband of his 

breed 

mile at these migrations 

ask if he had ever been married. 

tint I have, master," replied he, "for iix- 
leer long years; and a weary life ; 
hi 11. Hi "'.11 knows My * ife ■ 

thrive 
world w.v- 1.1 save monc 
were Inn 

could i.t> I'M hands upon she 

from me, thi re obliged to 

■i'iit for it. 

1 to qua rrel j 
iv, and I always got the 
; Inn she had a ha . nd still 

■ 

1 getting the 

ran 111 score 

; till ;il In-' 

ie day with 

length oi it 



dlv broke her heart I 
the whole M I. for 

□ effectually, 
that) with all my ]■ 

', nn.l 
ng the poor an. .1 for Ins trouble, 
and rewarding him besides for Ins infor- 
mation, I took my leave, and ret 
home to lengthen out the amusemci, 
conversation afforded, by communicating 
it to my friend. — Adieu. 

1 OTTER 1.XV1. 

Frptn Litn Chi Altaufi It Htngps, by tk 

C1.NL10 an V I sup- 

ply ever)' Other external advantage in hie, 
but the love of those wi with; 

ii will procure esteem, and a conduct re- 
sembling real affection ; bill actual love is 
tin- spontaneous production of the 1 
no generosity can purchase, no i'- 1 
increase, nor no liberality continue ii : the 
aIio is obliged has it not in 
IW« to force bis lingering r. fl ■ 
upon the object he should love, and volun- 
tarily 1 ude. 

Imp. m... I fortune knd well-placed 
rality may procure the benefactor good- 
will, may load il bliged with 
the su duly he lies under to 
retaliate j th 

gratitude, nntincti 1 all the 

us mind can bestow for 

lint gratitude and low 

ed upon our 1 
without our consent, and freq 
ferred wit 'out our prev; We 

love some men, we know not whi 

tenderness is natiu 

concern? ; we excuse theii Guilts with the 

same indulgence, a] 

with 1 1 , with vi hii 

While v 
the passion, it pleases 
" iih delight, and 

; and love for love is .all ihe ri 

. on the ea 

vo\vn,vo«.CA\c'A. "^Nccwwwfc** 



104 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



it os a debt, and our spirits wear a load 
till wc have discharged the obligation, 
il of gratitude is a 
circumstance of hi] . md some are 

bond to submit to frequent modifications 

- kind, proclaiming what obli:. 
they owe, merely because they think it in 
some measure cancel- (he debt 

Thus love is the most easy and agree- 
able, and gratitude the most homili 
lind Wi nevei 
the man we love without exulting in 
he \\ ho has hound us to 
him by benefits all to our idea as 

a person to whom we have in acme 
measure forfeited our freedom. Love and 
ule are seldom, therefore, found in 
the same breast without impairing each 
We may tender the one or the 
-ingly to those we converse with, 
nnot command both to 

attempting to Increase, we tlirmnish then ; 

ill becomes bankrupt under loo 
arge obligations ; all additional benefits 
lesacn every hope of future return, and ihut 
up every avenue that le lerness. 

In all our connecli"' 

therefore, it is not only generous, but 

appear insensible of the value 

rl endeavour 

ie obligation seem as slight u 

gem, and not by open force. We should 
seem ignorant that we oblige, and leave 
the mind at full liberty to give or refuse 
its affections; for constraint may indeed 

till grateful, but it will 

li •■■ pro are gratitude he our only aim, 
great art in making the ac- 

a right 

lUCr) more prudent tr. 
•i inch an occasion, and 
We re- 
nt repeated 
El 
whom we 

a grateful 

ng a debt by 

d, and 

ebtOT pays with reluctance. 

As Mencius. the philosopher, was 



overtook him at the foot of a gloomy 
mountain, remote from the habitati 
men. Here, as he was straying, while 
rain and thunder conspired to make soli- 
tude still more bli ued a 
hermit's cell, and approachm, 
inciter. "Enter," cries the nermit in a 
severe tone ; " men deserve not to be 
obliged, but it woidd be imitating their 
i them as they deserve. 
Come in ; examples of vice may 
times strengthen us in thi -Hue," 

led of 
roots and tea, Mencius could not repress 

riosity to know why the berro 
from mankind, theactionsof whom 
the true-' 
"Mention not the name of man.' 
the hermit with iudigi: re lei 

me live retired from a base ungrateful 
world; here the beasts of the 

forest 1 shall find no flatterers. The lion 

nerous enemy, and lite dog a ; 
ful friend ; but man, base man. can p 
the bowl, and smile while he presenl 
— " You have been used ill by mankind '" 
interrupted the philosopher shr. 

returned the hermit, "mi man- 
kind 1 have exhausted my whole foi 
and this staff, and that cup, and 
roots, are all that I have in rerun 
"Did you bestow your fortune. 01 

y lend it 1"' retui 
"I bestowed it undoubtedly," replied the 
other : " for die merit of being 

a money-lender ? " — "' I > 
that they received 

pher. — " A thou 
the hermit ; "the; 
with profession, i 
lions received, and solicilalioi 
favours." — If. then." 
smiling, "you did not li fortune 

in order to have it rete nijo 

to accuse tin tude ; the;, i 

more, and they certainly earned 

■ 

i 

in, — " I hai 

li I you certainly are the man. 
am now fourscore years old, but st 1 1 1 a < " 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



'95 






of man. and edi . one of the 

most "f your 

Indeed, my n, it to have 

fricn< I - 

:, to u i- ;i more tasting tribute 

than on. A- we arc 

n greatly obliged, gratitude 

« recovered. 

* in disallow 

"I in some 
■ cased n itbi 

i pro- 
duce- mutual m 

desire their 

joysof both aic imper- 

incturcd with 

I ion : the most ii ifling 

Crmit me in (often the 
which will fully 
uing. 

wife, who had nibbed 

lly ili i, 

' 

ith I" • 
. and ihc hu 

I 

h wuli 

is laid 

■ idei to make 

ry night the 



fiddle-case being placed as a barrier to 
divide them. 

thil tunc, I 
repented of their vow : their reseat 
was at in end, and their love began to 
return : the-'. 

but both had too much Spirit to begin. 
One night, however, as the 
lying awoke, with the detested Bddli 

a them, the Im-band happcr 

i •. u ia anal in 
such cases, bid God Mess him. "Ay, 
bin," returns the husband, " 

' In mi your heart !"- 

. n u ith .ill my hi 
.ise." 

LETTER I XVII. 

To tm 

while they ti ich ii^ to 

make 

ii- unmindful of our own ; while ihey in- 

: ll nailer to grasp nt 

he grows miserable in 

■lentive lo universal lmmouy, 
often forgets that he himself I 
sustain in thi 
the phi 

1 lift in such pleasing ( 
that t! 

fress, lotua to try thi 1 1 

.:- spent Ki- lift 

.. lull !-\ | 

mind i> hlli 

n journey througl 

wuli confid , I 

1 1 
then ! in. that all 

mankind ire »in 

enmity, he h 

or foe ; ex^ectt hiwo. \Vo« V* Vs-««*> 



196 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



erring integrity, and consigns his enemies 
to the reproach of wanting every i 
On tin- 1 10 proceeds ; and here' 

begin bis disappointments. L'pon a 
lion of huni.m nature he per- 
ceives that he should have modem 

nd softened v ; for 

I finds the excellencies of one part 

of mankind clouded with vice, and the 

Lightened with virtue ; 

ds no character to sanctified that 

. none 10 infamous bnl 

attract, our esteem ; he 
- impiety in lawn, and fidelity in 

He now, therefore, but too lati 
ccives that i. -hould have heen 

more cool, and his hatred less si 
that the hid] "in court ton 

friendships with the good,and avoid,if pos- 
sible, the resentment even of the wicked : 
ives him fresh instances 
that tlv I friendship are broken, 

iv, and that those 
!th disrespect more than 
Mi. therefore, 
leclared 
half of mankind, 
ing able to form an alliance 

virtuous '•• espouse Ins quarrel. 

laught philosopher, bom 
is now loo far advanced to recede; and 

though poverty lie the just consequence 

of the many en 

meet it 
wltho 1'hilosophcrs have de- 

i most charming colours, 
iv is touched in think- 
.' he -hall ihow the world, in lii in - 
self, 01 LlieDce, forti- 

tude. 

is there in thee dl 

to the WKI ! I cmpcrancc. Health, and 

Frugality walk in thy tram; Cheerfulness 

and I • ever thy companions. 

lined ol thee, "I »vhom 

The run- 

' I, on 
- Km 

then, 

■ 
The goddess appears ; for Poverty ever 



comes at the call : but, 
by no means the chan 

and his warm imagination had p 

As when an Eastern bride, 

friends and relations hi 

asani" 

the longing bridegroom lifts (he veil 

a face he nai III in- 

stead of a countenance blazing with b 
like the sun, he beholds deformity si 

to in- heart: such Poverty 

new entertainer; all the fab 
enthusiasm is at once demol 
thousand miseries rise up on i!s ruins, 
while Contempt, with pointing fin. 
foremost in the hidi sion. 

The poor nun now finds thai he can 
get no kings to look at him while he is 
eating ; lie finds thai, in proportion as he 
grows poor, the world turns its bad 
li i in, ami gives him leave to act the 
sophcr in all the majesty of sohiudc. It 

Me enough to play Hie 
>plier ulnle we . 

. ''lit what si, 
g the masl 
and mounting the stage ol restraint, 
not one creature v. 

tion? Thus is he forsaken "f men. wh 
irtitude wanl n even 

rose : i><r either he dl ■ 
feel his present calamities, and 
natural insensibility; or he disguises 
feelings, and thai is dissimulation. 
Spleen now bej 

languishing in his re- 
is all mankind « il 

' liberty to r 
It I ■'. tlnl he win i rt I 

solilio III 

cen-ure is too severe, and tl 
merited; the clisconteni rho 

tins in un ■ 
natureil man, who has I 

am v. nil mankind. — Al 

I I- I'll !•; 1 Win 

■ 

■ 

Fan, with the excellence oi 






THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



'97 



I 
1 youth, 

uen of longevity. I son never 

i the encouragement 

f this art : with what in.ln' 

those of her own gi 

and kindly cherish those thai come 

i ' Like a skilful lie in- 

foreign climate to 

I lore every gr 
fool U soon as imported, nnil fed. the 
beam of favour; while the mighty 

i indiscriminate!) I 
supplies each with more than 
■-- nourishrni 

mtries the physician ;•! 

ni the lump : die same 

i- the gout in the toe, 

shall pretend to pi in the 

head; and he who at one time cures a 

mother give drags 

1 low absurd and ridiculous! 

It-of-all-trades. Is 

the animal n l ihan 

than ten different 

-ingle 

iible of the 
• they have 

■her for the 

their sciatica doctors, 

Lting doctors; they have one 

Dodestly content with 

ng ihcrn from bug-bites, and live 

" prescribe for the bite of mad 

learned arc not here retired, with 
from public view; for 
vered with their 
•irs, their am 

:- c.ln 

falling ii 

i with 

i ■! who 

■ 
ifying drops or restorative ck 



but. for my part, before ' cell in 

town, I had leaned to bid I he 

■ lent defiant ... .111.1 «.-.s 
perfectly acquainted with the nam* 
the met! •■■■.ry ere.il man, or great 

ii, of ihcm all. 

pleases cun 
than anecdotes of the great, however mi- 
nute or trifling I m inade- 

abject, 

wuli some account of those personages 
who lead in this honourable pi 

short ■ :i- he 

walks. He alwaj white three- 

heek ; som. ; 

hi an hat !.• ••. i. ii is ind« 
remarkable, that this . 

ild never wear an h 
is, he i -lully 

drawn at the top of his own I 
in hi- arm-chair, holding a little 

between his finger and thumb, and 
rounded with rolten teeth, ii' 

■ in can 

firomise fairer nor Ixlter than he ; for, as 
ie observes, " Bey our di 

'ler no uneasiness, make your- 
lite easy : I can cure you." 

next in fame, thoogh 1'' 
reckoned of equal Jprci< • 
I 
called the I I 
remail. 

n markably tall. I It 

the Christian era 169a, ami 

i-. while I now w rite. 1 1 -eight 

. ihrec months, and foul da] 
Age, however, has no ways impai 
usual health and vivacity- I .1111 told he 

with hi- 1 

This gentleman, who is of a mixed 

which carries bun 

Si nily through life -. for. except Doctor 
none ore more ill the 

nks. 
1 yet the gu :r foibles as 

little I am almost a.,harned 
ition it : let the 1V11I.I, . of the great 
peace! yet I must. \rovMVfcve viVAe. 
to my friend. tUese Vko peA towv 






B^B^bM 



i 9 8 



Tf/E CITIZEN OF THE U'ORI P. 



actually now at variance: yes, my dear! 
Kum I loam, by the head of ourgrand father, 
Ihey arc now at variance like men nun, 

mere common mortals! The champion 

Rock advises the f bog- 

; quacks, while Franks retorts the 

wit and the i they have both a 

al the 
Uation of Dnmplin Dick, He 

the serious Doct'M i nplin 

■.it proiana- 
aplin I Hi k I \\ hat I pity, yc 
. that the learned, a ha 

in enlightening I lie wwM. 

ihould thus differ among th« 

make even the profession ridiculous! 

e world is wide enough, at let 

; eat personages to figure in : men 

nee should leave controversy to the 

little world below them; and then (re 

might sec Rock and Franks walking lo- 

i hand in hand, smiling onward to 

■ -ility. 

i to these is Doctor Walker, pre- 

paiatoi of I 

lletnan is remark 
mucks -, frcqtienllv ear' 

t ireful int.. wfa it hands they commit 
tluir lafety ; by which he would insula ite, 

do not employ him aloni 
niti.l His public spirit is 

for himself. 

a the gallipot prepared, 
[he drops sealed up, with | 

v pan of the to 

. this is for ; 
.0 he is now grown old in thc 

i virtue; 

use his own 

is not in the 

world agar 

'1 h.- 

■v are, 
I am resol 
Chinese phj 

■ toe Kock to 

re the face ol 

mein- 

I "ill : the heart is the 

as the kidneys for 



its mother, and the stomach for its wife." 

I have, therefore, drawn up a disputation 

nge, which is to l.c sent speedily, to 

this effect :— 

'• I, Lien Chi Altangi, D. X. R. II 
of 11. man in China, to Ki 

nWap- 

rlcctly 
ilc of your importance, though no 
Stranger to your Miches m the paths 
naturet yet there may be many tin: 

: of physic with wliich you are yet 
unacquainted. 1 know full well a doctor 

■ i, great Rock, and so am I, \V 
lore I challenge, and do I 
to a trial of learning upon bard problems 
and knotty physical points. In tins de- 
bate we will calmly investigate the i 

. and practi 
and chemistry; ami I invite all the Phil 
maths, with many of the lecturers in - 

I at the dispute, win. h, 
, will be carried on with dui 
coruui, with proper gravity, and as belli 
men of erudition and so 
Other. Hut before we meet I 

I thus publicly, and in the facet 
the whole winl. I, desire you to answer me 
one ipi I I it with thi 

'. v. hull you li ive often 
cited the public; answer me, I say, at 
once, without having recourse to 

d dictionary. — Which of those I nr 
ere incident to the human I 
I 
I beg your repb 
public as tin- ins demand, I am, 
net or ; 

UTTER 1XIX. 

7> tht tamf. 

Nature seems to have 

dm 
epidemic i i it, « hicll are so fatal ii 

■ world, A 

lys beyond the exp 
in China spreads famine, de 
terror over the whole country ; the win 
that blow from the brown I,. 
western desert are impi 
in every gale; but in this fortunate ' 
of Britain the inliabit.r 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



every breeze, »nd the husbandman ever 
sows in joyful expectation. 

Bui though the nation be exempt from 
real evils think not, my Mend, that it is 
more happy on this account than a 
They arc afflicted, it is true, with neither 
famiiK ence, but then th< 

:. r peculiar to the country, which 
eason makes strange ravages 
them ; it spreads With peslilci 
ud infects almost every rank of people ; 
what is still more strange, the natives 
no name for this peculiar malady, though 
well known t" foreign physicians by the 
appr i 

As ver known to pass in 

i the people are not visited by this 
cruel calamity in one shape or another ; 
seemingly different, though ever the some : 
one yea from a baiter's shop in 

the shape of a sixpenny loaf: the next, it 
takes the appearance of a comet with a 
til ; a third, il thn atens like a flat- 
■ i rtli, it carries con- 
sternation at the bite of a mad dog. The 
people, when once infected, lose their rehab 
uitli looks of 
despondence, ask after the calamil 

.ive no comfort but in 
heightening each other's distress. It is in- 
significant now remote or near, how 

werful, the objects .if terra at.iv 

■ hen once they resolve to fright anil 

i'hted. the merest trifles 
nation and dismay: each proportion] ln- 
fears, not to the object, but to the dread 

1 overs in the countenance of others : 

lien once the 

it got- If, though the original 

mied which first set it in 

A dn 'lie epidemic 

• which now prevails j and the whole 

■ cut actually groaning 
The 
ith thai 
i hid] is prudent in such 
i .log at every tt 
ublishes his | 
res his ballet 
of wo: u themsclvi 

m order to face the 
enemy if iu r to attack them. 

In short, the whole people stand bravely 



upon their defence, and seem, by their 
present spirit, to show a resolution of not 
being tamely bit by mad dogs any longer. 

r manner of knowing whether a 
dog be mad or no somewhat resembles 
the ancient European custom of trying 
in suspected was 
lied hand and foot, and thrown into the 
lie swam, then she Wl 
ed off to be burnt for a witch ; 
if she sunk, then indeed she was acquitted 
of the charge, but drowned in the el 
ment. In the same manner, a • 
gather round a do; 
and they begin by teasing t] 
animal on ex-cry side : if DC 
stand upon the defensive and bite 
he is unanimously found guilt v. 
dog always snaps at ev« 
the contrary, he strives to escape by run- 
ning away, then he can 
passion, for " mad dogs I I 
forward before ihem. ' 

It is pleasant enough for a neutral I 
like me, who have do sh 

les, to mark fhl 
national disease. The terror o I 
enters with a disregarded story "i a little 

nii'liig 
thought to 
several that had seen him. The 

' COOKS, thai a mastiff ran through 
a certain town, and had bit five g 
which immediately ran mad, foamed 
bill, and died in great agonies soon 
Then comes an ali ry of a little 

I in the leg. and gone down 
dipt in l .f. \\ hen the p 

have sufficiently shuddered al thai, 
are next congealed with a frightful ai 
of a man who was said lately 1 1 
from a bite he bai 
before. This 

Iter .-till inn: 
the master of a family, with 

:i, "ere all bit by a mad 1 I] 

I the 

' 

where I unlng in th« 

When epidemic terror is thill once ex- 
very morning comes li 

each loves to Wt \Y»e wxuawv, \V 



200 



THE CfT/ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



only serves to make him uneasy, 50 here 

ci.ii listens with eagerness, and adds to 

the tiding! new circumstances of peculiar 

horror. A lady, for 111-uiice, 111 the 

country, of very weak nerves, has been 

frighted by the barking of a dug ; and (liis, 

100 frequently happens. The story 

i\nl and spreads, that a mad 

.1 [righted .1 lady of distinction. 

These es begin to grow terrible 

before they have readied the neighbouring 

village, and there the report is that ■ 

of quality was bit by a mad mastiff 

Locount every moment gathers new 

strength, and grows more dismal as it 

iches the capital ; and by the time 

rrived in ti nm the lady is described, 

with wild eye-, foaming mouth, running 

mad upon all-fours, barking like I 

., and at last smothered 

between two beds by the advice of her 

- ; while the mad mastiff is in the 

1 nging the whole country over, 

;»g at the mouth, and seeking whom 

■ 9 devour, 

good-natured woman, 

; tlous, waked me some 

jo before her usual hour, with 

ihmenl in her looks: she 

I me, if I had any regard for my 

ep within : for a few d 

lent had happened, as to 

I upon their guard. A 

m.vl doe down in the country, she assured 

Id bit I fanner, who EOOn becoming 

mad, ran into his own yard, and bit .1 line 

brindled cow . the cow quick 

rna.l M tin man, began to foam at the 

mouth. ins herself up, walked 

'irking 

otoetimi 1 attempting to 
talk like thefarmi 

ory, I toand my landlady 

who had it 
from a . who heard it from 

mthorit) . 

if 1I11- nature [ho- 
. 11 would be found thai 

who h 

an hnn 1 dog Such 

jenci d, t' 1 

to make the pee 



terrors, and sonietinie. fright the patient 
into actual phren.-y by creating those very 
symptoms they pretended to deplore. 

Hut even allowing thiee or four to die 
in a season of this terrible death (nut foul 
is probably too large a concession . 
Mill it 1- not consiaered, how 
preserved in their health and in their pro- 

?erty by this devoted animal's set 
'he midnight robber is kepi al 
-idious thief 
healthful chase repairs m 
tution ; and ihe poor man find- in ! 
a willing assistant, eager !" 1- 
ntcnt with the smallest 1 
"Ail me of the English ; 

"is an hone I .nd I am a ■ 

to dogs." Of all the beasts 1 1 
lawn or hunt the forest, a dog is th 
animal that, leaving his fellows, attempts 
to cultivate the friendship of man : b 
he looks in all bis 1 

ing eye for ■ foi hint all 

the little service in his powct with 1 
fulness and pleasure; for him b 
and fatigue with patience and resignation ; 
no injuries can abatthi- 1 
induce liirn to forsake his 
di 011s to please, and fearing |i 
i- 'nil an humble -■■ 

in him alone fawning is nol flattery. How 
unkind, then, to torture tins faithful 

lure, who lias left the foi 
protection of man ! how ungrateful 

turn to the trusty animal for all his ua 

— Adieu. 

LETTER LX\. 
From Lien Chi Altmri le Hinff*, ty /*/ nny 

"fii i" Europeans ire them I. who 

nine without tight. No first- 
rate beauty ever had 1 or saw 
more clearly: they who haw 
trade I ortune, need 
hope to find her; coquette-Id. 

■ fixes 
on the plodding mechanic, « 
home, and mind- hi- (ni-iness. 

I am rw men call her I 

when, 1 iny she keeps, she teen 

gaming-table, be very sure Fortune 
there; wherever you see an house with f 



THE CITIZEM OF THE WORLD. 



doors open, be v ■ is not 

not there ; sou sec 

iiiihil woman g l-naturcd and 

ig, he convinced Fortune i 
there. In short, the a em seen accotn- 

. islry, .in.l as often trul* 

If jroa would make Fortune 

,i;e her no longer, if you 

:i. i" be rich, Rod rx y. be 

more eager to ■o.ve than acquire i when 

pcopl- y is to be got here, and 

money is to be got there, lake no notice -, 
vour own bu 

id tecum .ill you can get « 

Mining. When yon hear that your neigh- 

Ited up a purse of gold in the 

never run out into the same 
iut you in order to pick U| 
when you led thai 

- made a fortune in one branch of 

'.our own 111 ordi r 

to lie In- rival. Ho not desire to he rich 
; hut patiently add farthing to 
ps you desp 

".mi a lai thing, 
o friend thai will lend them il. 
ry good thin 
lolbh miller, when ' 

ound that no friend 
j knew hi «i 
Did yi i ill'.- storj of Whang in 

inese learning! he who, 
nil grasping at all, 
hail. 

Wii .oil'-:, was naturally 

ooiiey better 
III of a rich 

tot the 
man ; he might be 
ir aught he kne« : but i 

lcqunintances, and loved 

'any. 

.wild all hiseagern 

had nothing 
ri him ; 



while lny mill stood and went, he was 

lhal III 
which! 

' (action, Vei -.nil 
renal equal tohi-, desires; 

he only found himself ahove want, wh.ua. 
to be possessed of aflluen 
. as he was indulging these 

!. informed that a neqrhboui 
.pi his had found a pan c>f money u 
ground, having dreamed of it three nights 

running before. These tidings were dag- 
■ the heart of poor Wh U 

an I." aays he, "toiling and moiling 

morning till night for a few pall 

while i, roes quietly 

to bed, and dreams himself int< 

morning. Oh that I could i 
like him ! with what ph I 'lig 

round tin- pan ; how slily would I carry it 
home ; not even my wife should lee 
and then, oh, the pleasure of thrusting one's 
hand into a heap of gold up to the elbow I" 
Such rejections only served to make the 

miller unhappy; ne discos tinned his former 

> ; he was quid i with 

small nam-., and leTS began lo 

him. iCven nay he n 

wish, and every night laid himself down in 
onler i 

me unkind, at last, however, r 
ii> mile upon bis 

him with the wished-for vision. He 
dreanv pan of the 

foundation of in- null there w 
a moii-'i""- pan "f ;_; - • I « 1 anil dian 
buried deep in the ground, and covered 
'.Mlh 1 1 me, I leroseup.lh 

i ■, (hat were al last pl< 

pity on his sufferings, and conccah-l bin 
. as is usual 

in money dream*] in onler 

• -uccecding i 
by which he iho of ii- 

lli- \» i- Iu'~ in If; 

he .lill 'Ire 

ne place. 

the thiol i 
"11. and i' 

" ill which the V\- 

The nrsi omen "i »»c»e*'0»x^»^* 3 > 



J02 



THE C/TfZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



a broken mug ; i 1 deeper, he 

lun\- up a house tile, quite Dew and entire. 
ing, he mine 
hut then so large, thai il 
i 'Tic man's stress 

i he. in raptures, to him- 
".li, " belt ii i- ! under tin- u 

l.i rye pan 
i ! I mast e'en go doom 

ad gel her le 

I mming it up." A 

f,.,r.- h. gees, and acquaint! hit wife with 

instance uf their good fortune. 

CCflS&OB may easily 

! Mined : she flaw round his neck, 

•ud embraced trim in in agony of joy : but 

ver, did no) 

• agemess to know the exact sum ; 

retaining, th e re for e, speedily together to 

been digging, 

i hey found — not indeed the expected 

II the mill, their only -•.: 

fallen.— A'lieil. 



LETTER I .XXI. 



V 



■•//.!.' A, .1.1, 

■i it ClnHM. 

ii are as fond of 

■ 

il r tie prlncip - of the 

ii here in minmei i- to repair about 

ar best 

clothe- ten to a con- 

tsion. 
Dented an invitation a few 
ago from my old friend, the Man in : 

nted hour waited upon 

Ii ir. lodgings. There 1 found ihc 

is my 

:. a huh was for- 
mbed down 
wnbroker's widow, 
ol whom, by i he by, my friend 
ofessed admirer, d ii in green 

'i every 
f ; Ml ite beau 

•d ; together With 
ly, in flimsy silk, dirty v • 
ii, and an hat as big as an urn 



Our first difficulty was in settling how 
we should set on'. Mr-. Tibbs had a 
natural aversion to the water, and tin- 
widow, being a liitle in flesh, asw 
protested against walking ; ■ 

■■• ed upon : which beta 

small to carry five, Mr, Tibl 
l.i p. 
In this manner, therefori 
being > by [he a j 

.;- of Mr. Tibbs, a h 
it expect to see a single cri 
for the evening above the degree of a 

monger ; thai 
of the gardens, and that consequent! 
should be pestered with the nobilit] 
gentry from Thames Street and Crooked 
Lane; with several other prophetic ejacu- 
lations, probably inspited by die uneasiness 
non. 
The illuminations began before we 
I, anil 1 must confess, that 
entering the gardens I found ei 

id with more than expected pleasure : 
thclighis everywhere glimmering ihr 
the scarcely moving trees — the full-bodied 

BJght— the nainr.il concert of the bi 

the more retired part of Ihc grove, vyin_ 

wiih that which was formed by art —the 

company gaily dressed, L 

- and Ine labia spread with variou- 

ired lo fill my imagina- 

mary happineai of the 
Aiaba me into an 

■ of admiration. "Head of 
fucius," cried 1 to my frienrl. " I 
fine ! this unites rural beauty with 
magnificence I if we except the virgins i 
immorality, that hang on evi 
may at every de^ 

see how II! 

-" A- for 
I, "il is true I 
:, eh abound in our 
if I idies, as plenty as >| 

complying as any llouri ol 
all, can content you. I fancy 

i Paradise." 
' 
■ a consultation b; 
Tibbs and the rest of the C 

the evening to the greatest advanti 



THf. OF THE WORLD. 



*o. 



for keeping the genteel 

rapanyi 

■in.- Km 
■on, was foi ncuzing 

lace !j sec the * 

: a tlispnl 
fore bi 

ii'.iclcr.-, il ; 
.%• more bittei ;ii i 
Mn TiDbs wond i ' bow pi ij 'I'.- could 

all their rudiments of bn 

to which the oth 

' 

could r-ii ai the head of 
, I carve thro 
of hot meal 

than some people 

. thai hardly knew 

oris from a green goose 

ibably 
. dit- 
to end the dispt 

o be had for supper that was 
irtable. To this ' nted ; 

I mt here a new I 

where they mighl K< ind bf 

, bui inch 

. fur though 

found ii n difficult in.: ■ 
)'.- the keepers ' if the boxes to he of 
-erve genteel 
hat they judged n 

i . v.-c were fi ■ 
irely, and supplied with 

The widow found the - --llcnt, 

: ics the I 
" to be 

]y Crimp's ; ' 
il is pretty 
'ced, I 



find lault with, but their v. 

■ king "it j glass, ' 
ominable." 

By t] thin I lie- \ 

ed in potirl of , 

no prci rid to taste; her 

very set 

Led at 

wreli hed win 

to yield the victory, anil fur the res! of the 
night to listen and Improve It ; 
she wot 

brought tier ! ■ 

ment. 

the box in Mi 

soon convinced that such paltry | 

orrai than satis- 

oucof the singers, but M I 

1 ei know, ii 

that the anger in question ha 

Mi. i ibbs, now will- - that 

; but t" this shi 

. know very well, my 
be, "that I am not in 

mil when one's v. .in- is wt 

ment, what signifies ringing? 
here i- no accompaniment, it 

would be but spoiling music' All 

by the 
in. who, though one 

would think ih.y already I "Ugh, 

joined in the entrc 

■villing to coin in. 
Iireeding, PMC 
warmly, that she seemed neti 

then, Ike lady 
complied, and after humming 
minutes. began with such : 
affectation, as, I OOOld perceive, gave I m I 
little sal to any except ha bus- 

band. He Ml with rapture in 1 
heal time with his hand on the table. 
You must ' I, thai il Is 

the custom of 
gentleman hat 

tanytositasmuleaii'l iii" 
.very feature, every limb, uvuX. kwsxv va 
correspond Vo, W_<\ aVAW-VoTv, *iA -*Vcv\» 



2tH 



THE C/T/ZE.V OE THE WORLD. 



to remain in 
ion. 1" this 
mortifying Eitualton we had continued for 
lime, listening to the song, and look- 
ing with tranquillity, when the master of 
the boa cainc to inform us, that liie water- 
were going to begin. At this 
information I could instantly perceive the 
widow im her seat : bul correct- 

ing herself, she sat down again, repi 

Mi-. Tibb-, 
who lii'l seen the waterworks an hundred 
resolving nut to be interrupted, con- 
tinual her song without any (halt of 

mercy, not li.nl the nn on our 

The widow's lace, 1 own, 
..h entertainment ; in ii I could 
plainl] : niggle she felt bl 

good breeding and curiosity: she talked 
of the waterworks the whole evening 

. .iikI teemed to have come merely 
in order to tee them : but then the could 
.lit in the 1 very middle of . 
ild In- forfeiting all preti 
.'i hie. t>r high-lived compant 
Mi-. Tibbs, therefore, kept on 
i we continued to listen, till 
■, when the song was just concluded, 
the waiter came to inform us that the 

" I he waterworks over ! " cried the 
widow; "the wal iver already 1 

"— " It is m.t my hu-ii, 

mtradict jrou ladyshjp •. 

I'll nin again and see." He went, and 
soon returned with a confirmation of the 

ill-ill I i. -ninny could now 

mad my in. ii. i'- .li- 1 
She ti i the openesl 

legan to find 
t.iult in turn, and at l I upon 

kl Mr. 
ay thai 
1 

.iii.i. ii. ly be 
ii-.— Adieu. 

I TITER I.XXII. 
To tkt mm* 

t this 

i arms, and fighting for their 




cnuiitrv ; tad wool reward do you think 

1C tinker fin in : 

import i the work) 

the * 'i i 

rish to parish 

Iiei in some 
10USC til I 

Such a worthy subject in China I 
beheldinunivers.il reverence; hit 
vices would be I II not with 

dignities, at least with an from 

labour; lie would lake the left hand at 
feasts, and mandarine- thems 

be proud to show their submission. The 

h laws punish vice ; 
laws do more,— the] reward virtue. 

deiing the little encouragement 

to matrimony here, 1 im not sur- 
prised at the discouragernenl given to 
propagation. Would you believe it, my 

i um Koam, thi 
which even forbid the people's marrying 

other I By the I 

, I jest not ; there are such laws in being 

I here; and yet their bra e never 

I been instructed among the Hottentot-, 

nor imbibed their principles of equity 

from the natives ■if An.mi.iboo. 

There STC law- which ordain, that ii" 
-hall marry a woman against her 

own consent 'This, though conti 

what we are taught in 

in BOOM 

I hove no great objection to. Th' I 

1 hich ordain, that no woman shall 
marry against her father and ma 
consent, unless arrived al 

v ; by which is understood, 
1 1., n w omen wit Ii 
. hild-bearing. Tl 
upon matrimony. . 
the lover lo pleat 
much more difficult to pleas 
than young ones. The laws 
the consenting CO tike a long 

time to consider before they marry : this 
is a very en ause peopi. 

• all rash actions done in a i 

I. that all marriages shall lx- 
proclaimed before celebration ■ thl 
severe 

ol \ 'iuous modesty, and many afraid, from 




THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



so S 



iporal interest It is ordained, 

liing sacred in the cere- 

. nut tliat it may be dissolved, to .ill 

.-.es, by the authority of 

rate. And yet, o] 

m of money forgr 

th.it malri- 

obsinictiuiii, that Rilling 

■n surmount thcin must 

Mnd it a bed 

ire not to blame, 

le from 

jing as much as they could. Ii is, 

MB .iffair in 

jilcare 

mnd willing to engage. The 

ind the beautiful, who 

I found to embark, as 
taken away ; and 
MU the old, the ugly, and tin 
I y, are seen to un if they 

ity at all, will probably 
I race like thcmscli es. 
to those laws might 
have i 

It sometimes happened that .1 miser, who 

tig up 
v h 1 fortune 
as mi. 1 a mandarine hus 

Ith lus foot- 
hocx to 

Me his 

I. when 
_ r ned her (>■■ 

ucc ! to see 
In. ileal money go to enrich 
out at the pi 
Ii ■ 

* ho had inherited nil the till 

■ ibility, 
In lii to impaii hei 

nghill . this 
In 



great from being thus Contaminated by 
vulgar alliances, the ol matri- 

mony have been so o iat the 

rich only can marry ai ■ rich ; 

and tin- pour, who won libacy, 

1 increase 1 
with ••'. wife I htu have their laws fairly 

ad the indu 
Nature tell - us, that beauty 1- the proper 
allurement of those who are rich, and 

no are poor; but things 
D contrived, 1l1.1t the rich are 

invited to many by thai fortune which 

they do not want, and the poor have no 
inducement but that beauty winch they 
do not feel. 

An equal diffusion of riches through 

uites its hapi 
Great wealth in (he p 

stagnates, and extreme poverty with 

another keeps him in unambitious uuli- 
, but the inci Ii arc 

. lly active : not 

rty to fear its calamitii 
too near extreme wealth to slacken the 

"ur, they remain still 1 
both 111 a state of continual Audi 
Hot impolitic, therefore, are thosi 

■ . m of wealth 

among the rich ; more nil, in 

to increase the depression on 
rty. 

Bacon, the English philosopher, com- 

Eares money to manure. " Ifgathi 
he, "it does no good ; on 
the contrary, it becomes offensive. But 
spread, though never so thinly, 
irface of ilie earth, it a 
.." 'rims the » 

or it is 
of no benefit to the public ; ii becomes 
I a grievance, where matri 
I few. 
tint upon matrimonial 
community, even considered in a p] 

is injurious. As thosewho rear up 
Me pahu ti 
in, in order I 
so in those countries where man 
mosl free the inl 

■vliere it is eonfini 
■ mile, ■ w*. <» 

Gaoi --*v 



ao6 



THE C/T/ZE.V OF T//E WORLD. 



■imcs a family likeness, 

and every tribe degenerates into ] 

defonnitv. Hence it nay he easily in- 

if ilio mandarines here are 

resolved only to marry 

tlui i roduce a posterity « ith 

'nine faces : see the 

heir of some honijuniMc family scarce 

equal to the al>ortion of a country farmer. 

These are a few of the obstacles to 

marriage here, an-; in they have, 

•:ie •-ml. fox 

celibacy is both I I fashionable. 

i Without a 

. anil old maids, my dear Fran 

i. have been absolutely known to 

ogle. To confess in friendship, if I were 

Iglisbman I fancy I should lie an 

■IT; I should iii'vct find 

courage tn run through all the adventures 

nbed by the law I could submit 

i self upon rcason- 

•i her father, her 

ini ii her. and i long tribe of cousins, aunts, 

.'ml n ! the butt of 

.1 whi church, — 1 would as 

to her 
ther. 

•r reason for thus 
v with so many prohi- 
be that the count 1 

m1 this 

was found tl st effectual means 

uning it. If this was the motive, 

I cannot but congratulate 'he «> 

jeeturs on : of their scheme. 

I, O ye dim 

ip the 
a broki 1. -mi ii 1 

tl with a microscopic eye, I 



1 El ill. 

From Lien CAi Atl.tH{i to Hinffo. by the 1 
Men! Of lif( 

ich, in the vigour of youth, w 
had It 

as we grow old. Our caution incrcasi 
as ou' 

tin.- prevailing 1 

the small 1 il life i- 1 J| 

in u>i I 
I provide for a continue! 

lose contradiction in our nature, 

to which even the wise arc liable I li I 
should judei 

by that whii li I 1 

tells me. 1 1: enjoyments 

brought no real felicity; on 
assures me, that those 1 have felt are 

1 come. 
\ el experience an< □ in vain per- 

.- powerful than 
dresses out the distant prospect in I 

I ; si ime happiness in li 
live still beckons me to pursui 

) new ili-a c 

ment increases im uethe 

game. 

this increased 

frreat e ' 

, and, as she 

nips imaginal 

lo I. Us] »i|l, 

ire than in the \ igoui ol 



TILE CITIZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



207 



rcases, in general, from 

■ ili it, " ! 
i Frcni h 
old port polled up, m itb 
I had ." A mind 

*cl of objects 
les fond of seeing them, 

.nice: from beni 
of the old in ever 
in. They love the world and 
: it produces ; they love life and nil 
- them 

Kit because they have known it 

Chinvang the Chaste, ascending the 
throne of China, comni.inil,'! thai .ill who 
Illy detained in prison iluring 
ing reigns should be set 
Dumber who came to thank 
this occasion tin I 
old man, who, falling 
him as 
r of China, behold 
>rs old, who 
hut Dp in a dungeon at the age of 
I was imprisons 1, thi 

ig even 

Ith the 
of that sun to whi 

i ing the 

. nr rememl but my 

- 
en. I 'cm 

my I". .rui.-i pi MM 

We 



^^^^^^m 



til serve to bind us closer to earth, 
and embitter our parting. Life met the 
young like a new acquaintance; (he com- 

, as yet unexhausted, is ;n 

tlve and amusing : i ; 
pleases; yet, for all this, it is but little 
regarded. Tons who are declil 
like an old In. i 

gen anticipated in firmer con. 
tion; it lias n 
no new improvement with which to ttnr- 

ore -.villi in. reased fru 
and feel all m y of anguish in tfie 

fetal separation. 

Mr Philip Mordotmt was young, beau- 
tiful, d man, I te 
had a complete fortune ol nd the 
love of the king 1 1 i— m b was 
equivalent to riches I ill her 
bl and promised a long 
succession of future happiness, lb. 
tasted of the ent. i 

I even in the beginning, lie pro- 

v. .is tired of 

, tried 

ment, and found tin m all grow 

■ 

if a be ai pi ii «ill 

I 

bitten '. with 

all the -. renitj i m, he 

self-del u.!. i 

grows more desirable to 

old fle- 'nuking, he WOoll 

dared to live, and served thai 
i 
injured by I tUen, 

LKTTER l x ■ 

I 

I nine 
111 (lie 

(t Cm row Wax. v*.^ 



2oS 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



are to gaze at with admiration ; these the 
names that rune will be employed in hold- 
ing up for the astonishment uf succeeding 
ages. Lei me sec — forly-six great men 
in half a year amonnl to just uinel 

; v will 

niembei them all, Ol whether 

the people, in future lim.--. will have any 

other business to mind, bul that of getting 

Docs themayoi of a corporation make 

_!i v lie- i. i! a for a 

■ .lit digest his com- 
monplace book into a folio? he quickly 

tea great. Does a poet string up 
.aliments in rhyme* he also be- 
comes the great man of the hour. How 
diminutive soever the object of admiration, 
iwd of -:ill more 
diminutive admirer-. I'll'- shout begins 
in his train ; onward he marches \ 
mortality; looks hack at the pursuing 
lion ; ..u.' 1 :■ 
■ 
and the littlenesses of coi 
by the 

I u yesterday invited by a gentleman 

to dinner, who promised thai on enter- 

ent should consist of a haunch ..f 

in, I turtle, and ■ great man. I came 

I appointment. The venison 

ie, the turtle pood, but the great 

ic ni I ven- 

■ .nee contradicted 
with a snap. I attempted, by a second 

eve my l"-i 

lion, bul ".I- -nil beat hack « iih 

confusion. I was k him 

■ 

nversation upon I he government of 

i\ens,*' 

hi I, " this n ids to know 

l Inn I 'on ni) •••If!" I looked 

I ■ hi iv t iy side; bul 

every b i Imiraiion on the 

circle 



trr 

n- 

Ml 



uenl ••! I. iraed ..'.sence. 
the common f. n 



breeding, mistakes even a leapot for a to 
bacco-box, il is laid thai his thougl 
fixed on more irnportan: i spe 

and to act like the rest . .. 
be no greater than they. There is some- 
thing of oddity m the very i lea of great- 
er we arc seldom astonished at a 
thins very much resembling ourselves. 

When the Tartars make a Lama, their 
first care is to place him in a dark comer 
of the temple: here he is to sit hall 
ccaled from view, to regulate the in 
of his hands, lips, and eye-; but, 
all, he is enjoined gravity an. I ifl 
however, is but the prelude i 
apotheosis: a set ■ 

patched among the people, to cry up Ins 
piety, gravity, and love of raw flesh ; the 
people take ihcm ai their word, app 
the Lama, now become an idol, with the 
most humble prostration; he receive 
addresses without nces i 

god, and is > fed by his 

wnli i he spoon of immortality. Th 

in this country serves to make i 
man. The idol only keeps i 
sends out his little emissaries I 
in his praise ; and straight, whether stale 

i author, he 
of fame, continuing to I Stic i 

is fashionable to praise, or while he 

a his mine: 
fr.'in the public. 

1 have visited many . 
been in cities without muni 
did I enter a town which 

' t v. el ve of those 1 : >oo; t 

fancying themselves known ti 
the w "i Id. and complin 
upon their extcn I' 

ii when i"" 
tic prodigies of learning mount the 
of ceremony, and give and 
from I 1 have been pi 

when a licrman doclor, for having 
nounced n panegyric upnn a certain i 
Was though! ilie i » i - ■ - 1 ingenious i 
the world : till tin- monk soon 
this reputation by reluming the ( 
ineni . ;h marci 

i universal 

Itends our greal man while livin 
often also [bllows him to the lonib. 




THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



frequently happens that one oi his In lie 
adinir. ; .. lug wilh the inipurlant 

lory of 
his life lay probably 

. 
year In will 
at wl 

of uno id application, !©• 

with some of hi- ira 

li is .inn! and mothei wh 

where we a 

regress in learning, his. 
II in darning stockings, 

; makes his 
.11 the republic "I lettei 

I; his worki are eagerly b 

liOORS. ' 

The le invite him I 

mqucrs 
oi the i ompliinenti 

, and impoi I 

;li his , 
lent of a literary ehib, 
the meridian of Ins glory, 
who thus have some little 
attendant, who never (• • 
towrangle and t" 
; at once re.i 

ind I. 
ive no humble admirer 
thu-, to all | we, who neith i 

and v. ho do 
ire are great men 

men.ji 

LETTER 1 \\V. 

MUM 

ly who live 
m my 



mg a com- 
modity with which the market is already 
•eked — and with goods also better 
than any of modem manufacture t 
Wlui nt lir-i »i 

ill. works of theii t mien 

vet those of the n 

Willi 
the impressi Antiquity 

ha* been in ' 

(I! In -|. Oi' 

and then, if we have leisure, cast our re- 
II ■ bock to the reign of Shonou, who 
'. niythousnni 'ie the 

ii of the rnoon. 

The volumes of antiquity, like a 

may very well serve to amuse the cm 
Inn tin; works of the i 

of a kingdom, arc much I 
fot immediate use : the Cornier an 

'heir intrinsic vali 
with can:; the latter leldi 
than they ar<- 

ninl ell 

ijiiity are eve i 

read: tbl - of out an 

our esteem, ami we boast the pai 

those ol 

blush i" own it. The 

paj the great,— the ceremony is 1: 

I web a>. wc woofd 
n>: our BcqnaintBnce wilhmi 

IS like silling with a i. 

not Battered in the interview, but 

internal -atisfaci 
In proportioa as society ri 
books inns: I 
Savage ru.-licityi- reclaimed bj 

'one : hut the el 
refinement are best corr- Mill 

voice of Indiana inquiry, in 

' i becomes a i 
• i uction 'from the press 
than the pulpit. The preaching I 

■ 

of a fine writer can win . 

refinement. Boa\sMtmce»ri\.o «*• 



210 



THE CITIZES' OF TUB WORLD. 



red the vices of the polite ; but those vices 
are ever changing, and i should 

be changed accordingly— should still be 
new. 

Instead, therefore, of thinking the num- 
ber of new publications here too great, I 
could wish it still greater, as they are the 
most useful instruments of reformation. 
Every country must be instructed cither by 
- or preachers : but as the number 
of readers increases, the number of hearers 
is proportionally diminished ; the writer 
becomes more useful, and the preaching 
bonie less necessary. 

Instead, therefore, of complaining that 

writers are overpaid, when their works 

procure them a bare subsistence, I should 

imagine it the duty of a state, not only to 

r.igetheirnumbers,but their industry. 

rewarded with immense riches 

for instructing only a few, even of the 

ignorant of the people ; and sure the 

poor scholar should not beg his bread, 

who is capable of instructing a million. 

Of all rewards, I grant, the most plcas- 
ine to a man of real merit is fame ; but I 
polite age, of all limes, is that in which 
scarcely any share of merit can acquire it. 
What numbers of fine writers in the latter 
empiie of Rome, when refinement was 
carried to the highest pitch, have missed 
that fame ami immortality which they had 
fondly arrogated to themselves 1 How 
many Greek authors, who wrote at that 
period when Constantinople was the re- 
fined mistress of the empire, now rest, 
tinted or not read, in the lihrn- 
rhote who cam 

while cither slate U set w.i, bar! 

became more numerous, 

and then D 

ut natural, therefore, f"i the • 

when conscious that In II not 

procure him fame hereafter, in endeavour 

ke them turn out to his temporal 
I here. 

be the motives which induce 
■ e or fame, , 

iintry becomes most nappy 

st serve for insin; 

resacerdotal instruction 
milled remain in ignorance, 



superstition, and hopeless slavery- lr 
England, "here there are as man 
books published as in all iherestof 1 

iicr, a spirit of freedom and renso 
reigns among the people : t 1 
often known to act like fool- . 
generally found to think like nun. 
The only danger that attends a mul 

plicity of publications is. that sonic 

them may be calculated to injure 

than benefit society. But where v 

are numerous, they also serve as a check 

upon each other ; and perhap 

inquisition is the mo I terrible i 

ment that can be conceived to a literary 

transgressor. 

But, to do the Engli si there an 

but few offenders of this kind ; tin 
lications, in general, aim either at in 
the heart, or improving the common 
The dullest writer talks of virtue, a 
liberty, and benevolence, with e 
tells his true story, filled with good an 
whole -lavcr 

bribery, or the bite of a mad dog; an 

- up his little useful magazine of 
knowledge and entertainment at least 
with a good intention. The dunces of 
France, on the other hand, who have less 
encouragement, are more vicious. Ten- 
der hearts, languishing eyes, Leonora 
love at thirteen, ecstatic transports, 
blisses, are the frivolous subjects of the 
frivolous memoirs. In Kngland, if 
bawdy blockhead thus brcal 
the community, he sets Iii- whole frale 
nity iii I roar , nor can he cscap' 
though he should fly to nobilit; 
shelter. 

Thus, even dunces, my friend 
make themselves useful. But there aft 
other*, whom nalurc has blessed with 
talents above the rest of mankind : me 
capable of thinking with precision, an 
impressing their thought wit 

o diffuse those regnrds upor 
mankind, which others contract and settli 
upon themselves. These deserve 
honour from that communit; 
they are more peculiarly il 
to such I would pive my heart, since 
them I am indebted for its humai 
Adieu. 



THE C/r/ZEV OF THE WORLD. 



11 1 



LETTER LXXVI, 

Frfm i: i AltaHfi. bjf • 

of M 

I stii.i remain at TeAi, when l have 

liich was r. 

in my 

• I know h 
more poignant 1 the 

even among the 
i>»ia. 

'vwitli 

] nun- 
net ; nature 
all the i 

izing tin- affi 
I 

attends even 

. with admiration, 
is tin impression ; 

A-ithout 
ness and n 

ixnd, in 

nUhed with 
•ii thai he 
a eoi< ■ uld be 

■ 

. 
ind this 
ill. 
myself plai 11 two 

. , and that the V. 

with all thai luxuriant 

I the trees 
i Ii music— the g; 

■hi:. mi 
—the w hole 

■nee to 



that of llie ni ;>licity 

and nature. 

all ii ii- I 

. and 

[Son in 
icing introduced to 1 'ddess* 

with the same design ; ai 

me not a lii: 

. tin- abode 

felicity. 

After sonu 

She * at Die (""i 

of which stood i 

introduced tike me, a ig hcj 

" All. Ilpa ! how ■ 

hereon 

At tin , with 

ist eyes, 

., but soon 

ing roi linn escry 

in Ins favourable sentim nl 

; and at i 

mony lasted lot 

■ 

have nothing 
\\ ill tl 

■ 
' C H I ii 1 1 -I 

nun. when, 

I] le, I "..- 

I at Ik*. 
"H\\tL\K. -ax. 



212 



THE C1T17.ES' OF THE IVOR IP. 



angry air ; " the goddess of Beauty is 

• visit her, 

■ml find hot more 

bcaud' le her." 

added the female — " I D BCt 

Ions turned I; "] 

all Tier fenl 

-till the same, He 

but il Is -till |ii>l Richfl DOM BOH 

was half .in hour ago : could die thnra :>. 

tittle more mind into her face, perhaps I 

i be for wishing t r i have more 

not ! !' i- -In- any occasion for .1 mind, so 

ttnre -' If 1 
I, there might be 
reason for thinking to improve it . 
lnii when features: arc already p 

would but impair them. 
iily .\i the point of per- 
i, and fine lady should endi 

n thought would but disturb 

III v. 

To this speech 

liest 

'■wnl all thi I 

in tlic 
11 of Beauty, now upon lite same 

C and 

■""I-Ihwiii.iw. We hail 
the pro- 
herc to 
One of "in 

that it 

fourth, that 

In khort, we 

of fin 

lelaj 1 ' wart of 

I once 



cecli 1 gave no rei 

: of my way to (he \ 



upon the soul, and ea 
with the charms of our retreat. 
however, we continued to 

might still I 

though we could not see from 

old find thegodd ■■, seek 

rt under one form, for 
a thousand. Ever changing under the 

I tlian 

. the eye 1 

- 
humid 'i jojTi 

..tiler 

dess cannot br pi uittful 

under any one of : :. >y © ifn* 

billing them all •' 

LETTER 1 AXVll. 

.*« Cki Altai 
FmUrnt .7/ the Ctrrmi 

Tin thopiof London areas well furnished 

■ 

the buyer th.il they li.iw- il 

hull. 

- iIm- morning to bu) 

nightcap. Immediately upon 

the mercer' - 

two men, " il 

appc3i' 'iiwn.iii.U 

were certainly the civillcsl pet 

if I but looked, they flew to 

where ' 

them ■ 

pretties) fittest 

in the 

Dot pretend to in si 






THE C/T/ZEX OF THE IVOR I D. 



uisy Imngc-: 
Mod tlie men 

ted a 

i, hi-, life' : " 

in assure you, my 

•n ill is piece 

this \- ■ But, friend, 

I, " though my lady I I sack 

from ic. i - ■ jiy thai I should 

for n nightc 

nv nine look well 

ome gentleman." Thii short 

ably upon m; hough 

iked the silk, I desired him 
rat oft' the pattern of a nighti 

ieU to 
airmail' took 
down - of silk still liner than 

) et seen, and spreading them 
tne, " Tin he, "there's 

-kin has !■ 
the fellow to this for the birthnight this 
Darning; ii would look charmingly 
:- "- " Bul I don't '.. 
replied I. "Not w 

i ued the mercer : "then 
! rou 10 buy one ; when 

lepend 
| will come des 

o much justi 

iking ii •, i. 

I 

ring the 

ii th 

j in their mi 

■ ilk is 

Without wai 

" If the nobility, 

10 any 

mourable, 1 ihuul 
Uinly Olftom; - 







lord, ii is .ii once rieli, taata nnd quite 
the thing. "— " I .-.in no lord." interrupted 
I. — " I beg | but he 

S leased to remember, when you intend 
.i morning gown, that you had an 
offer from me of something worth i 

ence, sir, coi 

dealing; you may buy a mormnfi 
now, 01 

burnable ; bul il 
to advise." In -' 
d I'lira, he persuaded r. 
morning gown sis 
have persuaded me to have 1 
the goods in his shop, if I 1 
long enough, or was furnished with 
Ik knt money. 

Upon returning hornet 1 could nol 
reflecting, with some astonishment, 

this very man, with such I edu- 

cation and at 

r, and 
moulding me lo hi 

Ouiy answering hii own pun 

liile be attempted to 

Of van: i intO 

■ en, and pal 

immediate pleasure. Th 

of animals ; it is dilTu-ed in bill a \oy 

■phere, bul within 1 1 . 

tea. 

LETTER I.XXYii] 

iitmr. 

apt i" i the mod i i 

loui pe . the sun. '1 1" 

point 

oui ii li.u i~ most m i. ara in 

that kingdom is on odd ion 

g even 
peoale, v\. swevv'^ 3 -"'* 
, A *vtH >oaS 



a^H 



SI4 



THE i " OF THE WORLD. 



* it than others, and 

Ult. 

I know not how it happen 

appears a sickly delicacy m the faces of 
That may have unro- 
ll look 
But as, in 
. 
\, th.it they 
lly think tl Old ; n 

i prepare for new con- 
Mil, out without 
II affect the girl, play 
1 ilk of senti- 

ictnajly dying with age. Like 
tttempts to 
brilliant 
ofhei 

! they 

if; and, i" oonf 
re the very politest 
in other places a 

jh ill isV your chanty with ■ 

ibr U with ■ smile 
and ihragi 

istance of this people's breed- ' 

iiEet An I 
ipeak In. native language in a 

where he w ■ 

him ; a travelling 

silent if ac- 

ith the language of hut 

ryj lint a Frenchman thai) talk to 

a troubling his h 

up the o I, fixes hut eye full in 

which be answers himself, Foi want of a 
cply, 
iheif civility to foreigners Is not 
Imitation of them- 

I 

[ion is great, ma., 

e, every hovel a ; 
igeL The;. 
their mouths wide 
open, ami cry out in a tiptUI 



What beauty! O Ciil ! what 

Tandeui I was ever any 
people like we are the 

of men, and all the rest no better tint 
twodegged barbaj 

1 fancy the French would make the 

I if they had but meat; 

aa ii i,, they can i ..at five dif> 

• from a nettle- top, 
a dock-leafi ami twice as many fti 
. mnches : these cat prettily em 
me i. a little used to them, arc easy 
'of digestion, antl seldom overload 

i with crudities. They seldom 
dine under seven hot I 
indeed, with all this in 

■ 
but ill that I cam. ry with them, 

who have got no line 
their backs may very well be cx.cn 

n religion itself I unity 

among them. Upon their roads, at about 

every live miles distance, jrou 

- of the Virgin Mary, 
in grin he tinted check 

I red petticoat; before 
i kept burning, at which, with the 
permission, I have fre>| 
I 

tented with 

. 
fitted out in complete garniture, 

sponge. 

becs'-wa.v, and vinegar-bottle 

from h 

but bungling worl 

In passing through their towns you 
frequently see the men sitting at the doors 
knittin . while the cue of cnlti- 

vines 
I the women. 1 ! 
reason why the fair sex are granted 

ir privileges in this country; par- 
ticularly, when they can get horses, of 
riding without a si 

i t.i think 

description pert and dull enou 

in which the French usually d< 

foreign 

of tint ridicule ba 

they attempt to lavish on others.— Adieu. 



THE C/TfZE.V OF THE IVOR I D. 



LETTER LXXIX. 

Ta tkt m att - 

I mi two Ijeatres which serve to .iniu-e 

Miens here are again opened for 

ulcr. The mimetic troops, different 

of the slate, begin their am- 

when .ill the other- quit the field; 

.1 tinr: when the Europeans cease 
>ihcr in reality, they are 
I with mock battles upon the 
stage. 

The dancing master once more shakes 
his quivering feet ; the carpenter prepares 
■ -I" pasteboard; the hero re- 
solves to cover his forehead with 

ud ti icotM op bet 

tail, preparative to future opera- 
all arc in motion, from 
carrier, in yellow 
index the Great that 
stands 

ive already commenced 
ties. W p r, open war, and noq 

given ! Two singing women, 
bice heralds, hive begun the contest ; the 

inn oc- 

the finest pipe, the other 

the finest manner; one c-irtsies to tlie 

- other salutes the audience 

le; one comes on with m 

which asks, the other with boldness v. Inch 

extorts, applause ; one wears powder, the 

other lias none ; one has the longest waist, 

but (hi ill, all 

is important and serious; the town as yet 

perseveres in its neutrality; a cause of 

moment demands ihc nio-t mature 

v continue to exhibit, 

and .' ossiblfl this contest may 

continue to please to the end of the season. 

But the generals of either army have, 

as I . feral reinforcements 10 

ince. If they pro- 

r of diamond buckles at one 

have a pair of eyebrows Out 

I the other. If we onl- 

int altitude, they can 0Vt 

. if we can bring 

ey can briii 

i, who stmt and 

ler their swords to the astonishment 

re, that people frequent 



the theatre in order to be instructed as 
well u I smile lo hear the 

n. If I ever go to one of their 
playhouses, what with trumpets, hallooing 
behind the stage, and bawling upon it, 1 
am quite dizzy before the peiformnnce is 
over. If I enter the boose with any senti- 
ments in my head, I am sure to have 
none going away, the whole mind being 
filled with a dead march, a funeral pro- 
in, a cat-call, a jig. or a tempi 
There is. perhaps, nothing more easy 
J than to wril nglish 

j theatre j I am amazed that none are 
I apprenticed to the trade. The author, 
1 when well acquainted with the vol 
thunder and lightning ; when versed in 
all the mystery of scene-shifting am 
doors ; when skilled in the pro 
to introduce a wire-walker or a wall 
when instructed in every actor's peculiar 
talent.and capable of adapting . 
to the supposed excellence; when thus 
instructed, he knows all thai can give a 
modern audience pleasure. One player 
shines in an exclamation, another in a 
1 groan, a third in a hoi: 

start, a fifth : a sixth foinl 

! a seventh fidgets round the stage with 
i rrvaat) -. tli it piece, the ; 
wiH loocce d bat ; ropi i 

opportunity of shining : the 

- not so much to adapt hints 
the poet, as the poet'l to adapt himself lo 

the ai ■ 

The great secret, therefore, of tra| 

Writing at present is a perfect ocqi 
' ancc with theatrical ah's and on 

cei lain number of these, intersperse 
1 gods ! tortures ! racks ! and damn 

shall distort every actor almost iota 

vulsi. ms, and draw lears, from 

totor ; a proper use of these' will infallibly 

fill the whole house with applause. 
above all, a whining Rene must strike 
most forcibly. I would advise, from my 
present knowled. 

.-.ourile players of the town ("intro- 
duce a scene of this sort in ever)' play 
the middle of the hist act 1 
would have them enter with wild 

id arms ; ti. 
for speaking, they are onbj ta \jjokv *.v 
^ each other -, rticv. must, W| tab vow** cJ 



Ji6 



THF CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



ma) 

MIS' 
Ml 



CUI 



exclamation and despairthrough tbe whole 

theatrical gnmut, wring their figures into 

evcrv shape . and, when their 

i props quantity 

of teat-, ii 

they may go off in dumb solemnity at 
Dt door?, clapping their hands, or 

slapping their pocket-holes : this which 

may b tragic pantomime, will 

r every purpose of moving the 
II i. words could have done, 
and it must save those expenses which go 
in author. 
\ll modem plays that would keep the 
audience alive must be conceived in this 
nd, indeed, many a modern 
- made up on no other plan. This 
is the merit thai lifts Dp the heart, like 
into a rapture of insensibility 
'lie tniiul from all the I 
iking : this is the eloquence that 
in many a long-forgotten scene, 

which I 

: this the lightning thai flashes 
no less in the hyperbolical tyrant, who 

'sts on the wind, than in little 
ess as the babe lull 

— Vdi 

LETTER I.XXX. 

Ttf tkt lame. 
I iiwf. always regarded the spirit of 

which appears in the Chinese laws 
An order for the exe- 
• if a criminal is carried from court 
iw journeys of six miles a day, 

Saii with the most 
Ich. If five sons of the tunc 

r| them 

■mimic the family. 

Its In their 

Simil if mercy 

which 

in will- 
punish thi 01 to furnish 
ry means of 
c who arrest 
i aims ; the 
repress the 
• only 
i case, seems 
t terrors, and permits some 



offenders to escape rather than load an 

I punishment disproportioncd 
crime. 

Thus it is the glory of an Englishman, 
that he is not only governed by laws, but 
that these are also tempered by mercy ; 
country restrained by severe law 
those, too, executed with sev 
Japan), is under the most terrible spec 
of tyranny ; a royal tyrant is general! 
dici'ltul to the great, but numerous 
laws grind every rank of people, 
chiefly those least able to resist oppres- 
sion, — the poor. 

It is very possible thus for a pea] 
become slaves to laws of their own 
ing, as the Athenians were t-. those 
"' It might tii-t happen," at 
in, "lh.it men with peculiar talents 
for villainy attempted to evade the ■ -r - 1 i 
nances already established; their | i i 

drought on a new la 1 
levelled against them ; but the 
degree of cunning which had taught the 
kii:ivc to evade the former statutes, taught 
Inm to evade the hitler also; he flew to 
new shifts, while justice pursued with new 

ind whenever one crime 
lldgcd penal by the state, he left 
coalmining it. in order to practise 
linforbidden species of vill.iinv. Thus the 
criminal against whom the threatening* 
were denounce.! always escaped 
while the simple rogue alone felt the 
'ice. In the meantime. 
became numerous ; almost 
person in the state, unknowingly, at 

every 

don," In (act, penal laws, instead 
preventing crimes, arc generally enacted 
after the commission ; instead ofn 

of ingenious villainy, 
only mnltipl putting it 

with Impunity 

Sncl 

■■• (ometinv 
upon tributary princes, 
deed, to secure tin 

iiirni iheii Osptlril 
Penal laws, 
prope . but they also diminish 






THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



317 



personal security in the same proportion : 

there is no positive law. bent equitable 

:. that may not be apablc 

When a law enacted to 

make y . able with death happens 

.it best 
_;.up| out possessions -, hut when, 

■ t ignorance, justice pre- 

verdict, it then attack* 
whole 
1!,..- innoci 
thn : i 1 , in order to si-cure the 

effect- .. 1 should make a law 

which should take away the life of 
another, in such a case, to attain a smaller 
J, I ain guilty of a greater evil ; to 
sion of a bauble, 
■l valuable 

B experience 
..; may serve to vindicate the 
in. No law could be more just 
mafatatit, when 
governed by emperors t it 

sonablc, that every conspiracy 

■ the administration should be 

yet v. hit terrible 

iccec-ded in consequence of 

prions, stranglings, 

ings, in al ry family of 

distinc way, — 

every criminal had his trial, and lost his 

And inch will ever !>e the cose, where 

punishment 

weak. II, where ■ 

ied in 

a man desires to 

sec penal laws increased, since he too 

vi er !■■ rum 

on : in 

■ if satisfying justice, but ul 

magistrate, who 

person 

or he will lean on the side 

: the hyarna, 
is no way ra 

becomes the ious animal of the 



:nd continues to persecute man- 
kind ever after. A coirupt magistrate 
may be considered asahutnan hyat. 
begins, perhaps, by a private map, he goes 

morsel among friends, he proi 
10 a meal in public, from a meal h 
vances to a surfeit, and at lost 
like a vampire. 

Bcfa hands should [he ndrni- 
nistialion of jusiiee be enliii 
those Who know BOH to lew aid as M ell II 
to punish. It was 
the emperor, whi 

enemies had raised an insurrection in DM 
of the di-tant | n I "tne, then, 

my friends," HM lie, "follow tne, and I 
promise you that we shall quickly di 
them." He marched forward, and the 

ubmltted upon hi All 

..tight thai be would lake the most 
signal revenge, bui 

. rj with mildness and 
humanity. " I low ' " . minis. 

■ ilns the manner in winch yon 

fulfil your pi I was 

given that your enemies should I. 
. and behold yot 

all, and even UBKSMU -onie ! " — "1 ] 

mised," replied the emperor wiili .1 

generous air. 

have fulfilled my word, for ft 

■ ; I ha\e made . 
of them." 

I'his, could it always succe. ■ 
true in 

. well il 

piim-hmcnts art 

1. 1 then a 

< tible, by being execut. 
: let Justice lift her 
to terrify than revenge. — Adieu. 

LETTER I. XXX I. 

Te tk< 

I 11 we as yet given you bsl .'- 
and imperf. . 

.1. Woman, mj friend, 
not easily 

m mv 
dgt of the sex, in a country I 
Ihey nr wed Vcj \*e x\i!ii>\«&. 

x and 1 



2lS 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



To confess a truth, I was afraid to begin 
the description, I i should un- 

dergo tome 01 » revolution before it was 
finished ; and my picture ihonld thus 
become old before it could well be said 
to have ever been new. To-day they arc- 
lifted upon stilts ; tomorrow they lower 
their heels, and raise their heads : their 
clothes at one time arc bloated out with 
whalebone ; at present they have laid 
their hoops aside, and are become assliui 
asmennaids. All, all i, in ■ Itateof con- 
tinual Huctuatioii, from the mandarine'] 

wife who rattles through the street in her 

ot, to the humble sent] 
clatters over the pavement in iron-shod 
patb i 

What chiefly distinguishes the sex at 

present is the train. A- l lady's quality 

or fashion was once determined bt 

the circumference of her hoop, both are 

now measured by the length of her tail. 

11 of moderate fortunes are con- 

with tails moderately long; but 

ladies of true taste and distinction eel nr> 

Is to their ambition in this particular. 

I am told the lady mayoress, on days of 

trries one longer than a bell- 

of Bantam, whose tail, you know, 

U trundled along in a wheelbarrow. 

..i t 1,111a, what contradiction] do 

we find in i Id ! not only 

id think in 
r, but the inhabi- 
tants of a found 
istent with themselves, vt 
believe it" this very people, my 

ram, who ore so fond of seeing their 
a with long tails, at the same time 
>>rsrs to the very rump ! 

hat I am no 

with a fashion which 

land for the com- 

iii. "In. o very bene- 

wbich I was born. 

Nothing can be belter calculated to 

of silk than the present 

nig. A lady's man is 

Ought but at some expense, and 

the public ".ill. 

very few c> ■>rn no 

e bought in 
:. and some 

ladies of peculiar economy are thus found 



to patch up ( ight or ten times 

This unnecessary consump- 
■ poverty here, but then 
we shall be the richer Tor it in China, 

The Man in Clack, who is a pr. 
enemy to this manner of ornamenting the 
tail, as.ures me there are numberless 
inconveniences attending it, and that a 
lady dressed up to the fashion is as much 
a cripple as any in Nankin. B 

chief indignation is levi I 

dress in this manner, without a ; 
fortune i it. lie . 

that he has known some who would 
a tail though they wanted a pctl 
and others, who, without any 
tensions, fancied they became ladies 
merely from the addition of three super- 
fluous yards of ragged silk. "1 kn 
thrifty good woman," continues he, " who, 
thinking herself obliged to cany a train 

i betters, never walks from 
without the uneasy apprehension of wear- 
ing it out too soon : every excursion she 
mokes gives her new anxiety ; and her 
train is every bit as importunate, and 
wounds her peace as much, as the b] 
metbnessee tied to the tail of i 

Nay, he ventures to affirm, that a train 
may often bring a lady into the 
criiie.il circumstances: "for, should a 
rude fellow," says he, " offer to come up 
to ravish S ki-. and the lady attempt to 
avid it, in retiring she must necessarily 
tread upon her tram, and thus fall fairly 
npon her back; by which m 
one' knows-- i may be spoiled. ' 

The ladies here make no scruple to 
laugh at the an 

slipper; but I fancy our wive' in China 
would have a more real cause of laughter, 
could they but .. e the ii 

I uropcan train. II. id ofConfucjtls! 
to view a human being crippling i 
with a great unwieldy tail for our 
sion. Backward she cannot 
she must move but slowly : 
she attempts to turn round, it must be in 
a circle not smaller than that described 
by the wheeling crocodile, when it would 
, assailant. to think that 

all this confers in, 
to think that a lady acquires addi 
respect from fifteen yaids of li 



nailing 



THE C/T/ZE.V OF THE WORLD, 



210 




, ! I cannot contain— ha ! ha ! ha ! 

certainly a remnant "f Kuropean 

male Tartar, dressed in 

i far more convenient 

own writers have some- 

)l the absurdity of 

thisfashion; bur perhaps it lias never been 

the Italian 

ing engaged 

ibroco, 

of hi* hand- employed in 

; her muff, and the other her 

hat bain majestically 

stickin tband of 

—Adieu. 

111! ER I WXII. 
To the tame, 

divided the 
philosopher] of Europe: it is di 

-are more v 
1 to mankind? They 
i ii the cause of literatui 
irove their usefulness from the 
. of a large i umber of men 
i a small Ira y with- 

bich attends 

md from the nifincnce 
of knowledge in promoting practical 
iily. 

who maintain the opposite opinion 
and innocence of 
! nations who live with- 
out learning; urge the numerous vices 
found only in polished 
I irge upon ' I in, ihe 

rt Inch must neces- 

emeni civil 

. in. I Insist upon the happy equality 
-. in a barb . pre- 

•. unnatural subordination of a 

1 i,i .!, puti . ■> iii> i has lire dy given 
so mu 

1 with much 
l-ss our senir 
but little sagacity. They who ins! 

icnces are useful in rel 
arc certainly right, and they » 

that barbarous nations are more happy 
em are right also i b tl 



barbarian as to the native of 
coitimi' i when the Other en- 

deavours to banish then .is prejudii 
■ ren From populous: il 
well as ihabitants of the wilder- 

ness, they arc both » rong ; since 

ledge which makes the happiness of i 
refined European, would eat to 

the pre 

Let me, to prove this, tra. 

for a in. uncut to the mid t "i 
There we 
inhabitant, p . but equal!'. 

of happiness with the mi 
sophcr of China. The uncul- 

tivated and uninhabited for n 
him i bit little family and he I 
undtiputed possessorx. In such cii 

stances nature and reason will indlM I 

to ili.il of . ulti- 
vating the carlh. lie N ; 
to Cliat manner of living which is i 

on at the smallest expense of labour, and 

K d which is most agrc. 

e ; he will | 
■■■•us, luxury to a laborious, il 

nent, competence ; and a know 

rwn happiiu I mine him to 

persevere in nalive barb 

In like manner, his happiness will in- 
cline him to bind I • Liw : laws 
are made in order to .secure p 
perty ; but he is possessed of in i pro 
which he is afraid to lose, and 
more than will be sufScii , 
lo enter into compacts with Others, would 
licuml luntaiy obli] 
out the expectance of any reward, lie 
and his countrymen are tenant 
in the same Inexhaustible forest ; f 

■essions of one by no means 
diminish the expectations a: 
equal assiduity in another; there 
need of laws, therefore, to n | 
lion, w here I 
tending its most boundh tion. 

Our solitary Siberian will, in like man- 
ner, find the sci en ces not only • 

less in directing his pntC4 listing 

even in speculation. In evi 

n our curiosity must be : 
by the appearances of things, befoi 
reason undergoes the fatigue «A \vm*-*c- 

[ the causes. Some <A \\ic&* a.'^vea." 






220 



THE C/Tf/E.V OF THE WOK ID. 



ances are produced by experiment. 

by minute inquiry; some arise from a 

know! ign climates, and others 

nate study of our own. But 
there. i-. in comparison, winch 

Etc, the inhabitant of ,i 
intr>- ; the nme lie bants, 
or the trail- , make 

up the chief objects of hi- concern ; his 

• rlion- 
ably It'-- : and if tli.it is diminished, the 
reasoning (acuity will be 'limini-i 
irl ion. 

Besides, sensual enjoyment ideal 
to cariosity. We consider few object] 

: attention, but those which have 
some connexion with our 
pleasu necessities, 

tent first interests our passions in 
the ptii J inves- 

m then comments where 
lias led the way. An men 
the nn ■ : enjoyments, the 

necessarily produces an increase of scientific 
research : but in countries Wl 
every enjoyment i - 

seems desui' reat inspirer, and 

peculation i; the basinets of fools when 

! bcC' 

The barbarous Siberian is too wise, 

I exhaust hi- time in quest 

of knowledge, which neither . 

prompts nor pleasure impels him to pursue. 

When t"l'i of the exact dmeasaiceaentof 

a degree upon the il Quito, he 

nure in the account; when 
ini.iniied that such a discovery tends to 
ite navigation and commerce, he 
self no way interested in i 
.•very which sonic have pursued 
at the hazard of i. him 

with neither astonishment nor pleasure. 
He is satisfied with thoroughly understand- 
ing the few objects which contribute to his 
1 1 e properest places 
where to lay the snare for [hi 

value of furs with moic- than 
M re extended know- 
ledge would only serve to n ruler him 
; y; it mitrjit lend a ray to show 
him \U 

IB) in Ins clforts to av 
Ignorance is the i the poor. 

The misery of bein I with 



v of fruition 
is mast admirably described in one 
i 'kmaii, the Indian m 

' lephanl that had been pec 
serviceable in fighting the battles ol 
now was 01 

rerhethougl 
should be attended with immediate 

phanl tlianl 
factor on bended knees, and desired to 1 
endowed with the reason and tl 
of ,i mm. Wistni 

. request, an 1 endeavoured I 
suade him from his misplaced am! 

ding it to no purpose, gave him ai 
i of wisdom, as 
correct even the / 

The reasoning elephant went away re- 
joicing in his new acquisition ; mid though, 
his body still ts ancient form, be 

1 le lii-i considered, that it would 
not only be more com: 
more lwcoming, to wear cloth 
happily he had no mcthi ■ 
himself, nor had he the use o 
demand them from others; and this was 
the first time he felt *■ He 

soon perceived how mil 
men were led than he ; tl 
to loathe his usual foci, 
those delicacies which a i.lcs I 

- i but here again he fi 
possible to b itisficd, i"i " ! . >ugh he could 

Main flesh, yet he- found it i 
iible to dress u in any d. 
In short, every pleasure thai i 
to the felicity of mankind sen 
render him more misemble, 
himself utterly deprived of t': 
enjoyment. In this manner ' 
pining, discontente 
and '1 

taking i 

restored him to il" 

pincss which he was originally fori 

enjoy." 

No, my I . nipt 10 in 1 - 

the sciences into a nation ol 
barbarians, is only to render them more 
miserable than ever nature de- 
should be. A life of simplicity is 
to s state of solitude. 



THE C!T!7E\' OF THE WORLD. 






The great lawgiver of Russia attempted 
the desolate inhabit 

DC among them some of 
the politest men of Europe. The conse- 
ihe country 
nnt to receive them 

with a sort of exotic malady ; 
every day degenerated from then 
atkI.k tdering the country 

c soil, 

del to make the 
any country, it ms 
; the inhabitant must go 

■ t'.nt stag.- of hunter, 
>! husbandman ; then, when 

comes valuable, and conse- 

use for injustice— then, 

1 to repress injury, 

.ate possession— when men, by the 

tws, become posM 

when luxury is thus intro- 

continual supply, 

i the sciences b 

they must t!, 

draw 
ble quantit) of pleasure ' 

the bounds of moderate 
nenL 

e of luxury, 

■ in antidote which 

I 

it if, with 
ences also introduce luxury, 

! i en. 

11 K I. XXXIII. 

Hiuffc, by Iht my 

I an age. m] 
continuing the subject 




. take the following instructions, 
borrowed from a modern philosopher of 
" Hi who has begun his fortune 
by study, will certainly Confirm it b] 
severance. The 1 damps die 

passion for pleasure: end w hen 

■ extinguished, life is then d 
supported : thus a man being possessed of 

'-, can neve 
to gie tl id* all 

those meannesses which Indigence some- 
times rsnmvoidably prodc 

"Th. aire attend- 

ing the life of a voluntary student. The 
first time I read an excellent book, 

I had gained a new (Head : 
when I read over ■ book I have perused 
before, it resembles the I li an 

old one. Wi 

improvement, thetriilmg 

as well as the important. It is not one 
diamond alone which gives lustre lo 
another ; 
employed forth*! purpose. Thus I ought 

from the insnll 
Contempt 1 meet with from . 
fellow. His brutality ought (0 induce 
.It-examination, ■ ever* 

blemish that may have given rise i 
calumny. 

" Y*eJ with nil the pleasures and profits 

which arc generally produced by learning, 

often find it difficult lo induce 

their children to study. They often seem 

dragged to what wears the appearance of 

application. Thus, being dilatory in the 

II future hopes of eminence 

Ir 'the;, find themselves 

two lines more polite 

Unary, the I i n seems as 

heavy as a mill-stone, and they spend ten 

D turning two oi tl with 

propri 

" Tl u when 

n baflqi lite and 

mber of little 

b is obliged to n 

'i comes to his turn, appear* quite 
-Tie. Thi 
v. i 1 1 1 his con 

pi nte. As fat hiiSk. '. 



211 



THE CITI7.ES' OF THE WORLD. 



Now I 

youth 



ml even otters to join in the I 
without eve is the 

1 humour. 
" Bat it i* of no importance (o rend 
much, ■ 

d for any con-ider- 
ablc time, it can never be attended with 
proper improvement There me 

day with intense appli- 

themselves for ten days 
But i I must 

ith unabating assiduity. 

" I; was a saying of the ancients, that 

.i man never opens a book \\ ithout reaping 

1 (By with them, 

re to moke n 

pl romances, n : ■■ I these ore no 

than instruments of debauchery. 

Ili.v are dangerous fiction-, where love 

ion. 

Wokes (here pass 

rns of wii ; intrigue and irimin.il 

gallantry and politeness. As- 

eti villainy, are put in 

lights, as may inspire even 

Ewith the strongest passion ; 
. therefore, ought the 
nth ot either .-ex to dread them, whose 
I "hose hearts are 

in by a Kick-door, or leap a 

I lishmenti that, when 

■ 'mely net off, enchant a young heart. 

It is true, t'le plol is commonly wound up 

r. cuncludcd with the consent 
; y ever)' ceremony 

of the work there 

udable 

■v. virtue is 
i dangerous 

■ut to 
I, and virti 
I 

ice of these 
I their 
■omelhinc elsel Can it 
I with which the 
rue can over- 
come thai which sway 
them to licentiousness? To lie ll 



bKUkati iky a vein.: 

authoi 

" A\ 
assumes the face of virM 
andknowledi 

have found them. A man i- - 
he continues in the pursuit - 
hut when lie once fancies that he has 
the object of his inquiry, he Ihi 
a fool. pursue virtue from the 

man that is blind, who never makes r 
without first examining the ground 

"The world is likea vast sea ; mankind 
like a vessel sailing on ils lempe- 

bosom. Our prudence is its sails, the 

■ s serve us fur oars, good or bad 
fortune ore the favourable or contrary 

. and judgment is the rudder; with- 
out this last the v> d by every 
billow, and will find shipwreck in 
breeze. In a word, obscurity and indi- 
gence arc the parents of vig 
economy ; vigilance and economy of riches 
and honour; riches and honour of 
and luxury ; pride and luxury • 
and idleness; and mil idlcne 

produce indigence and obscurity. 
Such are the revolutions of life." — Adieu. 

1 UTTER LXXXIV. 

Henm. Fill 

■ 
I'tkiH in China. 

character of a poet is in every 
pr. s, ni of the futun 

those of a lot 

jif.-i ted ;. 

racier, whii h, 

is the i te of ih.it v. 

riches. 

The poets of th 

i their indie., m c as ill 

for the bet 



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«3 



p VIII., anrl called TllK Rl 

. that it 

equally impossible to reclaim the 

sta who sued for reception from 

">"i poetry. To be sincere, 

iu an account of the lives 

poets, either ancient or 

n, 1 fancy you would think me 

in collecting materials for a 

human wretchedness. 

■I and beggar of 
I the ancients: lie was blind, 

illada about the streets ; 

i a bis mouth was 
more frequently filled with verse-. I h in 
with bread. Pfautus, the comic poet, was 
licttcr o(T, — he hai 

poet fol his diversion, and helped In turn a 
null in orderto gain a livelihood I 
was a slave : and Boelhius died in 

Ami dians, Paolo Hurghcsc, 

mod a poe! as i 

ii .i be- 
none. 
Ta»Ki himself, who had the mosl amiable 
of all poet-. n been 

■ I lo borri i froni some 

. in order to pay for a ninnti. 

cat, in which he 1" 
, rye- in write by, being too 

■ .mile. Hut 

I 
demands our pity, His comedli 
i:li the Itali 

Mine in icu of charity 
. but, falling 

which he himself had 

.1.1, ihe gr a 

tain tliat the 
■ 1 his days in an 

U there find 
of the ingratitude 

and one of the h. 

was lumamed the Owl, from 

ing obliged to keep within all day, 

and venture out only by night, through 

List will is 



ing his debls, he goes on thus : " But, as 

Still may remain some creditors 

unpaid, even alter all thauj havi shall I'C 

il i«l, in such a COM il i- mv li^l 

will, thai iu\ bod) should be sold '" the 

im to '.Iu- best advantage, and that 

the pin, base ihoul discharging 

those debts which I on 

that if 1 could not, while hving, at least 

when dead 1 may lie useful." 

of his time, yet all his mail 
him a bare suIjm- 
liy degrees driven into an I 
mankind) from the little pity be 
(banc amongst them, he even ventured 

:u Iflll ungratefully to impute his cal 
ties lo Providence. In his last a;.- 
when the priest entreated him to 
• ■ii the justice of Heaven, ami ask i 
(rem him tl him,—" It < 

here, what i- el any 

from him hereafter?" But being an- 
swered, thai a suspension of justice was 

; thai should induce us to 

doubt of ii; reality, — "Let rue ■ 

continued his confessor, "by all 
dear, to be reconciled to I 

your father, your maker, and friend." — 
replied the exasperated v 

in which he kfi 
me m I ■ (he straw 

on which be was stretched, "you seethe 

Hut the suffering! of the , 

of them lived in a 
At present the 

DO Ion 

sistence; they havi hei patrons 

hut the pnUii . uiilic, collectively 

red, is a 

uently mil 

taken as to the merits oi lid.ite 

for favour: hut to make amends, it is 
mistaken long. A performance, 
for a time 
' e en tcxi \ 
oayvXkXow «A n^ - 



224 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WO 



..v valuable, will soon discover the 

1 1 .i 1 1 ■ i . and an author should never ano- 
gute lo himself any share of succ 
hi- world have been read at least ten years 
lion. 
A man of letters at present, w !» »-e works 
arc valuable, ly sensible of their 

value. Ever) polite member of tl 
inanity, by bnj ins «l. J he 
tributes i" toward him. The ridicule, 
herefore, of living in -., garret might have 
wn in the lost age, hoi continues 

no longer. I r true. 

A writer of real merit now may easily \-c 
rich, if his heart be set only on fortune ; 

i! those who liavc no merit, it i-. hut 
til that such should remain in merited 

my. He may bow refuse an invita- 
tion lo dinner, without fearing to incur 

'ion's di-plcasurc, or to starve by 

lingaibome. fiemaynov, venture 
to appear in company with just such clothes 
as other men generally wear, and talk even 
to princes with .ill the conscious superiority 
of wisdom. Though he cannot boast of 

C here, yet he can bravely assert the 
dignity of independence. — Adieu, 

LETTER LXXXV. 

I HAT! If so long in all the 

topic, lli.it I am 
become an Engluhrnan; 1 now be 

I 
iiineni to all the enemies of Britain, 
a I io mankind fills me 

i for their contentions. I 

the disturbances of Europe 

more amicably adjusted : I am an 

enemy to nothing in this good world but 

lighting Ik: -laics; 

I hate it between man and man; 1 hate 

beady informed yon thai, while 
e also 

n, and thai i 

women b other 

<•"■/ at irse, to 



sing the same song ; and, what i 
more insupporlnble, lu make us pay foi 

beetrinK, 

If they be for war. for my pi 

ve -i public o 

quail ai each ol 

signifies sounding the trumpet 

at a distance, and collii 

1 would 
come boldly into one of I he m 
frequented streets, face lo foce, an 
try their -Mil in quavering. 
1 [owevi i this . 

piece 

of silver moi 

ears for music, thanks be to Heaven, thi 

arenol 

and the Pickpocket to-n 

ickel to-morrow night, and Polly 
and the Pickpocket again 1 1 wi 
I'll hear no mote. My soul i 
all jarring discord and confusion. 
dear three clinking si.. 
■'- bottom ; the m 

. my spirit, than caigut, 

DI all the nightingales that ever 
.. d iii pettta 
But what raises my indignation i" 'he 
degree is, that this piping does 
not only pester me on the 

: ient in private conversation. What 
i> n to me. whether the" of the 

one or the "gTcat manner "of the other 

be preferable! « h il care I, if one has a 

better top or the other a nobli . 
how am I concerned, if on 
stomach or the other sings with a snap? 
It iv a- these mailers are, they make 
a subject of debate wherever I go . 
lusical dispute, especially amori 
fair sex, almost always ends in a very 
unmusical altercation. 

Sure the spirit of content : 

with the very corutituti f the i-cople 

ons among the inl othc 

■e • -ills I'm'HI their highel 

arc made an affair of party hen 

nlo their amuse:. 
iv ladies, w-hosc duty should seera 
v the impetuosity of i 
sex, become themselves party chnm] 
. 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



225 






at 1 lie expense of their lovers and their 
beauty. 

Thcie are even a numerous set of poets 

help 10 keep up Ihc contention, and 

ie stage. Mistake me not; I 

be acted upon it, 

hi the performers, 
— for that is tlie mast universal method of 
writing lot the siage at present It u the 
tage poet, therefore, to 
appearance of every new 
. house, nnd so come out next 
.ih .i flaunting copy of new 
In these, nature and thi 
be set In run races, the player always 
g «»ff victorious ; or nature may mis- 
r herself; or old Shakespeare 
hi on his winding-sheet, and pay him 
Sine may iti 
their harps in his praise ; or, should it 
happen to be an actress, Venus, thi 

|iieen of love, anil the naked Graces, 

■ in waiting: the lady must be her- 

ss bred and born ; she must — 

dl have a specimen of one of 

these poems, which may convey a more 

idea. 

Oh vtiig Jtfri. ftrfprm in tht tkarnctrr 

<•/ 

Tn mi, bn'chr fair, ill'.- Nine addreA- their lay*. 
Anil EUDC HIV feeble : liw. 

: every charm doinc. 
a-und their all rfthine? 

Wlulr m.iiI brought lean Meal down each shining 

She-. : ture all and namclevi Wis* ' 

■ 
n yroves tl"- ijurrn "f Ixive, 
s\ ah faoA coinplaiatj utdnsaod the likening 
J 

I endless hliv*e< all around, 

t- laken in. 

pit**, within. 

that I 

r animosit] 

champions who are at the head of the 

lion; on the contrary, I 

coaTd : e m themusic, if served 

up at proper intervals ; if I heard it only 

rnd not nl 
wherever 1 go. In fact. 1 cooU patronise 
them 1 ce of my con- 

desceii rticBlar, they may 

come and give me a song at my lodgings, 



■■■■ 



on any evening when I am at leisure, pro- 
vided they keep a becoming distance, and 
. while they continue to entertain me, 
decent humility at the door. 
You perceive I have Dot nail thl 

"ooks of Chinese ceremonies 10 no 
1 know the proper share of re- 
lue to every rank in society, 
players, fire-eaters, singing women, dai 
dogs, wild beasts, anil wire-walkers, as 
llu-ii efforts are exerted for our amusement. 
ought not entirely to be despised. 1 I e 
f every country should all»\v iheni 
lo play their trieks al lead with impunity. 
They should not be branded with the igno- 
minious appellation of vagabonds ; at least 
they deserve a rank in society equal 10 the 
rv of barbers or undertakers, and, 
my influence extend 
should be allowed to earn even forty or 
fifty pounds a year, if eminent in their 

.oil. 

1 nrn sensible, however, that you will 
censure me for profusion in thi- 1 
bred up as you are 111 the narrow 

frugality. You will uiidntil.t- 
uch a stipeii' 1 
for so useless an employment. V< : 

■:■■ r surprise increase, when told that. 
though the law holds them as vagal 
many of them eam more than a thousand 
u are amazed. There is cause 
for amazement. A vagabond with a thou- 
sand a year is indeed a curiosity in nature ; 
• ler far surpassing the flying fish, 
dcrab, Or travel US How- 

ever, from my great love to the prof' 
I would willingly have them dives' 
their contempt, and part of their : 
the law- tfamild kindly lake them under the 
wing of protection ; fig them into a cor- 
poration, lit ; and 
ignominy and their pensions. 
As 10 1 lit ir 

would leave that entirely tothepublii 
are certainly, in this case, the properest 

them or no. 

my lum, 1 would abridge their 
pensions. A theatrical warrior, who con- 
duct- the battles of the aid be 
cooped up with the same caution as a 
bantam cock that is kepi lor fighting. 
When one of those animals is taken tiowx 
•e duncluVJ, *« ttWewSi \Oe*j\^> « 



216 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



i iiilily of its food and ihe number 

players ip o ttld In the 

maimer be ttened; they 

tted to get their bread, 

A cat the people's bread into the 

stead of being permitted 

to keep four mistn inscieoce they 

should be contented only with two. 

thus broughl 

I I . ' ' 1 1 • • i i 

a sanguine, [uently 

mising them. We 

truck with the ab- 

teeing the same people, whose 

ich a figure 

in the praise of a bouncing 

. and wrangling in the defence 

- at home. 

Vsen- 
id nation ol Sic the philosopher: 

" \'.,u love harmony," sa\- In. " KM are 

charmed with music. I do not blame you 

fbf hearing a fine voice when you arc in 

, with a lovely parterre under 

.-ye, or in the night time, while 

Si m diffuses her silver rays. 
irry t hi s pa ion 
ipany of com . bans, musicians, 
. grow rich upon his exhausted 
ic! If so, he ■■' those 

se brains the- embalmer 
Iced out through its ears." — Adieu. 

; l.H 1. XXXVI. 

To the sit me- 

s of amusement where 
icid, where, 

se "i font 
ind that h ■ i runs 

- i« reckoned a very polltl 
i ixl ilc amusemenl here, much more 
followed by the nobility than pat 
, or piper kiti 
vend of the great hire. 1 am 

I h of farriery as 

ind a horse with any 
m never want ■ 

i nobility. 

We have a description of this enter- 



tainment almost i 

for instance: " ' ' 
■ live and I 
between hi 

Periwinkle, and Squire Sin 
merkin. All m 
There was I be gi 

bilily thai has been 1 wn hci 

seasons. The i ■ 

Crab in the beginning; but - 

afler the I 

match hollow : however, it wa 

that Periwinkle impioved in wind 

at last turned out accordingl; 

run to a standstill, Slaim 

up, and I'eriwinkle u.v 

! applause.* 1 Thus, 
Periwinkle 
and, no doubt, lii> Lordship 
some share of thi hich was I 

liberally bestowe i upon Periwinkle. Sun 

m ' 
appear in his cap and li vlher hi 
In- whip crossed in his mouth, ai 
coming to the goal, amongst the 
of grooms, 
dukes, and tie 

From the description princely 

amusement now i, and fron 

the gn 

raclcrs of it- principal promoi 
no doubt but I -hall look upon a 
race with becoming reverence, pred 
;i by a -unilar amusement, o: 
1 have lately been a spectator; i 
now I happened lo have an oppoi 
of bciny present at ■ 

Whether this con' 
carts of different parish 

or whether the 

assembled, had gloriously cconbini 
encourage plaustral in >t uk 

QIC tO determine ; bul 

the whole was condui ted with the u 
i ityand decorum. . 
a brilliant 
univer ally "I opinion, that I ! 
high, the running fine, and thi 
i ed by no En 
h was run on the road from I 
to a v 
turnij 

each 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



«7 






iimmiii', and I* his own driver. The odds 
! half a mil. 

ving ones f" ' Ives ail on 

il i! was. Turnip against 
silver. 

the contest 1 

doubtful ; Turnip pi the 

■ d Ilial I lung had 

m. The ro.nl re-echoed with 

nf the spectator*. " Dune 

runup against Dung ! " 

he universal crjr; neck and 

hei had 

in. [ could not bm 

- nerve the ardour with which 

the cause of the 

this occasion : one was 

; li Ihe unwashed beauties of 

ptivated « ith the 

ispeet of Turnip; while, in 

the mi J'lOtny Dust, 

ng behind, was cheered 

by the encouragement of some, and pity 

Of all. 

continued for some 

lory designed the prize. The 
-1 appeared in view, and he 
(re the tumip-cart assured him- 
; and successful hi 

. pproaching aturn from 

'.th lea homewards, the horse 

still, and refused to move a 

The dung-cart had scarce 

time to enjoy this temporary triumph, 

pitched headlong into a ditch 

the rider li.lt to 

ongenial mud. Dust, in the 

■ ame up, and not being 

. amidst the 

I by all the 

. v-ach had peculiai 

I to eat n the prize, and 
red the cart he drove. 

inch 1 
Jewmarket, 

llicrr. re dif- 



ferences in the drcs- of the t] 
none at all in their understanding 
nuality of Brentford are as 
for politeness and delicacy as the I i 

(market The qi ntford 

drive their own carts, and the honoi 

itj at Newmarket rid< 
horses. In short, the- matches il 

lie as rational asthoce in Ihe other ; 
and it is more than probable, I 
dust, and dung are all that C 
to furnish out description in c 

■ :ivc me, my friend : but a ; i 
lik<- me, bred up in a philo^ 
sinn, is apt to regard pcrh.i; 
much asperity those occurrences which 
sink man below hi- station in nature, and 
diminish the intrinsic value of humanity. 
— Adieu. 



LETTER I. XXXVII. 

From Fum Hmm to Luh CAi Altangi 

YqD tell me the people ol 1 

soy they arc valiant loo; yi 1 havi 

reasons to doubt of lluii valour. They 

are engaged in war 1H0M each Otl 

apply to Ihe Ru- 

and ours, for assistance. Cultivating such 

an alliance argues at once imprudence 

and timidity. All ml for such 

an aid, is strengthening tl 

already loo powerful, and weakening the 

employers, already exhausted by intestine 

commotions. 

1 cannot avoid beholding the Russian 

• as the natural enemy of the more 

■n parts of Europe; n 

ly possessed of grt 

''ienatureoflhegovemnii.nl. 
reatening to become more powerful. 
Thli extensive empire, whkh, both in 

I thud 

lequen t the timet, 

ii has increased in 
th and extenl 

mals, 

:.\ \\\C \»« <& •C*R 

.\, ini\ cc>\.wt»*» 






128 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



possessed of an unbound ed extent of do- 

■ learning the military .in at 

Ihe expense of oihcn abroad, must every 

day grow more powerful : and it is pro- 
bable we shall heat Russia, in future tim< *, 
as formerly, called the Offitina Gentium. 

It was long the wish of Peter, their 

monarch, to have a fort in some of 

the western puts of Europe: many of 

and trade ted lo 

this end, but, happily for Europe, he 

in them all. A fort in the | 
of this people would he like the possession 
of a floodgate; and whenever ambition, 
t. or necessity prompted, they might 

then be able Hie whole western 

Inundation. 

Believe me, my friend. I cannot suffi- 
ciently contemn the politici.m - 

who thus make this powerful people arbi- 
trator! in their quarrel. The Russians 

i refinement 
trbarity, which teems most ai I 
to military achievement; e they 

ting in the western parts 
I is not the feeble eflic 
IS of effeiniiney and dissension that 

them. The I 

■ 

- 

its, the tr.i 
■ in. 
II ' n-nce, reason, nature, 

..f iris lom before the 
I mankind, but they will not read, 
.•en with terror a .> 

% of lain. si; 

multitude b 

ds I he face ol 
and threaten the whole world with ntin. 
in the fertile 

■ 

if the 

ech i ipe3 

( seen 
in the 
other * i, and renewing their 

villi unwearied per- 
>n wherever 
nig men and an 



and, « 

heaps infecting thi 

had made ! Like these have rx 

ions of men When . 
and almost resembling their baile p, 
in the forest, subject like them 
instincts of nature, and 
alone in the 

we seen whole armies stari; 
once from their forest* and 
Goths, Hun-. V 

human form, wil 

name, without laws 

numbers all oppos 

overturning empiic.s, an. I. idler h 

destroyed whole ipre 

i in, how h 
them Muk op 
more I 
than they !— A 

I ETTER 1.XXXVII1. 
Frgm I 

■ 
Ftk: l 

As the instruction of the fair sex in lh 
try is entirely committed 

as their langiu ; 
masters, hair fri 
are all fiom abi 
■us of opening a female at u 

myself, and made no i I w ' 

quite a foreigner, of meeting o I 
■ ion. 

In this I intended lo i 
ladies in all the com 
wives should be taught 

Iheui ; I ■■ 
a wife how i 
sick, without i;i\ in 

the cliolic in the 

uishing evi 
should be able to 

n i pedant u 
and a prig, a stptii 
and his monkey ; but <-! 
be taurdit the art of nun \ 

laborious laugh 




But 1 hove discontinued the pi 

governing 

Mil SO 

much oul of fashion, tbal a lady is very 

bond at .ill ! 

nk of 

are crowded with old 

ind the hoUXi with ladies 
who h nd are 

iv for the future 

i be • ■■, I could 

give the fait sex, u tilings stand at 
present, i- to get husbands u I 

img in 

ion, not even Bahvlon 

.. more truly deplorable than I 

n ilie virgin bloom of sixty-three, or 

a battered unmarried bora, who squibs 

about from place to place, showi 

Iris cars. The one ap- 

in in the form of a 

or i roll of pomatum, 

n i he shape of an electuary or a 

old once more, therefore, advise 

to get husbands, I would 

them not to discard an oM 
lit very sufficient 
the new with ill-nature till they know him 
lei not prudes allege the fa! 

ttetles the pl easures of 
ii parents the no 

1- of penny for penny. I 
reasons thai 

articular. In the 

Sfi -re, I divide the 
. 

ou and myself the 
present with an 

Vmidar, 

just I 

hi island unfrequented by the 

mtinent. In this 

i iili .ill thai wild uncultl- 

• while her children 
a» yet Micnce, 

un- 

' 

as the young ladies wet pposite 




i prudery, the other of being a 

The eldest was ever learning 

maxims of wisdom and discretion from 

nrnia, while the younge 
all her hours in garing at her own face in 

a neighbouring fountain. 

" Their usual amuaemenl in this solirude 
was i. ii mother had taught 

them all the secrets of the art; she 

showed than which were the i 
places to throw out the line, what 

and the best manner to draw up tin 
prey, when they bod hooked it. In this 
'i then tun', 
in, till one day th 

hei a sturgeon "r a shark 

which 

h. 1 'he d I, and 

ng on a gold fish, the usual bah on 
- t taioni, went and sat upon 

of the rocks, letting the glided 

down with the -In am. 

"On the opposite shore, farther down, 
at the mouth or the river, livi 
for pearls a youth who, by long habit in 
his trade, was almost grown arophib 
so that he COOld remain whole hours at 
the bottom of the water, without ever 
ig breath. He happened to be at 
thai very instant d the ladies 

led hook. Seeing 
therefore the bait, which to him ha 
appearance of real gold, he was r. 

bands being 
already filled with 

: ,i s ithbis ii 

d , the 

i- instantly 

. with 
all hia efforts 01 hia il' Hindering, get 

-I princess, 

' 1 haw- certain)] i monstrous 

I anything struggle 

id of my line before , 
i.i-lp me to draw it in.' Thej 

I in fishing up the 
on shore ; 1 i equal 

him. ' Bit 

eries the prude, ' h hal 

Id U-W,\t«\»e •»»«.-, 

1 never BaM tuvj\\\vo.!j, vo wq X'fcWV' 



what eyes, what terrible claws, 
what ■ monstrous snout I I have read of 
i hire — it cer- 

tainly must be a faulting, thai 

i ; lei us ihron - : in into 

id it.' 

I he diver, in the stood 

DpOD the beach at the end of the line, 

with I lie ho'. 1. In bis month, ii-ing every 

tl be thought cool e pity. 

ami particularly la mely tender, 

is usual in nich circum-', 
The coquette, therefore, in tome measure 
influenced by the innocence of his looks, 
I her com] 
. -isler,' says she, ' I see 

nothing in the animal so my terrible as 

:..' pleased to apprehend ; 1 think it 

may Serve well enough for a change. 

Aiwa] '"I tfurgeons, and lob- 

ih, make me quite Dck. 

1 fancy a slice of this, nicely grilled, ami 

dressed up with -liump sauce, would be 

very : I fancy mamma 

I like a bit ove all 

things in the world ; and il il should not 

sit ea- i. it will be time 

Minnie it when found 

i know.'— ' 1 1 

the pred« i ' WOuld the girl be pen 

1 tell yon it is a taalang; I have read 

of ii iii twenty places. It is everywhere 

- heme the must peri 

animal that ever infested the ocean. I 

i lain it is the most insidiotu ravenous 

worl I, and is certain 

internally.' The 

-■•*■! : both assisted in draw 

riolencc from the -liver's 
jaw ; and he. finding himself at I; 
nil breast against the broad 

" Just at ink juncture the mother came 

to the beach to know the cause of 

lid her every 

g the monsi 
The old one of 

•n in the • 

two black eyes she had received in 

liitlc addicted to boxing 
liquor, ' Alas, m ..' cries 

' what have you done I the fish you 



caught was ■ man -fish ; one 

tame dome-lie animals In the v 
let him run 

about the garden, and he v. 

been twenty limes more enter! 

our squirrel or monkey.'—' Ii 

says the young coquette, ' we will Ii 
ain. If that be all, I'll 
icks to one pound oi snuii, I 

him whenever I please.' 

they threw in their line once more, 

with all their 

• i never afn i 

ilmi. In tli -olitude ami 

appointment they continued Eta many 

;, but without SUi 
till at last the Genius 
pity to their distress I the 

prude into a shrimp, and the coquette 

'• r. " 



■ Adieu. 



1 BTTER I.XXXIX. 

unused, im dear Turn, witl 
lof some of the learned hciv. One 
nliall write you a whole folio on th 
section of a caterpillai ; aim 
swell hi Ii scription 

plumage on the wing of a butter)' 
third shall sec a little world on a peach 
nd publish a book to describe 
ee more clearly il 
minutes, only by being furnished with eyes 
aii'l a ra 

1 have frequently compared the i: 
standi -w 1 1 clauses. 

Their held of vision i- ton CO 
take in the whole of any but n 
v view all nature i"t I | 
ii proboscis, 
the pinna; of— a flea. Now the |xilypw» 
comes t 

is kept op, to see how long il w II 

without ealn 
outward, and nov 
Thus ll 

nl in experiment, » 
tion, by which alone 
may be properly said to 
last th. 

things, contract to the sue ol the 
nutive object, and a sineje mite sh 
the whole mind'- I 
Yet believe me, m> friend, ridiculous I 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



men are to the world, they are set 

II for each other. 

They b ippomted for 

in which one shows bis 

I by .ill the 

1 1 is powder, 
its thai result in 

nothing and ' * itfa adi 

ipplause ; ■ ool with the 

in the skeleton of a mole, and is H I 
as the accurate and sensible ; while one, 
irtanate than the rest, by pick- 
ling, potting, and preserving mo 
putation. 
' rnch men, intend of 
ic public, are 
. in diverting each other. The 

world 

the peculiar 

mat is itself the food of 

Ber, which in i(, turn is eaten by a 

; but there arc men who hare studied 

..Ives into .: habit of investigating 

and admiring such minutiae. To these 

La are pleasing, as then 

pend whole days 

in endeavouring to solve em. 

ic puzzling sticks of children, 

id in their i 

to a faulty excess. They 
v found to supply I 

nd then by 

;lit up into a cult' 

(ruih of opinions which, even i i 
eared founded only 

The Europeans have heard much i 
kingdom of China : iis poll 

. laws, and morals are, how- 

■ 

They have even now in ili.ii 
Warehouses numhcrlcss u : 

end machines, of the use 

noranl ; nor 

m even mail 

[Ol what they might have been dc- 

mgh this people be so 

ignorant of ; China, 

iphers I am describing have 

to long, learned, laborioi 

.' what China was two thousand 



years ago. China and European ha] 
are but little connected even 
but European happiness and China two 
thousand years ago have certaii 

urn nt all. However, the learned 

have written on, ami pursued the 
through all the labyrinths ol 
though the early dews and thi 

led away, though no ' 
to direct the doublm! 1 1 
they run fol I 

scent, and though in fact lliey follow 
nothing are earnest in the pursuit. In 
this cl 

line-, feir example, confidently as- 

sures us, thai China was peopled by i 

colony fiom Egypt. Sesostns, heol 

II army as far as i! thl ic- 

.-.ht si ill have 
gone as far as China, which is bnl 
usand miles from thence ; i' 
he did go to <_ lima ; t! 

lulled before he vent there : 

i il by him. I 
[ions have pyramids; the < I 
.nlikc manner, theirpon ■ 
ypttans used to 
upon every rejoicing ; 

lantcms upon the same occasion: the 
inns had 11: 

■ to put the 

of China and thi il were 

called by il | i 

i.i, if we- only change A' into .-/, 

.. nil il,. 1- ii, | er 
therefore the Chinese are a i 
Egypt. 

But another of the learned is entirely 
different from the last j and he will hive 
the Chinese tu be a colony planted by 
Noah, just after the Deluge. First, from 
the vast similitude there is between the 
name of I'.ilii, the founder of the Chi- 
nese monarchy, and that of Noah, the pre- 
server of the human race : Noah, Kolii, 
—very like each other truly ; they have 
each but four letters, and only two of the 
four happen to differ. 1 Dgfhen 

the argument, Fol inesc *Y«t>- 

uo va.\.\v«. ^swfcv, w N 



*3* 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



true, had a father, as the European Bible 
lull- us; but then, as this lathe 

■'.y drowned In the flood, it is just 

IBM as if DC had no father at all ; 

-".ill mill Kohi arc the same. 

iter tlit flood the earth was c o vered 

with mud; if ii was covered wMi mud, 

it must have been inenstated mud ; if 

Incrustated, it was clothed with 

I this w.i, a fun.- in. 

fbi Noah to fly from In- wicked 

children ; lie therefore did fly from them, 

I'jumoy of two thousand miles 

for his own amusement ; therefore Noah 

and Fohi in the sane. 

An ot h er sect of literati — for they all 
pass among the vulgar for very great 
Khol.u hinese came 

neither from the colony of Sesostris, nor 
from Noah, but are descended from Magog, 
Meshec, and Tubal, and therefore neither 
Sesostris, nor Nujh, nor Folii, are the 
same. 

It U) thus, my friend, that indolence 

assumes the . -lorn, and while it 

the cup and ball with infantine 

luily. desires the world to look on, and 

i lie stupid pastime philosophy and 

■g. — Adieu. 

LETTER XC. 

Tl Ik/ 1.1 »tt 
Wilts" the men of this country are once 

! of thirty, the; regularly retire 
year, at propel intervals, to he in of the , 

Die vulgar, unfurnished with the 
luxurious comforts of the soft cusl 
down bed, and easy chair, are oi. 
when the fit is on them, to nurse it up 
inking, idleness, and ill humour. In 
such dispositions unhappy i> the foreigner 
v, ho : them ; his long 

chin, tarnished en.it, or pinched hat, arc 
JVC no quarter. If they meet 

■ iyncr, however, to tight with, they 

k, generally content with 
it her. 
The rich, as [hey have more sensibility, 
■crated upon with greater violence 
by tins disorder, Different from the poor, 
becoming more insolent, they 
totally unfit for opposition 

would have faced a 



culvenn when well, if the fit i 

shall hardly find o Miff a candle 

An admiral, who could have opposed 

broadside without shrinking, sn 

whole days in his chamber, 

in double nightcaps, shuddei 

intrusive bn 

■ • only by his black 
■ 

In the country this disorder .. 
attacks the fair sen .; in town it i 
unfavourable to the men. 
has pined whole years a I 
and complaining nightingal 
retirement, shall resume all I 
in one night at a city gaming-tabl 
husband, who roared, hunted, nod 
drunk at home, shall grow • 
town in proportion to 
humour. Upon their arrival in 1. 
they exchange then disorders. In c 
quence of her parties and excin 
he puts on the furred cap and scarlet 
stomacher, and perfectly resembles an 
Indian husband, who, when his wife is 
safely delivered, permits her to transact 
road, while he undergoes all 
the formality of keeping Ins bed, and 
receiving all the coi 

But those who reside constantly in I 
owe this disorder mostly to the infli 
of the weather. It is impossible to dc 
what a variety of ti 
wind shall produce ; it lias , 
tu change a lady of fashion ini 
: an alderman into a i 

penser of justice - 
rat-trap. Even philosophers then. 
are not exempt from its influence ; it has 
often converted a poet into a coral 
and a patriot senator nil.. ., 

Some days ago I wen 

Man in Black, and enten 

that cheerfulness which the 

a favourable reception -I'trc*. 

Upon opening the door of his ; 

I found him with the most ruefu' 

imaginable, in gown and li 

nightcap, earnestly employed 

to blow the German flute. Struck will 

the absurdity of a man in the decline 

life ihu 'ution 

and spirits, eves without the i 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



m 






of being musical, I ventured to asl 

could induce him to atl 
difficult an instrument so lite in life? To 
tins be made no reply, bnl groaning', and 
Mill holding ili._- lime 10 hil Up*, continued 
me for some moments very 
>, and then proceedi d to pi 

having pro- 
i :ety of the most hideous tones 
in nature, il last turning to me, he de- 
led, whether I did not think 1 
: progress in two 
" Vou lee, 1 continues he, "I have: 
tinrl'iii'':,\i already ; and as for fingering, 
ti lis me, I shall ba 
more." I was so much as- 
ed with this instance of in 
ambition, that I knew Dot what 10 replj ; 

ed the cause of all nil 

absurdities : Dt) friend was under a tneta- 
■v the power ol 

- unluckily become his 

ion. 

In ruder, there!. 

rptibry, bj i indulge it, 

rid of ' 
pleen, by communicating it : 

dness of a man in this life; 
the happiness of some wrought out of 
the miseries of Others ; the n 

wretchea should expire under punishment, 
enjoy affluence in tran- 
quillity " I led hiin on from the inhumanity 
of the rich to the ingratitude of the I. 

i insincerity of refinement ! 

i i-t had the 
store him to his 

him to 
- of human 

nnl of the detection of a 
Oien called the thief-takers. I 
over the many hideous cruelties of those 

of mankind, of theil 
friendship to ' leant to be- 

Ig them. I could 
pting the i. 

men !' As 

■y had 

1 1 veil , ! years, and 



een enriched by the price of blood : 
'And yei.' cried I. 'I have hi 

..rid. and am desired to call these 

men inv brothers !' I read, that the very 

man who led the condemned wretch to the 

I he who fal-clv IWOOT his 

■ Anil yet.' continued I. ' that 

perjurer had just such a nose, such lips, 
such hands, iml such eyes, as Ncv 
I at last came lo the account of the wretch 
that was searched after robbing one of the 
thief-taken of half-a-crown. Those of the 
confederacy knew that he had got but thai 
single b iu the world ; after a 

long March, therefore, which they knew 
Would be fruitier-, and taking from him 
the half-crown, which they knew wasall he 

leofthegari: nately cried 

cut, 'Ala-.! i r creature, let him keep 

all the rest he has got ; it will do hnn 
. where we are sending 
him.' This ml an instance of such 
plicated guilt and hypocrisy, that 1 threw 
down the book in an agony of rage, and 
began to think with malice of ali the 
human kind, 1 sat silent for some minutes, 
and soon perceiving the ticking ol my 
watch beginning to grow noisy and troublc- 

1 .piickly placed it out of hearing, 
and strove to resume my serenity. 
the watchman soon gave me a second 
alarm. I had scarcely recovered fron. 
wheu my pence was as>aulted by the wind 
at mv window ; and \* hen thai ceased to 
blow, I listened for death-watcbes in the 

■i. I now found my whole rysterfl 

discomposed. I strove to Bud ■ n 

in philosophy and reason ; bnl what • 

where direct my blow, when 

I could see no ..i.eiuy to Comhftt 1 I 

no misery approaching, nor knew any I 

had tO .able. 

Morning out hi Par tranquillity 

in dissipation, satin 1 Me place of 

Siublic resort to another, but I. 
cable to m 

Bengal 

lancing, fencing', and i 
Ai 1 1st I placed my a! 

and find, thi mens. 

i&ja.\.t«2*«=ci 
anxiety." — .VYicu. 



«34 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



LETTER XCI. 

Tf Ik* tnmr. 

It is no impleading contemplai 

lei (be influence which soil ami 

clim.r n the disposition of the 

. the animals, ami vegetables 

of different countries. That among the 

brute creation is much more visible than 

i, and (hat in vegetables mo: 

■ ice* those plants 

winch are entirely j».i,<uioiLs at home lose 
their deleterious quality by being carried 
i. there a: | in Macedonia 

so harmless as to be used as playthings 
for children ; and we are told that, in 
some parts of Pes, there arc- lions so very 
timorous as to be scared, though coming 
in herds, by the cries of women. 

1 know of no country where the in- 
fluence of climate and soil li more visible 
than in England ; the BUM bidden cause ' 
which gives courage to their dogs and 
cocks, gives also a fierceness to their 
men. But chiefly this ferocity appears 
among the vulgar. The polite of every 
country pretty nearly KSSSnble inch 
other. But as in simpling, it is 

i ultivated production! of nature *e 

arc to examine the characteristic differ- 
ences ol clun.-itc and Mil, so in ■ 

of the people we 

The vulgar English, thei 

ItingtiSfthcd from all the 

il the world, by superior pride, ini- 

ce, and a peculiar hardiness of tout. 

I'cr Id arc 

liner polish than 

id easy 

■ '\ er these, 

JJy form I 

h in genet 

-ut they win. arc left in 
prtmlti ist disposed 

tor so. omfort inlcr- 

of any people under the ran. 
The poor. Inoi .miry, 

are but little prone Id 
with tend.: 

too apt iii engross dl thru pin 

perhaps, too, tbi 

miseration, as they find but Bttk 



olhers. But in England the pooi 
each other upon every occasion 
more than savage animosity, anil 
they were in a state of open w 
nature. In China, u two porters 
meet in a narrow street, they wot.) 
down their burdens, make a thi 
excust othci loi i!, 

interruption, and bee pardon Dn 
: if two men ot > 
nould meet here, thev 
begin to scold, and ai la-t to beat 
other, i Ine would think they had m 
enough resulting from penury ind I 
not to increase them by ill-n 
themselves, and subjection to 
ties j but such consideration- never weigh 
with them. 

But to recompense this st range absu 
they are in the main generous, brave, and 
enterprising. They feel the slight' 
june- with a degree of ungovemi 
patience, but resist the greatest cahir 
with surprising fortitude. Those miseries 
under which any other |>eople in the i 
would sink, they have often showed they 
were capable of* enduring ; if accidentally 
cast upon some desolate coast, thei 
severanceisbcyondwh.it am other nation 
is capable of sustaining ; if imprisoned 
for crimes, their efforts to escap 
greater than among others. The peculiar 
strength of their prisons, when compared 
to those elsewhere, argues their hardi- 
: even the strongest prisons I have 
ever seen in other countries would he 
very insufficient to confine theuntam 
spirit of an Englishman. In short, what 
man dares do in circumstances of da 
liihman will. 1 1 
In the calm, and are called out only 
bat the kindred storm. 

But the greatest eulogy of t 
is the generosity of their misci 
tenderness, in general, of their r 
and highwaymen. I '■ no • 

justice ; still show that thc\ 
i inction in crimi 

of reman. i . 
country iolr 

opens. 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



>3S 



except upon lU-ju fence or pur- 

;ii of other count r 
uiiiiiercilul I" .1 supreme degree; the 

highwayman ud robber here are gene- 
.it least in t lieu- Intercourse among 

each other. Taking, therefore, my 
lie English from thi 

the vulgar. 

they at Ml iger "all 

their faults, and keep their virtues up 

for the inijuirin^ eye of i philosopher, 

eigners arc generally shocked at 

i -t coming among 

find themselves ridiculed and 

v meet with 

: those trifling civilities, so frequent 

elsewhere, which are il mutual 

■ ■ill, without tpuintwoe ; 

they travel through the country, either 

ptanntat i bstinale to cultivate 

meet every moment 
lung to excite (heir disgust, and 
tie to charati 
leen, insolence, anil ill ■■■■ 
In ihi 

imcnl, hul Ihi fit il foi 
lid choose to have others I 
lintance, but Englishmen for my 

ids. 

LETTER XCII. 

To tkt same. 

uimI is ever ingenious in making 

lieggar, 

■ protect, or feed, or to 

shelter him, fancies complete happii 

■boor and i roll meal ; take bin from 

rags and want, i md employ 

him, his wishes now rise one step 
his station ; he could he happy were he 
possessed of raiment, (bod, and ease, 
. wishes gratified e 
rospecU widen a? he 
finds li liluence and tranquillity, 

I, but indolence soon breeds anxiety, 
he desires not only to be freed from 
-essed of pleasure 

him, and this but 
ul io ambition : and ambition » ill be 

n| his future hap; i 
isy, disappointment. 01 I 
But of all the arts of ud out 

by man for his own torment, perhaps that 



of philosophic misery is most truly ridicu- 
lous ; a passion nowhere carried i 

gant an excess as in the country 
where 1 now reside. It is not enough to 
engage all the ennr, 

bal his own globe is harassed with 

wars, pestilence, 01 barbarity; he 

e inhabitants of the mi 
■ •I her imaginary mountains 
md dread tl 
■■ sun, if the spots on his 

. One should mi. 
ii|. .Sophy • 
men happy; but here it serves to make 
hundreds miserable. 

My landlady, some d 
me the diary of a philosopher ol 
desponding sort who had lodged in the 
apartment before me, It cot 

v of a life which 
control] 

ami distress, A k will serve 

q» a specimen of the whole : — 

" MONDAY.— In What a transient de- 
caying miii.->ii..ii are we ; I what 
reasons does philosophy furnish 
to make mankind unhappy I A 
grain of mustard shall continue to pn 
its similitu! 
sions; yet wh.il has been granted to this 

ed, has been denied loom plal 
system ; the mustard seed is still unall 

Inn il.. i ..Li. and most 

quickly Bill to decay. How terrible will 
it be, when the motions of all the planets 
have at lost 
need repairing; when the moon shall fall 

I igluful pari 
when the earth, deviating from its 
track, and with even other p] 
ting its circular revolutions, shall be 
so eccentric, thai unoonfined hy the laws 
of system, ii shall fly off into bou 

I o knock aga b world, 

i light, or burned up by his flames 
in a moment! Perhaps, while I 

ilns dreadful change has begun. 

ids from universal mini \d idioi 

laughs, sings, and rejoices, ill the very 
j face of the sun, and seems no way I. 
wilh his sanation. 

" Tuesday. — Went to Vw& wv ««*. 
distress, awaked. axv& Tiros. «yvaXnt\*» M 



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THE CIT1ZEX OF THE WORLD. 



will 
bcin 
earf 

a m 

of r 






considering that this change was to happen 
at .nine indefinite time ; and therefore, 
like death, the thoughts of it might 

be borne. Hut there is a revolution, a 

lined revolution, which 

Illy come to pass; ytt which, by 

■ ilunc, I slial! never feel, except m 

I be obliquity of the equator 

with the ecliptic ii now i»™iy minutes 

I .m when it m observed two 

ire ago by Piteas. If f 
ise, in six thousand lire obliquity 

will be Mill Lob by an whole degree. This 

ng supposed, it i-> evidail th.u our 

Louville hai clearly proved, bas 

motion, by which the climates mu.t 
krily change place, and in th< 
of one million of years England 
actnally travel to the Antarctic pole. I 
shudder at the change! How shall our 
unhappy grandchildren endure the hideous 
climate I A million of years will icon be 

■-• but a moment 
when compared to eternity ; then shall 

qui charming country, as I may cay, in u 

moment of time, resemble the hideous 

mbla. 

" WEDNESDAY. — To-night, by my cal- 

i, the long pro I i is to 

jipcarance. Heavens ! 

what tenon are impending over our little 

•Inn speck of earth ! Dreadful visitation! 

Aie » I i-ched in its fires, or only 

Smothered in the vapour of its tail! That 

ion I Thoughtless mortals, go 

build DOuses, plant orchards, purchase 

, for to-morrow you die. Hut what 

if the comet should not come! That 

Would be equal]] 'lets are ser- 

periodically return to supply 

n with rod. If our sun, then 

thottld l of the ( q 

. . and all in- fuel be in the meantime 

expire like an exhausted 
\\ hai a miserable situation must 
our earth be m without his enlivening 
rays! not seen several 

bouring sin 

not a fixed star, near the t.iii of the Rom, 
lately been quite extinguished! 

■it.-RSH.vv.— The comet has not yet 

appeared; 1 am sorry for it: fir.t, sorry 

e my calculation is false; secondly, 

iu should want fuel; 




thirdly, sorry lest the wits should laugh 
our erroneous predictions ; and, foi 
sorry becansc, it it appears tonight, it 
must necessarily come within the I 
of the earth's attiaction ; ui 
help the unhappy country on which it 
hit I 'pens to fall ! 

" 1- Kiii.vv. — t rurwholesociet] 
out, nil eager in search of the c .met. W 
have seen not less than sixteen conv 
different parts of the heavens. II 
we are unanimously r« I upon 

one only to be the come; That 

near Virgo wants nothing but a tail to fit it 
out completely U-r terrestrial admn 

"Saturday. — The moon is, 1 find, 

her old [.ranks. Herappul.es, li brat ions, 
and other irregularities, indeed amaie me. 
My la lighter, too, is this morning gpne 
with a grenadier. No way surpru 
1 was never able to give her a rel 

a. She ever promised to be a mere 
expletive in the creation. But the i 
the moon gives me real uneainess j I 
fondly fancied I had fixed her. I 
thought her constant, and constant onl; 
to me ; but every night discovers h> 
infidelity, and proves me a desolate 
abandoned lover." — Adieu. 

LETTER XCIIL 

T<> the Htmt. 

It is surprising what an influenc 
shall have upon the mind, even 

titles be of our own making. Lit 
children, we dress up the pup] 
finery, and then stand in astonishment 
the plastic wonder. I have b 
a rat-catcher here, who strolled foj 
time about the villages near tow n. •• 
finding any employment; at la 
he thought proper to take the title 
Majesty s Rat-catcher in ordinary, and 
thus succeeded beyond his cv 
xvhen it was known that he cat 
court, all were ready to give bin 
nance and employment. 

I!nt of all the people, they who make 
books seem most pcrfec I 

tges of titular dignity. All seem 
convinced, that a book written by 
hands can neither instruct n. i 
none but kings, chams, and 



ipiutc , 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



»37 



inn ii".- right, not only 
ipcrors them- 
lically supply 

A ihould write, and 

ini^lii .'= well >end his manuscript t" lire 
oven ; not one creature "ill 
re-ad In ii ■ : all must be court-brcl 

be court-brad, who 
tpect to please. Should the 

■'sign of emptying our 

own, every reader 

him : even those 

mite lor bread themselves would 

v him, perfectly sensible 

that his attempts only served to take the 

ii mouths. 

yet this »illy prepossession the 

les me, when 1 ■ 

'-lien; production 
ed here were purely the 
. ; theii 1'i-ydens, 
■vays, and Farrjuliars, were all 

; and he who.willl a lull 
Iihik like a I course 

hall rise i" the sublimity of a 

Bui what will !■ is, that this 

very set of men, whoarcnowsomuch 

For i 

loll ."I ' 

I to wit : did I, for 

it their 

smile at the 

ired, my 

lan long habituated 

. will at 
-ess the sub- 
MaAOe. ting he 

i thinking, 
manner, " hich ho 

;, vainly 

II., then are Uiey deceived who 



I from title, dignity, and exteriot 
circumstance, an i 

measure acquired by habit, 
sharpened In- neccti ity I V 

like me. many In. 

moted by ii fiion, » liich 

have seen (he pea in llie little 

I, and theil 
only .. i when they were in- 

ijo) tug the : popu- 

larity : Mich, . is the reputation 

worth I ; ih.it which is ! 

earned i L— Adieu. 

I 1 ! il !■: XCIV. 
Frttm UiH&*. in Uatamt i,' Liih Cki Altithgi, 

in /., 

Whuu «ill my cuaappointnent 

1'ne, and show m. 
staiicy in distress, rather than modi 
rerity? 1 had at least 

fr.im i: of every enemy, and of 

D her nativi 
i e now no more. 
e took the i 
r.-n.l in the dominion of Russia. We 
ilu Ural mounta A with 

eternal snow, and traversed the font 
I fa. v, r» ling lieai in 

keep nn D 

! upon the rapid 
Bulija. and made the beat 04 DUI ■ 
the Iwnl i of the Wolga, wha 
I illcys of C . 
Elierc v lie two vessels in com; 

. and armed, in order to 
the VVcJb 

Of all man- 
kind these i 

the criminals and 

ily to 

thai lie alone; the hanks of" the 

foi protection. Here they join 

-avagc life, and have no 

other ."I -istencc hut plundi 

houaea, friends, or a fixed 
ion, the\ be 
than the tiger, and ns insensible to all t he- 
feelings of humanity. They neither give 

It when uvcrDO»;eiti<i OMilllllXl'*. V 



»3« 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



severity of the laws against then serves 
reose their barbarity, and seems to 
make litem a neutral specie! of b 
between the wildncss of the lion an.l the 
subtlety oi the nun. When taken alive, 
their punishment i- hideous, A lloating 
gibbet is erected, which is let ni ■■ 
with tl !i hook 

stink under their ribs, and upon which 
the whole weight of their body dep 

terrible 

agonies, some being thus found to linger 
I :il days successively. 
W '■■ were but three days' Voyage from 
influence of this river into the V 
wht'ii we perceived at a distance behind 
us an aimed bark coming up, with tiie 
of sails and oars, in order to 
attack us. The dreadful signal Ol 

mil; ii i ■• m the mast, and our 
with lii. gloss could easily discern them 
to be pirate*, It il impossible to express 
nation on this occa-ion ; the 
whole crew instantly came together to 
real means of safety. It 
therefore^ soon determined to send 
r women and valuable commodities 
in One of our vessels, and that the men 
should slay in the other, and boldly op- 
pose the enemy. This resolution was 

loon put in!" execution, and 1 now rcluc- 

d from the beautiful Zelis, for 

since our retreal from I 

The vessel in which dx 

to inv longing eves, in ptopon 

i d us. Thi 
upi hut, Dporie3taniiningourstri 

. sensible Ol 
I 

pursue 
ire had sent away, than 
ot. In this manner i 

arassus for three d.ns, slid i 

<ing. But, 
iinditig it entirely impo 

I lie expected booty, 
is, and 

i no 

lisappointmenl more terrible, 

liecause un The 

ifl width our women and treasure 

were tent off was wrecked upon iie banks 



of the Wolga, for want of a proper num- 
ber of hands to manage her, and the 
whole crew carried by the peasants up the 
country. Of this, however, we wet 
sensible till our arrival ai Moscow; v 

rig to meet our separated bark, we 
formed of us misfortun 
I 1 paint tin 

ii this occasion? Neei 
all I (eel, when I despair of beholding the 
beautiful Zelis in ire? 1 
the future prospect of my life in the 
colouring; but one unexpectei 
fortune has robbed it of every charm. 
Her dear idea mixes with evei 
pleasure, and without her pi 
enliven it, the whole I 
insipid, insupportable. I will 
now that she is lost, 1 will con: 
her ; nor i. it in the power of rime ••> 
reason to erase her image from my heart. 
— Adieu. 

LETTER XCV. 

fanji ni nTfttfjfrt as* I 

Y'H'r misfortunes are mine; but, as < 
period of life is marker] with its own, 
you must learn to endure them, 
appointed love makes the misei 
disappointed ambition, that ol 

less avarice, that of age. These 

three attach us through life; and H 

apon our guard. To love 
Oght to oppose dissipation, and 
endeavour to change the object ol 

ons J to ambition, the happiness i 
indolence and obscurity ; ami 
dying, Tl 
with which we should arm 
; and thus make i 
il not pleasing, at least supportable. 
Men complain of not finding a place i 

no w hal 

indeed complain of, is tint the 
enemy to thai trery repose they seek. To 
themselves alone should they impui 
discontent They seek within the she 

■ I life to sal 

of which al 
month passe meson: the 

year ends, and then In 
still unchanging in folly, 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



*39 






tinning in prejudice. -. man 

every climale anil every -oil n pie 

of gold ; to him a little brook the 

■ ii of the young peach-trees ; I 

a man the melody of bird- is more ravishing 
than the harmony of a full concert 

Dctnre of the cloud preferable Co the 
of I he finest pencil. 
The lift of man is a journey ; a journey 

oust be travi ever bad the 

or the accommodation. If in the 
beginning it i.- round dangerous, n 
ainl difficult, it must cither grow better in 
the era ora learn to 

bear its inecuiality. 

But, thoug' : incapable ■■! ' 

i grand principles, attend ai 

least t 

henslon, 1 am mounted upon awn 

man before me upon a 
tlj horse, al which 1 find some un- 
I look behind me, and 
numlicrs on foot, stooping under heavy 
burdens : let me leant to pity their • 
thank Heaven for my own. 

indei misfortunes, would 
in the beginning weep like a child . but 
"vcred his former tranquillity, 
j lief fur a few A . 

usual, the most merry 

■ ild man in all the pr 

that Ins « ife .lied. In- 

Cuined b) 111' 
tptivity ; Shingfu 
K; the next wenl t" 
i In- dinner. 
The company were surprised to see 

merry, when suffering such gical 
losses . i ine himself 

i iw he, who Ii id 
• ty to calai 

question,'' cries the old 

i- (he most durable, a bard tiling. 

. or that 

"— " A hard 

Hiigfu. 



LETTER XCT I. 

Ervm Litn C/i s ' - >.;. Fi*3t 

I , in China. 

TlIK 11 

friends in < hum is very i 

of Europe. The mourning colooi of 

Europe i- black : thai white. 

When 

they seldom mourn for friend- it is only 

dapping on a suit of sal i ing ft 

l 'or i I' on forgotten, goes 

on as before ; not a single creature mi 
the deceased, except perhaps a favourite 
.per or a laYOUriti 

(.in the contrary, with us in China it is 

. with which 

seen you I 

hould never be I. 
reineli 

i in the principal hall, in publli 
Before it were placed the i 

d other 
animals, in attitudes of grief and re 

Tin. more distant relations of tl 

nn, t I among the number, came 10 pay 0111 

compliments of u . i„i i,, salute 

the deceased after . COUB 

perfumes, and given the bowl 
of departure, when, crawling on bis 
from undei (curtain, out came I : 

I loin, l,ii,, .11. n, il] 

your look- were 
\ : your Jott,ing consisted In 
a hempen bag tied with 

long months did 
mourning continue, By night you la] 

-I discontent byday. Pious man! 

who COvld dm- -et an example of 
and decorum to our count - coun- 

try : where, if we do not grieve al the 
departure of out friends for 3 

All i- very different ement 

a ! I ' Wl 

1' inn. thou son ot I 

.mi I 

iB \,w\ cm tack wNowTOvst 



«4£> 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WOULD. 



willi as sprightly an air as if preparing for 
a Mrthnight; and widows shall actually 
dressforonotherhusbandinlh 
[he former. The! fall is that oar 

mourners clap bits of muslin on 
tin ii Serves, and these are called .*■ 

nustin! alas, alas, very torrow- 

inl truly] These weepers, tlirn, u seems, 

r the whale burden of the 

distress. 

Bui I have had the strongest instance of 

onlrast, this tragi-comical behaviour 

doa Their 

king, whose departure though sudden was 
not unexpected^ died aftei ■ reign >»f many 

('cars. II'- age and uncertain >iate of 
icalth servedi m BOtne measure, to dimi- 
• lie sorrow of Ins iu] jet u ; and their 
»t teemed to 
e theit minds between uneasiness 
lion. 1 i 11 « how ought they to 
I ehaved on such ai Surelyi 

Ihey OH I lo have endeavor- 

I, than to proclaim tin ir kefiet of the 
oessor must 

ir love to weir llie ' 

■I I lie 

ne day 
lieh the ul.l kin;; died they made 

• r the new. 

no conception of 

i nnerof mourning and rejoicing 

renin ; of being n J ; of 

ion with a ji^' and 

yrould havi 

in >l the king while 

In ' 
' "Ml " In 

cd by their 
our r. nl grief |ti ropor- 

linn. 

Ill III. 



want cobblers to mend their shoes, th 

it inting emrx 
rule their kii 

the most philosophic n lion 

i thought ii n 
sorrowful, loput on a melancholy ■ 
or lo set my face by that of the pei 

The first company I came am> 
after the news became general, was a se 
of jolly companions, who \\ 
prosperity to the ensuing reign. I i 
the room with looks of despair, and 
expected applause for ihcsupei 
of my countenance. Instead of thai, 
universally condemned by t 1 
for a grimacing son of a whore, and <'. 
to take away my penitential phie to some 
other quarter. Inowcoi forma 

mistake, and, with the most sprightly aii 
imaginable, entered a com; 
Ihey were talking over the ceremonies i 
the approaching funeral. Hei 

with an air of i> 
when one of the chief mourners ii 
diatclyo!>serviiig mygood humour, de 

to go and grin sum 
else; 'Key wanted nodisa 
there. Leaving th 

resolved to assume a look perfectly 
neutral; and have ever since been sir 
imething b< i 

: nitY I 
Face, uncontaminated with the 
symptom of meaning. 

But though grief be a very 

■ I 

When 1 1 
arc ready - 

ii. If they send mc 
courl the gra) undress fin 

enough 

and wear both : but, by the hi 

fiicius .' to I k, and 

buj ii into tl 

1 
. ■ tli 

I 
I 



THE C/T17.ES' OF THE WORLD. 



got amongst; where being out of black is 

a certain symptom i . w here those 

who linve i 

mourning, and those who have mourning 
will not wear a miserable fa< 

LETTER xcvil. 

To tki tain.: 
for the booksellers here, when 
a book has given universal pleasure upon 
one subject, to bring out several more 
upon the same plan; which are sure to 
have purchasers and readers, from that 
m hich all men have to view a pleas- 
ing object on every- side. The first pcr- 
ncc serves rather to awaken than 

a hell lli.it i 
. the slightc -: ell. ill ei vet to con- 
tinue ii m ; the mei 
diffuse- ifficienl to illuminate the 
tneeece 1 ; and no oi 
can be relished, till that is exhau i. I. A 
Stupid work coming thus immediately in 
the train of an applauded i 
wcana ilie mind From the object of its 
pleasure, and resembles the sponge thrust 
into the mouth of a discharged culverin, | 
in ..ider to adapt it foi a new explosion. | 

i, of dm I. 

i a peculiar mode of writing 
ually precludes a t 

le time 
I reader turn 
it n id. ,i kind of In. mry nausea : and, 
e the port of i 
read, yet hi 
. nougli to wr.de through the 

imbei I I* n iuv elf dim i I 
■ illoni to n vera] -ub- 

md different kinds of composition. 

Whether such originally pleased 1 will 

■; upon me to determine; DUI 

■urn a new I | upon 

Ivcrtisement ; nor 

beyond , 

own face I 
enai.i per. 

perfect epicure in 

mutton will 
Chinese dish of bears' 
claws 

.da, or fuming with g.u- 



lic For this reason there an 
very wise, learned, virtuous, Wi 

? reductions, that have no charms I 
hus, for tie . I • .ml. i ii. i 

coinage nor grace enou 
two pages deep into Thought 

and Nature." or "Thoughts upon Provi- 
dence; 11 or "Thought- u] on I 
or, in.lee.l. into thoughts u] ■ 
at all. 1 can no longer meditate with 
meditations for every day in the year. 
upon diver.-, nibjl : allure 

me, though never so inUres'ing; and as 
for funeral sermons, or even thanksgiving 
sermons, I can neither weep with the one 
nor rejoice with the other. 

But il is chiefly in gentle poetry, where 

I seldom look farther lhan the title. The 

truth is, I take up books to he told some- 

i iew; but here, as it is now managed, 

the reader is told I OS the 

■lid there find. vciy good 

truly, and much exactni 
no information. A 

Eass on before his imagination IS 
gures in a dream; but curi..sit\. indue- 
, ami the wl I affec- 

. 

those sallies Which mend the 
while they amuse the fanci 
quite forgotten ; so that a 
would take up some modern appl 
ind must, in 

-' leave his ^ I 

behind him, take !"r hi 

"imd cpitl.' ■ 
dwell ..n pa 
laboured With minute exactness. 

If we examine, however, "in internal 
sensations, we shall find out 
little pleased with 
we shall find that our appl 
proceeds from a kind ol 
up from others, ai 
tc» dilfv* e, than from what v 
feel. Mine subject- ol which 

almost all the world perceive the futility , 
yet all combine in imposing them upon 
each other, as worthy of praise. But 
chiefly this imposition obtains in literature, 
where men publicly contemn what they 
i apture in private, and approve 

MiXXVt. 

The truth. v», we <xe\vss.\ V\v 



J 4 2 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



in public which arc supposed I" be best 
I Ited, not to do justice to the author, 

ithen with an opiti 
eminent, but Id 

kind, which have already come off 

rich applause, enjoy it all. It is not 

my wish to dimmish, as I was never con- 
siderable enough to add to, their fame; 
but, for the future, I fear there arc many 

{onus of which I shall find spirits to read 
ut the title. In the first place, all odes 
Upon Winter, m( Summer, or Autumn ; in 
-'in. all odes, cpodes, and monodies 
whatsoever, shall hereafter be deemed too 
polite. ibscure, and refined, to 

human com- 

ision, Pastorals are pretty enough 

— for those that like them: but to me 

ipid fellow* 

ih ; and asforCo: 

nut choose his company. Elegies 

and epistles arc very fine — to th 

they are addressed; and u I 
. I am generally able to di 

the "hole plan in reading the two first 

, however, as they are now 

..itmctive moral sermons 

I it would be a fault not to be 

d with good things. There 1 team 

'] great truths : as, that it is impos- 

sible to see into the ways of futurity; that 

punishment always attends the villain ; 

ih.it love is the loud soother of the human 

1 . tli.il we should not n -i-t I !< 
will, — for in resisting Heaven's will, 

a's » ill is resisted ; with - 
Other sentiment^ equally new, delicate, 
iking i VMJ new tragedy, there- 
I -.hall go to see ; for n 
this nature make a tolerable harmony. 
when mixed up with a proper quantity of 
under, lightning, or the 
ulstle.— Adieu. 

I I. ITER XCVIII. 

/;. nV 
le intentions lately of going 
Mam, the place where 
who go mail are confined. 1 went I 

Ian in Black to be my conduc- 
I : 1 lound hirn preparing to 

Wesrminslei rial), where ine Engli 



se to fin. I my friend ■ - 
law -nit, but more so when I 
me that it had been depending for si 
years. " How 
'for a man who know, the 
to law! I am well acquaint 
courts of in-lice in China : ill 

pseveryone of them ; nolhii. 
easy than to get m, hut to get out 

nded with some difficult 
cunning than rats are generally [> 

h," replied my i: 
not have gone to law but 
assured of nil cess before I I" 
were presented to me in so alluring 
that I thought by barely de-daring i 
a candidate for the pii/e, I hud m 
more to do hut to enjoy the fruits i 
victory. Thus have 1 been upon the cv 

imaginary triumph eveiy term thes 
ten years, have travelled forward 

rj ever in my view, but ever out 

, however, at present I fancy 
have hampered our antagon 
manner, that, without some unfr.ri 
demur, we shall this very day 1 
fairly on his back." 

"If thiii- 1 ' I 

don't care if I attend ion to the conn 
and partake in the pleasure 
cess. But prithee, continued I, 
set forward, "what reasons h 
think an affair at last conch 

ven you so many ! 
ments! " — " Mj 

turned he, "that I havi id VeB 

tris strong in my favour, and thai 
are no less than fifteen cases 
" I und> id I ; " those- are 

IOC judges who have already di 
their opinions." 
my friend, " Salkeld and Vent 

ten wl me hundred yean ago gave 

their opinions on cases similar to n 
these opinions which n me, my 

lawyer is to cite ; and those opi 
which look another way are 
lawyer employed by my antagonist 
observed, I have Snlkeld and 
ine ; he has Coke and Hale for him | 
and he that has most opinions : 
likely to c.irrv his c-juse. ' — " But 
is the necessity," cued 1, "of , 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 






a snii by citing the opinions and reporti 
of other*, since the tame good 

former ages, 

is day ? 

their opinioni only 

r judges have 

. 'it at present to direct them : 

. .1 greater, is In former 

many prejudices from 

which rat is happily free. If 

m authorities be exploded from 

i of learning, why 

i in this? I 

of in- 

y suit, 

«ritl be multiplied, formolitl 
time «ill th 
I ts of litigation, : 

the di 

i ■ ■ . ou are 

nil iTi.- world »ill grant, th 

I U|i III COI 

r ii will be understood 
■ s, ii i- the boast of an linglisl 
tli.it I and all the 

world wid adrni- 

i i many 
re our pro 
o many formalities, bul i" 

than one hundred 
unities live in opulence, ele- 
gance, ng our 

plicity of I 

iui judges, are, I , 
which legis- 

ii emperor 

said H) ' ith the bed- 

•ned to keep 

! town 

ow the world how 
little upon aught but 

i me ' what 
■ here —all in bl 

Ititude 

. 



instance, the GatChpole watches ilir man 

in debt, the 

pole, the counscll" 

the solicitor the oatjntrHor, and . 

menu" — ' I 
you," interrupted 1 ; " they wnti b 
other, but it is the client thai 
nil for in mind of a 

Chinese fable, which ia entitled, FtVI 

A--.IMA1 - \ I 1 Ml it, 

" A grasshopper, filled with dew, was 

merrily singing under;. .-'. ngatn, 
th.ii eol ( it foi 
Its prey, and was |usi stretching forth to 
i [or .i lone 
fed only on whangams, \>:-.- 
np t" [uteri on the whangam : a yellow 
bird was Just upon the wine to dart n| 

the serpent; a Ii |usl stooped 

from above to seise the yellow bird ; all 
were intent >.n their pn itndful 

of their dai . te the 

Sriient .it< til 
le yellow bird the serpent, and ihi 
the yellow bird ; ■ "m on 

■ vulture gobbled up 

m. ' 

I hail •candy finished my (able, when 
the lawyer came 10 inform my friend, 
thai hi* cause was put off till ai 
term, that n 

and tlmt all the t pinion, 

that the \ery next hearing ■ 

"If so. then," cries 
: will be my 

for another 

u d, in the ine.munie. mi friend 

I will £ i ee Bed] un." — 

ii.ii br xene 

ttlHIt. 

1 i in iv received a visft from the little 

I found had assumed a new 

1 ipilitfi with a new Milt ol clothes. 

Our discourse happened to turn upon the 

different treatment of the fair 

b the inlln> nly in 

.; our manners, and improving our 
ition. 



*44 



Tin c/Tizr. . o> 






him, bnl thai 3 man was 

man. I. ihau he mIid h.id only one. " ll 

" your men of fash 

1 under some ter- 
I ucezcd by a 
UOWStl ii.il then? U) 

1 .ylio ; they 
i, an indiflan in con- 

iroadi but then they have a 
ih. mi ;it home. I am 

I'll. I Hi,-) ha. 

bill then they li •'■ ciglio ; they 

111. iv li,- il. prived "l" nine and I 

: they have 1 seraglio : a seu- 
-a seraglio, inyd, . wipes 

ice in the w 
ndes, I am told yoai Astatic bcan- 
- the most convi uieol women 
fol they have do lonli : positively there is 

nothing in nature 1 should like M ninth 
U ladn- with. nit s.mls; —uI bare, is the 
Utter rum .if half .the lex A girl of 

■ -i shall have soul enoii 
ii hundred pounds In the turning of a 

tramp ; her mother shall have soul enough 

take match at a I 

.! shall hav, 
purchase the furniture ..f a 
nop j and others shall have 
soul enough to behave as if they had no 

v.nU .il ail." 

" 'A uli i. -pect to the soul," interrupted 
I, "the Asiatics Ut much kinder to the 

i -hi, I he idol .if China, 
i three : the Brahmins give them 
hlieeu ; and even Mah-unet himself no- 
. from Pot 

Abulfcda reports, that an old worn 

.In- Importuning him to know what she 

dise — 

idv.' answered the prophet, 
' on .. , gel there.' — * W 

■'.'' returned the 
a fury. ' Never,' says he j 

' :.,i il, 

he so 

"-■ say grace 

lossy 

-," returned my 



inion, " Inn it i 5 .-. ven 
nionv; for, Krioni 

should not lie as gnu- 
one situation as in the 
honour, I always find myscll much 
disposed to gratitude on the com 
fine woman, than upon silting dov. 
- of beef." 
" Another ceremony, 

Ihrtt days - 

lad) i- placed upon the i 
numberless umnl 

smells her perfumi 

allenipls to untie her garters, a third 
off her shoe t<> play liinil ' 
anothei pretends l. 

.. kiue.li bj 
in the meantime the ■ 

about, tdl i 

band, and all. are mixed togcthe D 

inundation of arracli punch. 
" M; ike me dumb, 

my companion, " but 

Sirelty ! there's some sense in \ 
. 
you shall scai 
thai shall hold her guod-huma 

some civil 

I loved her, but bee. 
charity ; and what do you li 
ten. lei creature's reply? Only tl 
detesti 

all ! Nothing n 

though ugly than 

than a 

1 1, m lingin triis w ild m 

ins invectb < 
Man ui I'-l-i. k, « I.-, enlercil tin 
inlrodtii ing 

: 

. 
Doks, her . 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



*45 



strained; stehodneitbcrbeentangbt 

to laugh witl 
■!i without sorrow. I found 
I just returned from abroad, 
ml in the manners 
world. Curiosil I me to 

he declined 
I own I never found mj 
;ly prejudiced in favour of apparent 
lid willingly 

but lhe com- 

-.me time withdrew, Just, 

the little Bean took his 

tiled me asi |ucsted 

nge 1 r mi .1 twenty pound bill ; 

rapable of doing, lie was 

ited with borrowing h 

—Ad! 

LETTER C. 

From Lint Chi AUtmri /•< tfmgfa fy th* twir 

rirtUCS have been more pra: 

Ity; every practical 
thics tends to increase out sen- 
sibility of the ■ ii -.tresses of others, and to 
1 iv. Philoa 
n praise it, becat 

- cts ; and the opulent 

itten -i treal 
he was known to 
nothing away. 

: many who have enfon 

.in surprised [here are 
ulcate the ignominy of i 

ing; to show ti v favour we 

In some measure forfeit our 
-rate of con- 
tinual dependence on the ■ 

nenL 

one force of 

ion that they are 

iustm- i-t then 

up the 
heerful 
by hope, nor sullen 
tent. 
I 

■ gives 

re, who thrives upon i 



bounty of another, if he has any 

In- worst "i" Krvitude: 

the shackled slave may murmur without 

h, but the hum : 

taxedwith ingratitude upon everytrympten) 
I ; tin.- one may rave round the 
walls of his cell, but the other ling 

all the silence of mental confinement. 1 1 - 

inerca-' ation 

but add-, to the formei load, whicl 

the vigorous mind Irotn rising; till al last, 

clastic no longer, it shapes itself to 

t, and puts ilily, 

It i- thus w ith a reding mind : bill there 

feasibility, receive favoui after favour, and 
■till cringe for mor -pi the offer 

with as little n 

make thanks 

for pa-' n t.i 

Eron dependence, 

dly as vile . 

lUOUS, 

hut h irdid iniml in pi 

i 
y i- misplaced, ot 

injnriOUl : 11 either finds a man worthless, 
or it makes hint SO; and true it is, 
the person t ' rated to be - 

d, ought not to have been ol 

ribe the meanness of a 
life of continued depend d Dot 

be thought to fax 

I subordinations which subsist in 
| 

I frt -in the inferior. J 

obligation on either tide is mutual. The 

son must rely upon his parent for sup] 
but tli- the same ol 

- 

(he subordinate ol 

rids of his -iipc: n this 

obedie n ce the form I to demand 

an inte not the 

dependence I would deprecate, but that 
where every expet" must be the 

result of mere beni 

where the benefit e.in be ki 

without inj-.i 
The el v hunter, for bo- 

at some «.\«vVc\«s, 
. ai\ -, Cms \wi\nwss\. «ra. 






TILE C/TJZE.V OF T//E WORLD. 



n ii. in" 

•ary de- 
mon? a wretch m 

ow rich by benefits, 
vtng either natural 01 
'.. enforce hia petitions, 
this intercourse of benefaction and 

■ii bul little knowledge i 
1 'ii.' world, amidst a cii 
ititudehase 

humiliations 
must ii ..irily increa 

of their d impony : thus 
i mghl 1. 1 oven lI it, he in 

bul n i ■ 

'. bia iindert ..lmeful 

pointment. 

lever ed mis- 
. tli.ii they 
unong iii n 

minds are ; il 

1 'In- humble compznion m ly have at hr-i 

I ie» . ; 

the mortif) ii 

sinks 

Into -i futtterer, and from il 

into slnpid veneration. To 

hi- and take new. 
falsely imputed lo levilj . 

which 

I for every g 

bum 11 Iship. I o 

• ml. I be our pleasure, b i 
oui •!> , i i.J affluence 

ilcsire of rising by lobour ; 
itanc.-. and disrespect, that of 
by extorted benevolence: t lie 
in thank himself alone for the 
he enjoys is truly oles' ; and 
uore lovely, the sturdy gloom 
ivming 
hriving adulation. — Adieu, 



1.1.1 ! ! I. i 1 

hi AllAKfi li A'um 
frru 
J'i-i'l-1 in China. 

In every society some men 
teach, and 

• rk, and othc 
ncss the Inn 

how Ii 

lip port of their libert) and 

those ' 

nity ; and I 
first inllllen 
of their governors shouli 

; the succeeding 

- ol their .: hi. 1 Ml 

and men arc generally !• 
by a few. In making 

retard the c 
what is to be pi. nine. 1 
I of counsels; the judgment ol 

the labyrinths of intrigue, ami then 1 

as the fable ■ furnished w il 

head and many tails, is n 

which i- furnished with 
inant hi 

Obvious as these Inn' 
of this com. 

force. Not satisfied wiih iln 
i.l internal peace and .. 
murmur at th 
in the execution ■ 

in, were 1 I 
1 < aliments in the 

iry : — 
upi had long been prim 

along the western confines of i 

his administration whatever i4- 
i could be del ana, 

commerce, were - 
the people ; nor « 
cautions of providing for the 
the state forgotten. It often 
however, thai a are possessed of 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



247 



nil the 

lictions, Mid 

. foreboding 1 
ills are to have an end. I 
The people now, therefore, endeavoured 

I on! grievances ; and, liter some ' 
search, actually began to think themselves . 
aggrieved seams) the enor- | 

• 'f Talcupi ' to the throne 

in due 1 
the country, willing to satisfy her subjects, ' 

I day in which his a< 
should !"■ hi ird, and the minister should 

> 'eing arrived, and the minister 
broug' -' tribunal, a carrier, win. 

supplied the- ciiy with nsh,appearedainong 
umber of his accusers. lie ex- 
ed, thai il was the custom, time 

immemorial, for carriers to bring theii hah 

upon a hone in a hamper; which being 
placed on one side, and balanced by a 
stone on the other, was thus conveyed 
with t ty ; but that the prisoner, 

moved either by ■ spirit of innovation, or 
ips bribed by the hamper makers, 
had obliged all carriers to use the stone 
no longer, but balance one hamper with 
another -, an order entirely repugnant In 
the customs of all antiquity, and tl 
the kingdom of Tipartala in particular. 
"The carrier finished, and the whole 

.hook their heads at the inn 
hen a second witness ap] 
cctorof the city buildings, and 
disgraced favourite of having 
- for the demolition of an 
' ruin, which obstructed the passage 
e of the principal streets, lie 
ed, thai such building-, were noble 
tiquity ; con- 
tributed Sni n how little 

"lerstood of architecture; and 

nich monuments should 

I gradually 

low appeared. Tins 
•rasa widow, who had I tempted 

ipon her hush 

the innovating minister had prc- 
l the execution of hei 

anil ci 

leen could have pardoned tin? 



two former offe n ce s ; but Hi 

considered as so gross an injUl y 1 . . 1 i . . 

and so directly contrary 

of antiquity, that it called foi imm 

'What:' ened the Queen, 'not 

suffer a woman to burn herself \\h- 
thinks proper! The sex are to be 
tily tutored, no doubt, if they tmi 

I Iron) entertaining their female 

friends now and then with ■ fried 

quaintance, I sentence llic 
criminal to be K 

injurious treatment of 

the 11 

"Taktipi had been hitherto silent, and 

spoke only to show the ofbif 

don. 'Great Qoea n,' cried he, ' I 

acknowledge my crime ; and since I am 
I" be banished, 1 beg it may 
ruined town, or desolate village, in llic 
country I have governed. 1 shall lind 
some pleasure in improving the soil, and 
bringing back a spirit of industry 
the inhabitant-..' His request appearing 
reasonable, it was immediately complied 
with ; and a courtier had orders I 
upon a place of banishment answering the 
minister'fidescription. Aftersomemi 
search, however, the inquiry 1 1 
less; neither a desolate village nor a 1 
town was found in the wnoli 
'Alas,' said Takupi then to the ' 
'how can that country be ill governed 
which has neither a desolate I 
kami in ii f The Que 
the justice of his ejrpottulation, and the 
minister was received into more than 
■ur." 

LETTER CII. 

Te the snmr. 
TMI ladies here are by no means such 
ardent gamesters as the women "f Asia, 
In ihis resiied 1 must do the English 
justice ; for 1 hive to praise where 
platise is justly merited, Nothil 
more common in China than to see two 
women of fashion conlinue gaming till 
one has won all the Ml 
stripped her quite naked : the 11 
thus marching oil in a double sun .if 
finery, and 11 bind in 

the primitive simplicity of nnwt. 

No doulA yov\ icnvenvOex viVKCvSwawj 



«♦* 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



.lunl, played with a sharper. 
■Tiey went ; then her trinkets 
were hex clothes followed 

>y piece soon after ; when s!i 

thoa played herself voile nake d, being a 

spirit, and willing to pursue 
Iced Iter teeth : fortune 
was against her even here, and her teeth 
ed her clothes. 

nd, oh ! hard f.r ■ 

, the bad the con- 
on of biting the sharper, for he 
perceived tl nade of gloss 

till it became his own. 

1 1 rw happy, my friend, are the English 

. who never rife to SOcfa an in- 

ordjnance of passion! Though the sex 

Uy fond of games of 

nik-lit to manage games 

I] from their infancy, yet they never 

e ill fortune with such araaang in- 
i. I may entirely 
r playing— 1 mean of plajing 
eeth. 

It i- true, they often stake their fortune, 
. . health, and reputation, nt a 
imetimesha] 
thai they play their hosbanda into a gaol; 
ill they preserve a decorum anil 

Mid daughters of China. I 
ecu present at a rout in this country, 
:i woman of fashion, after I 

het money, has sit writhing in all the 

I of bad luck, and yet, after all, 

attempted to strip a -in-le 

* cover the hoard, as her last 

id-clothes. 

Ho w ever , though I praise their mode- 

.\t play, I must not conceal their 

hi China our women, except 

npon some great days, are never pcr- 

I to finger a dice-box; bol 

every day seems to be a festival, and 

Itself, which gives others rest, only 

the fem.de gamester's 

i have been I Id lady 

ho, being given 0> 

i lie curate of 
to pass the time away : having 
il Ins money, she next pi 
(■living for her funeral charges : her 
. hut unforti 



There are some passions which, tl 
differently pursued, arc alti 
equal consequences in every eou 
here they game with more persev, i 
there with greater fun- ; hei 
their families, there trie- 
naked. A lady in C! 
a passion for gaming, often beoaeaei a 
drunkard ; and by flourishing a dii 
in one hand, she general!;. 
brandish a dram-cop in the other. 
be it from me to say there are anj 
drink drams in England ; but it is natural 
to suppose, that when a la 

everything else but her hou ". die will 

be apt to toss that int<. 

grown insensible to n it ■ i 

like the Spaniard, who, when >] 

money was gone, endeavoured to b 

more by offering to pawn his whiskers. 

— Adieu. 

LETTER CHI. 

/■.,•«. Litn Chi AUtrngi It , Men 

rtffiML 

I HAVE just received a letter from my 

son, in which he 

lessness of his endeavours to 

striva to cover, under the appearance of 
fortitude. .1 heart t'.ni with anxiety and 
pointment. I have offered little 
I consolation, since that but too frequently 
die sorrow winch it | 
deplore, and ru the impression 

which nothing bill the external i 
time a 'hnroughly efface. 

He informs me of Ins ii 
quitting Moscow the liist oppon 
and travelling by land to Anrsti 
I must, then-fore, upon his arrival, entreat 
the continuance of your friendship, and 
j beg of you to provide him with 
direction, for finding 1 1 1 • 
can scarcely be sensible of the 
expect upon seeing him ono 
' ties between the father and the son 
uol I hini are mm h i | drawn 

than with you of Eorope. 

The rem. ' me from Argun 

Mo Moscow came in safeiv I 
id mire thai spiril "i 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



249 



are the only untutored 

le of (lie globe that cultivate the 

■■-, evea without knowing that 

I have been 

uprising tilings of thai go* 

, and the 

niunterrupted commerce between China 
I as a collateral confir- 

' 1 .' u ■ , " ivs the Ch m se lawgiver, 
rude virtues of the ignorant, 

imitate the inls of 

lite." In the count r> where 1 1 
1 honesty and benevolence 

irt supplies the place of 
Though here ever* vice i- carried 

■i, yet every virtue IS pi 

with unexampled superiority, A city like 

of] for great virtues and great 

the villain can soon improve Ii 

In the deepest mysteries of deceiving; and 

the practical philosopher can every day 

new incitements to mend his honest 

1 pleasures, s, 
il il, which this city does not 

Induce; yet, I know not how, [ could nol 
ie COnlenl la reside here for life. There 
educing in thai spot in 
othing 
bfll it 'in please. What) itudes 

■ e in life, however »e toil, 
resoever v. . out fatigued 

still recur to home for tranquillity : 

lie in that spot » hich gs 
ml in that pleasing expectation find 

reel ve that I have 

Mentions of leaving this country; 

and \'-t my designed departure fills me 

eloctance and regret. Though the 

arc general!) 
nl than ven till I feel .m 

it breaking the connexi 
1 -incemyamval ; particularly. 
: ", small pain in leaving my 

L.ii wail for the arrival ,,f my son j 
I Ii- -hall I* my com- 
■ tv intendeii journey for the 
Future 1 in hi* company I can support 
led ardour, 
please* 1 
and exacting obedience— Adieu, 




LETTER CIV. 

Fnm Lin CUAtUMri !.■ An Htmm 
Prtliitrmt of tki 
Ptkin in China. 

OUR scholars in China have a mot 
found veneration for forms. A fir 
beauty never studied the decorums ■ 
with more atsldoity ; they n 

- ii he said to be clothed with a 
from head to foot : they have their philoso- 
phical caps, and philosophical "1 
their p hil osophical slippers, 

phic.nl fans; there is even .1 phil pnictl 

standard for measuring ' I ftt, 

»ith all this seeming wisdom, th 
(bund to be mere empt) pretct 
A philosophical beau is not 10 ft 

in Eur. '| r ; >.■! 1 am told that lUcll ilia 
racters are found here. 1 n 

[itinctually support all the deCOH 
\ pio- 

found, or naturally posscssc 
understanding; wholaboui hi 

the titular honours attending Ii 

who flatter others in order to 

in turn, and only study to hi- tl 

students. 

A character of this kind generally 
ly, in all the 
maHty of slippers, nighl 
and easy chair. Thctul !uuh 

a large book. wh» 
and never 1. 

and so sing books, 

winch Ii,. condemns in Mil 

: w illl tile 11. 

neatne- 

books, which bear a high . 

because too dull or 1 

n by the ordinary methods of 
publication 
Such men 

admittance Into luei uy 1 1 n 1 >~ acadi 
and Institutions, » v meet 

.11, iud 
a great 1 nvi 1 ■ 

they never betra) Ignon '.they 

a new y have heard it 

before; pincl 1 yiurnvvv, s>xvV\N»e^ 



u 11 



2 5 



the citizen of the wo 



how trilling soever these little arts 
pj>ear, they answer one valuable 
urpose,— of gaining the practisers the 
esteem they wish for. The I 
man's knowledge are easily concealed, if 
nee ; but all eon readily 
I admire ■ gilt library, i 
nails, ■ silver nandiib, "r ■ well-o 

■r, who are incapable of distinguish- 
ing i 'lunce. 

her Matthew, thl 
'lary, entered China, th< 

II skill 

iy; he was therefore lenl for, 

anil examined. The established astro- 

DOmercof state undertook this title, anil 

their report to the Emperor that 

!l was but very superficial, and no 

•mparable to their own. The mis- 

nonuy, however, appealed from their 

r nt to experience, ami challenged 
them to calculate an eclipse of the 
th.it a lowing. 

" What!" said some, "shall a barlurian, 
without nails pretend to vie with men in 
nuy who have made it the stm Iy of 
their lives; with men who know half the 
knowV is of words, who wear 

and slippers, and who 

liave gi v literary di 

" "i applause?" They accepted the chal- 

confii less, The eclipse 

mi : the Chinese produced a noil 

1 apparatus, and were fifteen 

iiniiii.'s wrong; the missionary, with a 

;le in-,tn. | sact to a second. 

i was convun hag : but the court astro- 

t were i indeed 

Tacln -sured 

ll itiuns were 

: with- 

moon. 

'usliall still 
ii, but 

iDtroUer." 

with nun whose 
Only pi je arise from 

external cii in Kurope 

u pro- 
1 •■ • 1 1 i • • m i.i it. ignorance. Spain and 
I rest of 

i ree centuries, 

have twenty literary titles and BUB 



distinction unknow 

They I 

nisimi, then 

fMti. A round cap entitles one student 

to argue, nni i i - 1 icrmits ^ i 

i, while a cap " ;; 
sanctifies the head it I 
Hut where true knowle 
these formalities begin to 
mine cowl, the solemn 
sweeping train, are laii 
topbei I talk, and think, 

and lamb-skin il 
. ind tail-carriers, i 
a literary age. 

For my own part, my friend, I have 
seen enough of presuming ignorance 
to venerate wisdom but when 

s. 1 have received litci 
distinctions myself; and, by the n 
of my own wisdom, kn 

wisdom they can confer, — Ad 
LETTER I \ 

T» tht lame, 
TUB time for the young king'- 

hes. The great and the 
world look forwar'l with impatience, 
knight from the country, 
up hi-, family to see ami be - 

■ii, has taken all the I 
the house where 1 lodge. His ■ 
laying in a large i|iianiii\ of silks ■ 
the mercer tells her arc to be uuhioi 
next season; and miss, her daughter, has 
actually had her ears 1 
the ceremony. In all tl 
paratimi. I am considered .■. m 
and have been shoved up two 
highei, 

lady seems perfectly convinced are my 
belters; but whom, bef'Tc me, tl 
content! only calling very good 

comp ii 

The little forced 

himself into my inlinim terday 

me a most minuti 

All men 
upon their fa\ 
peculiarly adapted to tl 
his understanding. 1 1 
blazon. 

uig images,— coro i 
fringe, tassels, stones, bugles, and spun 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



251 



Garter is 10 

cutcheons on his back. Hoe 

. moves forward; ami ihcre 

Blue Mantle disdains to be left behind. 

Here the Aldeimen inarch two and twoj 

here the undaunted Champ 

v terrified at ihi 

tlemen and 
■ I in complete armour, 

tli an intrepid air throws down bis 

! tinned he, "should any 

as lo Lake up that fatal 
a accept ih. challenge, we should 
sec niic-poii; the Champion would show 
would soon teach him 
However, 
we shall have none willing to 
with him upon the approaching oc* 

1 chance i>! 
it ; and, secondly, 
e escapes the champion's arm, 
Mainly lie hanged for h 

'ione will be so hardy as 
I with a champion like him, 
i to arms; and we shall probably 
11 prancing unmolested away, hold- 
lie thus in one hand, and 

her." 
. have a m. 1 ibing 

inable, with 

all my companion's ■.oluhihty, 10 form a 

1 idea of the intended procession. 

■in of a 

. .mill be conducted with solemnity 

id 1 could 1 

> is much solemnity 

true,'" 

.■.self. '" the people of I 

1 inge manner of mixing 
solemn and fantastic images together; 
v with bin I 
ilime. At a time when the 

■ nil in, people, 11. .tl 1 

diminish from the real 
■ iy, A lud 

lime throws 
hi tin.- whole. It 

amidst 

• II the Mileiiiniiy ni -li.it awful scene, a 



deity judging, and a trembling 
■waiting the decree, he need a 

merry mortal rrundUna a scolding wile to 

hell ill a wheelbaii. 

My companion, w ho mistook my silence, 

during this interval of reflection, for the 
rapture of astonishment, procec-.. 
describe those frivolous puts ol il 1 
that 11. lion ; and to 

thai if 1 tiayea in this 1 

some months longer, 1 should Kl 

For my "" 

he. " 1 1,1 ..u :.'. 

that wi.nl. 1 re end w nil 

gold lace, nil designed to be first shown 
there ; and as for diamonds. 1 
. and pearls, we shall 1 
.is brass nails in a sedan chaii 
e arc all to walk so majestically, 

ihi. foot always behind the 

The ladies are to fling no,. 
■ 
are lo be all in full dress; Mi-. 
Tibbs in a new sack, nifties, and Frenchcd 
hair: look where you will, one- thing finer 
than another ; Mr-. TiW 

Duchess; her Grace returns the compti- 

... 1 1 1 1 a bow, " Large- 
herald. ' Make room ' gentle- 
man usher. ' K ' cries 
the guard. Ah I " continued he, nma/ed 
at his own description, " Brush- 
ing scene 1.1 grandeur can 

Irniii the -1: 

ilui- actually tarns to wonder one 
putting . hat I " 

1 ii..w foand Ins mind was entirely set 

upon the fopperies of the pageant, and 
quile regardless of the real 11 coning of 
such . nations. " I'.'ijcants," 

" .in- pretty thii 

should rather stud 

than expensive." I . cavalcades, 

1 ihal fund •• 

DUMB) 

mechanically influence the mind into venc- 

in his nightcap 

would ii"l meet with half the reaped of 

an emperor with a glittering crown. 
ticsrcseuil.l. I ngtodivest 

either 

' 
The weak n 
to admuaUon as wc-Ya i„ \W <*7iBfc\ M& 



25* 



THE C/T/ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



dii 



il is the business of a sensible government 
to impress all ranks with a sense ol 

ordination, whether this be effecte ' 

diamond buckle or a virtuous edi 
rnptuary law or a glass necklace. 

inter* il "f re fl ec ti on only gave my 
companion spirit! to begin bis description 

afresh ; and, as a greater inducement to 
. lie mfornied nicof the 
uns that were given by tb 

e ceremony most 
In' tine." crii i he, " i< very i 

l!i,_ BB ! i- I ■ ' i ■ I S» II 

I ladies have assured me, they 
would willingly pari with one eye ruber 
than be prevented from looking on with 
the other, Com . 

■ a friend, who, foe my take, mil 
•apply us with placet al (he meal reason- 

ratesi I'll lake care you shall not 
\k hnp and be "ill inform you 

of the me, finery, rapture, splendour, and 
enchantment of the whole cewmmiy, 

than I." 

Follies often repeated lose their ab- 
surdity, and assume the appearance of 
oments were so often and 

5.1 itrongly enforced, that I bad actually 

lator. 
>peak 
- my surprise when the 
led a purse of gold for i 
! I could hardly believe hint set 

upon hi. •• Prithee, 

! h ive paid twenty 
r here an hi 

i : i"ii back!" 

— " \ci, -ir.' — " How long (in l live 

upon i'. ifti i 1 have come away!"—" No! 

ion clothe, 

■ d the 

to be uii'ici a M" 
.ill thai yii can bring awaj is the pli 

■ 
• 

thai be all, there is no need of pas i 

tii.it -. since I un resolved to ban 

I am there or no ! " 
ii conscious, my friend, that this is 
nut a very confused description of ' I 

I ceremony. You may object, that 
-ettle rank, precedent 
1 teem ignorant whcllu: 



I 
of a lord's cap, nor nn 
of ii lady's tail. I know your deli 
in minute •!■ 

happily disqualified from fun, 
upon the whole, I fancy 
tble to the ma 
late Emperor Whangti's 
he was man . :ti which 

1- inn I loam himself presided in i 
— Adieu. 

LETTER < \ i. 

To thr MtHTi 

It was formerly the here, wl 

if distinction died, for theii tui 
e to throw each a slight pi 
into the grave. Several things of little 
value were made use of for that purpose, 
— perfumes, herb*, 

camomile, wormwood., and vi 
i- almost il 

and nothing bui 

d on -in h occasions ; an ob 
which they suppose may he ii 
the dead, without any injiuv i 
Upon the death 01 the great 
els and iindertakei 
ploymcnl. While one ; 
cloak, black staiT. and mourning c< 
the other produces the 
the nio i 

need be under no apprehensions, but die 

j think proper, — the po 
undertaker are ready I 
these can find metaphorical tean 
family . at an houi 

and when the one has soberly lai 
body in the grave, the othei 
fix it figuratively amony 
There art vs of being poett- 

■ ful on such occasions. The 
now some 
Sfho sits deploring among the toi 
again, he is Tin to 
of harmless sheep. N 
upon her own shore, and givt 
maternal tenderness ; 

-U-, even the mountain 
v. ay to sorrow, and is bathed in iron 
of distress. 

But the most usual 

n units Menalcas, who 




CITIZEN OF TH! 



mo*: gloomy countenance. I 
asks hi- friend, whence thai 
tressY To which replies that 

" If thai I".- ihe case, 
" lei us retire to 
howei .11 . where 

.mine- add frag 
e ; and let us weep alternately 
i<>i Pollio, the friend of shepherds, and 

I" re- 
fellow shepherd, "what think 
ther of that grotto by the fountain 
murmuring stream will help to 
and a nigl l 

-^ ill join llM 

tu the concert '." When the place is thus 

nlatiom ; the cows forget 
. . - t t - 1 the vei I from 

villi sympathetic concern. By 
, l'uiii. 
ccted hi .ill this 'Ustress : 
liquid laudanum t" my spirits ; 
• tiger of i isibuitj has 

n I. 
;h I could p with 

rd, yet I am 
■ I to pity thi e trailc 

is thai ''J make d< ines for 

There i- not in nature a more 
n a ii i.i 11 v. ■ 
■' tttery : every stan 
-. the meaiii 
ill nt last his stu 
tupid, and Ins dulness 
diminutive. 

mI, therefore, that none have 
nit the secret of Battering the 

1 have often wished Tor some 
winch a man might 'in himself 

patron justice, i 
r the hateful 

i I have 
dienl : anil • 
, poem upon the A 
man, in which the flattery is 
Belly line, anil yet the poet perfectly 

r>« iht Dtmti n/ih. , 

l icai 

■ 



Oh. H mankind 

In vii i 
Hep :i ii behind — 

WMt'ic'er Ar uvHt I: fee 

Hri>'. ([icn/. 

And 
E'en I iroji a tear— 

IJkllU (Chlii ,1'Aitt to :i«v/. 

ll&ad strain 

Siin ' red relielin vain — 

That wrnt rclirx**' I 

Anil lurk ! I hear the tuneful throng 

Ii.. .;.- - nutai !'■■■ 
He Mill shall live, shall live a* long— 

Ai tver Hmd m.ii 

LETTER CVH, 

To the AfMNf, 
It is the most usual method in every 

nine its probability 
then act as the conjuncture may n 

ill. English, howevetj exert a different 

spit it in such circumstances : they tirst act, 

and when too late, begin to examine, 
1' ran a knowledge of this dispc 

| there arc several here, who make it their 

! rame new reports at every con- 

ill interval, all lending to denounce 

iiiin both on their contemporaries and then 

caught up by the public : away they rung 

to pn>; II "Ul at one 

place, buy in at another, grumble at their 
hout in mobs, and, when tliey 
r some time behaved lilci 
sit down coolly to argue and talk v. 

tn puule each other with sj 

re for the next re]" "I thai prevails, 

vvliicii sttended with die same 

i.'SS. 

Thus arc tliey ever rising above one 
nlc inlo another. They 
ii a well, pawing to get 
free. When he has raised hu 

water, and every spectatoi im 
him disengaged, his lov 
dnvwi again, and sink him to die DOS 

efforts to emerge, and every 
i-mr; his weakness, only i> MM 

him the dee 

. here who, I am I 
make a tolerable subsistence by the ere- 
• dulity of their countrymen. As th< J 
\ the people fond u .>\sw.\% > »vA 



254 



the cm rld. 



In 

I 



to every month in the jevr. 

the people are i" be eaten op to) i'"- I 

by the 
the French 

the gulf of luxury ; ind no* nothing but 
;> herring snbicription cm fish them up 

os on ; therepott prove) 

new < arcnmst&ncei produce new 

people never change, — 
evering in folly, 
ountriea dime boding polili- 
i then own 
i grow splenetic without 
■ 
to be the verj region « here 
- 'i. ... ;: : : man i. - 

i unbounded scope to the dji 
himself, lull may. ll he pleues, DTO" 

cr the whole kingdom, with a 
... fiehai 
mil ill. a the government, thegovcri 
ii .ill wrong ; ih.u then 
mg to nun ; thai Britoni tit "" more! 
member o( the common 
ii his duty, in Mich ,\ i ase, tod 

Ig the const ' 

■ impeii us i 

pie m mil I laugh at my sim- 

. should I advise them to be less 

'.e in harbouring gloomy predictions, 

ly before they attempted 

i story 

vihi.il, thoil 

family, KTVei very well to describe the 
behaviour oi 

threatened calamity. As thcie ire public, 
re Bit pu- 
ller for ill 

i In of the 
ling letter to 
thy f.imiiy in my neigh 1 
I — 

i to b treri 
and fin I think 

props 

ehotce 
affaus i hoogh I 



things like a gentlema' 

lie ; I have determined ii 
own breasl that you must die. Bio 

blood is in 

would, this da) 

your friends, wife 

possibly allow you Ion 

vince you m 

my art. by which you ' 

truth, take this U I 

it, tear off the seal, fold it up, 

to your favourite Dutch minlil 

the fire ; lie will 

buttered toa>t : in three Inuu 

■ eaten i'. I 
bite off his own tongue, 

. blood, blui" I : ...re a: 

present froi 
most devoted humble servam 

till death." 

into which this 

natured family. 

man to w hoin il ■ 

the friends of the family wen 

most ternblc all:. 
men! should be solicited 
and a pardon : ;< fellov. 

I go on ] 
family ; and it 
v. lure the 

pursuance of thi ... Ih 

govern i 

■ 
vain, 
that ll 

tile dog ; ll. 

up 'ii'! pi. '.'.'! in :' 

-e.d v\:i- I 

i l: I Mil. 

I mvi frequentli 

I 
■ 
Me way ca»tv 



THE CtlttSN OF THE WORLD. 



*ss 



been influenced other by n 

nil their accounts 

[eh as might reasonably be ev; 

of very narrow or very pre- 
1 education, — the dictate* of 

stilion, or the result of Ignorance, u H 

i prising, that in such n variety of 

urcr- not one single philosopher 

should be found? for, as to the travels of 

agreed that 

the whole is but an inpo! 

Then ;, any country, how rude 

or uncultimed soever, where the in- 

tuts arc ii"t possessed of some pecu- 
liar secrets, either in nature or art, which 
might lie transplanted with success. In 
irtnry, for instance, the natives 
rong spirit from milk, which 
■ ably unknown to the 
chemists of Europe. In the a 

lia they are possessed of the 
stances 

winch. tld colour, i> little 

inferior to silver: not one of which 
secrets but would, in I iake a 

fortune. The power of th' 
icing winds, or 1" 
Europeans are apt to treat as 
ius, because they have no in 
of (he like nature among themselves ; but 
they would have treated the secrets of 
gunpowder and the mariner'- COtn] 
the same manner, had they been told the 
-e used such arts before the inven- 
ns common with themselves at 

English phi] I most 

i and hardy 
He it i- who allov 

undaunted by the 
faculties thai oppose, 1 1 

to examine 

en exhorts man to try 
cannot subject the tei 
the tl i even earthqual 

i i|i. did a man ol his 
it, of his genius, penetration, , 
g, travel to those countries ■ 
in visited only by the 
-lilious and the mercenary, whal 
might not i.i pert ! Ho« 

he tii to which he 

travelled! and what a variety of know- 



ledge and useful improvement would be 
not bring back in exchange! 

There >hly, no country so 

ioi, thai would nol disclose all 

it knew, if it rec e ived from the tr.v 
equivalent informal. on • and [unapt lo 
think, that a person «ho was ready to 

give more In 

would be welcome wherever he came. 

All his cue jn travelling -ho ' 

to suit hi- intellectual banquet to 

with whom be ; he 

should not annul i to teach the unlet 

nomy, nor yd instruct the 

polite CI inese in the ruder arts of sub- 

I Ie should endeavour lo improve 

urbarian in the secrets of living com- 

fortabl) ; and the inhabitant of a more 

ii in the speculative 
sures of science. How much more nobly 
would a philosopher thus 
his time, than by silling al hom< 

intent upon adding one star more I 

ie, or one monster n 
on ; or still, if possible, 
tritlingly sedulous in the incatenati 
fleas, or the sculpture ol 

I never consider thi- ilhofll 

being i bat none of I 

elics so laudably established in England 
for the promotion of ails and l< 

"light of sending 
members into the most 
A-ia. to make what discover i 
able. To be convinced of the utililv of 
such an undertaking, let them but read 
the relations of 1 1 
will be there found, that they are a- 

deceived themselves, as they attempt In 
others. The n '- us, 

price of different commodi- 
ties, the methods of baling then up, and 
the propcrest manner for an European lo 
preserve his health in the country. The 

n the other hand, informs us, 

with what pleasure the ( which 

he was sent embraced Christianity, and 
[he numbers he converted ; what me' 
he took to keep Lent in a region where 
there was no fish, or the shifts he made 
to celebrate the rites of his religion In 
places where there was Beil 

Bel Such • 

u^c oi rrvanvaJ^s, axA W\\ft\:ivi ,wv 



i S 6 



THE CITIZEN OF THE 



ions, rivers, and mountains, make up 
llit whole of an European traveller's diary : 
but on to nil the secrets of which the in- 
habitants are possessed, those are u. 

itributcd to magic ; ami when the 

oanf of the 

rs he sees performed, very 

ribes them to the power of 
the devil. 

1 1 «as a usual observation of Doyle, the 

I mist, " I'h.ii if every artist 

, what new observations 

red in him in the eawcise of hi* 

. philosophy would thenoc gain iu- 

rable improvements." It may be 

.-■A. with still greater justice, that if 

the Useful knowledge of every country, 

ous, was gleaned by a 

, the advantages would 

Arc then nut even in 

many useful invention- known or 

' ice! The instru- 
ment, lor cutting down i 
corn in Germany is much more hand) and 
Litions, in my opinion, than the sickle 
;land. Tin- cheap and cxpe- 
ditjous manner of making vinegar, wiih- 
Ml previous fermentation, is know 
in I pact of fiance. If such di-coveries, 
■till to be known at 
home, what funds of knowledge might 
nol I":- collected in countries yet uncx- 
. b) ignorant 

th which foreigners are 

I may be alleged as an 

lo such a design, lint how 

readily have sew: an merchants 

admission into regions' thi 

under the charm I 

filfiuu, or north. To such 

■ nd out H travel! quali- 

k purposes might 

"i national m i ii ""11111 in some 

measure repair the breaches mad* by am- 

' might show that there were 

siill aotne who boasted a greater name 

iota, who professed then- 

- of men. The only difficulty 

nn in choosing a 

D enterprise. He 
■ man of pi turn ; 

educe consequences of general 



utility Iroi 

with pride, 
judice ; neithi 

. nor instructed only in ■ n< ;uji 
cular science ; neither 1 
nor quite an antiquarian ; his mind 
be tinctured with miscel 

. and Ins manner hum 
intercourse with men. lie should 

measure an enthus 
fond of travelling, from n 
and an innate love "I i 
Willi a body capable ol sustaining 
fatigue, and a heart no; easily tombed 1 
danger. — Allien. 

LETTER 1 

To the 

& the principal tasks I had pr 
to myself on my arrival here was, 
become acquainted wiih thi 
characters of those now Ii. 

Lai s or w it -. had acquired the .. 

of reputation. I 

in this design, I fancied I 

would be to begin my inquin 

ignorant, judging that his fau 

greatest, which was lo 

heard by the vulgar. Tl 

1 beg 1 1, but only went 11 

ippointment and perplexity, 
every district had a peculiar famous ma 

own. Here llie story-telling shoe- 
maker hail engrossed the admiration on 

one side of the street, while the bcllma 

who excclli 

possession of the oilier. At one ei 

lane the sexton was regs 1 

man alive ; but 1 had nol tl 

ogtb, till I found an 
teacher had divided hii 
landlady, perceiving in 

h to oiler me her advice i 
afTair. Ii was trui 
she was no judge, 

E leased herself, and if 1 v 
Igment, I should set down 
Collins as the nun in t 

world ; for T le to take i 

mankind, and imitate besides a : 
pigs to perfect!' m. 

. that taking 
of reputation among In 
swell my catalogue of gte.it names I 



the size of a court calendar ; I therefore 

tinned this method of pursuit, and 

prosecute my inquiry in that 

. 
mscqucnce of this I en;' 
the b" know who were 

i'le the gre 

m[, or learning. With- 

insurer, he pulled 

the shelf. Tin . 

• .v'i Guide. "There, sir," crii 

; is a touch for you ; fifteen hundred 

ived off in a day : I take the 

'us pamphlet, either for title, 

\. to be the 

pletesl hand in England." I found it 

prosecute my inquiry, where 
a red BO incompetent a 

. which good manners 

to buy, I w liked off. 

My pin, nit after famous men now 

brougl i print-shop. "Hen-." 

Ill I. "the painter only reflects the 

A - every man who d« 

ed up in the 
!ie pic- 

our i" p l"i- public sale." > 

ly surprise, when I came to , 
examine this repository of ' 

i lied here, a* in the 
I could not but regard il as 
tnfa of real merit i the 
■ iu-t nan look n loom as ihe 

triinc-lr . and tlic judge was 

linker . quacks, pimp-. 
■I the group, and ' 
;- only made room for 
I had read the » 

to my coming 
delight ami approbation; 
bad no plai 
•ere covercil with the names 

.—wiih the little 
self-advertising thi lay, who had 

", and*"*, and*"', 

i unblushing 

faces . there- 

ll noi hnii n rouritC names 



among the number was now changed 

into congratulation. I could not 
reflecting on the fine observation "I 

tus on a similar oocasion, "In thil 

cavalcade of flattery," cries lii 
"neither the pictures of Iliutus. Cfl 

. 

absence being the strongest proof of 
merit 

"ll is in vain," cried I, "to seek for 
true greatness among these monumci 
the unbuned dead : let me go among the 
tombs of those who are ei 
and see if any have been 
there who deserve theattei 
and whose names may be Iran 
my distant friend, as an honuiir to the 
presentage." Determined in my pursuit, I 

? lid a second visil toWestmin :■ 
here 1 found several new inoniii 
10 the memory of several 
men ; the names of the great men I I 
Ii-lelv forget, but I well rem. I 

Koubiliac was the statuary «ho c 

them. I could not help smiling .it two 
modern • particular, one of which 

itirpt. the othei commended the 
Mtui 

rettdifuant. The greatest men! o) 

d in his being descended from .in 

illu-hious house ; the chief distinction of 

the other, that he had propped up U 
bouse that was falling. ' Alas.' alas!" 

ei ied I. " such n 

honour, 

little kouinli.ic " 

Hitherto disappointed in mv inquiry 
aftet (he great ol the i i 
resolve'; what 

I conld leani among critics in coffee- 
houses ; and ln-re it was thai I 
favourite name- talked oi even with in 
veiled Fame. A gentleman 
merit as a writer was branded in ,_ 

1 man . another of exquisite 

delicacy poel was repn 

wanting good nature ; a third » 

of free-thinking ; and a fourth o( ha\ing 

once been a player. "Si 

"how Unjust art mankind in till di trirlB- 

tion of fame ! the ignorant, among M 

I sought at fusv, wat v. AVvwv. V . 



2 5 8 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



but incapable of distinguishing, the virtues 
DM who deserved it ; among those I 
now convene with, they know Ihe proper 
object* of admiration, but mix envy with 
■ppUti 

^pointed so often, I was now rc- 
■olved to examine those characters in per- 
son, of whom the world talked so freely. 
By conversing with men of real merit, 
I began to find out those characters which 
really deserved, though they st rove to avoid, 
applause. I found the vulgar admiration 
entirely misplaced, and malevolence with- 
out its sting. The truly great, possessed 
of numerous small fauh. and ■birring 
virtues, preserve a sublime in morals as 
in writing. They who hive attained an 
excellence in cither commit numberless 
tran.grts-ions, observable to the meanest 
landing. The ignorant i ritic and 
dull remarket can readily spy blemishes 
pience or morals, whose sentiments 
are not sufficiently elevated to observe ■ 
Bat such are judges neither of 
nor of life; they can diminish no 
solid icputation by their censure, nor he- 
lasting character by Hi 
In -lii>rt, I found by mv search, that such 
.an confer real fame upon others, 
win i line merit themselves to deserve it. 
—Adieu. 

LETTER CX. 

T* Ikr mmr. 

i are numberless employments in 
the court> of the Eaten monarchs utterly 
nnprncti 1 -! d and unknown in Europe. 

They have n.i such officers, ' 

the ear-tickler or to 

picker; they have never introduced at 

he courts the mandarine appointed to 

hear the royal tobacco-box, or the grave 

i 'it the imperial cxetvitatinris in 

Vet 1 am surprised that the 

ated us in none of these 

as they are generally pleased 

ling that comes from China, 

ins new and 

useless employments. They have filled 

with our furniture, their pub- 

our fireworks, and their 

mds with our fish. Our com 

nd, are the fish and the furniture 

they should have imported ; our courtiers , 



would fill up the necessary ceremonies 
■ court better than those of Europe; won 

be contented with receiving large salaii 
fordoing little; whereas some ol I 

present discontented! though th 
receive large salaries for d 

I lately, therefore, had 
lishing a proposal hen 
ol some new Eastern offices and till 
their Court Register, As 1 coi 
in the light of a cosmopolite, I, 
much satisfaction in sctlemil 
countries in which I hapj 
for that in which I was born. 

The finest apartments in the 
Pegu are frequently infested with rats. 
These the religion of the country - 
forbids the jieople to kill. In si 
cumstances, therefore, they are oblij 
have recourse to some great man of tin 
court, who is willing to free the rova 
merit even at the horanl of his sal 
vation. After a weak mora 
the ijuantity of court vermin in evi 

palace issurprising ; bu 

'.nd a vigilant oil 
I In in from their sanctuaries I 
mats and I 

the court. Such an oil 
would, in my opinion, be s> 
at this juncture; for if, as 1 
the palace be old, much v. 

ibtcdly have taken refuge I 
the wainscot and hangi 
should therefore be invested with th 
and dignities of i 
.should have full p 
take, poison, or destroj them, will 
chantiiK nts, trap 

lie might be jicrmitted to hraiidh 
ii without remorse, and 

art of the fumirun 
a single cobweb, howevi 
prescription. I communicated this pnv 

ago in a com 
first distinction, . te rno»t 

honourable offices of th 

the number were the in 
Britain, Mr. Henrique! 
the ministry, Hen. Victor the (first 
John Lockman the secret '.-con- 

ductor of thi 

all acquiesced in the utility of mypropoKvf, 
but were apprehensive it might meet with 




THE CTTtZEN OF THE WORLD. 



350 






from court > 
and chambermaids, 

nd ratsbane. 

than t! |f meet 

with li - in. Though no people 

w.,.|.| Mailer each other more than 
Bglisb, I know i under- 

stand the art less, and (latter with mch 
little refinement. Theii panegyric like a 
•. i- indeed p with 

: «, but then i Insupport- 

able. Aclient hercsballdressupafricassee i 

hnary 
the room. A ton n 
to a great r 
minister, which '-hall prove at once a' 

•lister ami then 
If the favourite of the il-iy sits, or - 
or sic- . '.re poets to put il into 

verse, ami priesU to preach it in the pulpit. 

der, therefore, to free both tho 

praise and those who are praised from 
a dob disagreeable to both, I 

here, 

l] court-, of India. These are 
in the courts of their princes, 

to instnicl the people where to exclaim 

with 

if praise. But an officer of | 

hen the 
among •-. At 

ever)' ie monarch i 

.\t what he has ' 
the Kainmaiman, as this officer is called, 

is to i 

I thing, Upon 

lie cries out — " I u | — 

■ us up 

Thu 
. while 

. -tilli-n 
rnph of his 

officer plau 

in England, By 

won become 

md in time 

to his patron, no 

to himself, and might 

; many 

dcrs. The clergy 



I am convin 
proposal. It would pn 

of them. 
of their late production 

have qualified themselves as candidates 

for this office already, 

I take to be of the 

utmost iuiuuirmoe. Out neighbour, the 

emprc- has, youmayrenn 

instituted an order of female knightl 
thcempressof Gen lituted 

another; the Chinese have had such Ml 
order time immemorial. I am 

ihhave nevercoroe into such at 
union. When I c insider what kind l 
are made knightl here, it appeal 1 * -' 
that they have never conferred this I 

v. omen. They make cbceseni' 
and pastrycooks knights ; then, why not 
their wives? They have called up tallow 
chandlers to maintain the hardy prof, 
of chivalry and arm- ; then, why not their 
wives? ila: e sworn, as I sup- 

1 knighti must be sworn, N 
TO I i.y IN i mi "i- Mil I ay I'll HATTl r, 
TO MAINTAIN AM' til HOBLB 

ESTATE Of I ., Willi II 

1IAHMSIIE, AMI OTHER KMi.ll I I. VI-. 

■. II. i!" n 

sworn I" ill this; then, why ii"' 

I Certain I am, their a 
stand fightingaiid feats of mell. 
better I 
horse and hamishe, il i both 

ore than lh' 
a one-horse chaise. Ni 

■ "iiferring any order U] 
husbands, 1 would knight tl 
Howevi r, fJ ■■ Hate ahi n Id nol 

: - w institution upon tin- occasion, 

Dt explode! hi be 

revived, whkb would, famish ' 
- ,— the ladies m-i 
hoose for themselves. Then 

nd the Porcupine In France. I 
well-soundii licable 

to my intended female institution.— A 
VM CXI. 

ilW. 

Kei.k-.101 d :■ w- '. «S« ^« <w«t 

mimerousv\\aiv'uvC\vvna. U.nct>j wi»» Voo 



260 



THE C/TIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



has interest enough to hire a conventicle 
. and sell off 
a new The sellers • 

Sand lei their disciples have 
eal ol foi very little mi 

Tbeil shops are inucli frequented, and 

f naturally I ling to 

ise al .is small expenie as possible. 
Yet you must not conceive this modern 
ring in opinion from those of 
shed religion ; difference of 
irmerly divided their sec- 
drew their armies 
• field White gowns and black 
ipped hats and cross pocket - 
. were once the obvious causes of 
quarrel; men then had some reason KMT 
fighting ; they knew what they (ought 
they are air. 

inch refinement in religion-making, that 
ictually formed i new sect 

without a new opinion : the* quarrel 
f..r opinions they both equally di 

ach other, and that is all the 
i ween them. 

Hut though their principles are the 
ice ii somewhat difler- 

i. and men 

ii extorted but by pain 

or danger. The new led, on the con- 

fbr their nn ind use 

little music, of sighs and 

Ic to imitate 
ng. Laugl ter is theix avea 

■ - the 

m running 

i rattlesnake 
box. 

•ne von perceive thai I am 
dcscii 

1 them with the 

general 

iuntary affliction makes 



up nil the merit they c 
thusiasm in every country pi 

or confine the Brahmin to a -. 
hospital ; spread the 
ground, or 

card the Ugl ire ever gl< 

their fears increase in 
ignorance, as me 

ten. 
Yet i here is still a stronger re 
enlhu - 

namely, his being him! 
object of ridicule. It is remarkable, 1 li.it 
the propagators of false do 
ever been averse t'> mirth, 
begin by recommending gravity, wk 
they ii niu.v.e ini; 

Fohi, the idol of China, is represet 
having never laughed : Z 

r of ihe Brahmins, 
laughed but twice. — upon his 
into the world, and upon hi 
and Mahomet himself, though a 
of pleasure, 

Upon a certain 
telling his followers that 
appear all naked at the r 
his favourite wifi 
assembly as hnmo-lcst aii'l 
— "Foolish woman!" cried thi 
prophet, "though the whole asseru' 
naked on thai day, they shall have for 

i • . ■ laugh." Men like him opposi 
ridicule, because they knew it to 
most formidable antagonist, and preac 
up grav iv. wan] i 

ful enemy of entl 
the only 

ncquin 

cioii-. i Itiply hy di 

Ices a she 

refers 

which it ' 
A mm who woul 
fix an enthusiast by aigument 




THE CfT/ZE.V OF THE WOK I. D. 



ittenvpt to ipread quicksilver wiih 

i imjer a 

. iry is to despise him; the stake, 

the faggot, and the d ctor, in 

are ennoble is they 

v are harm- 
I innovating pride ; contempt 
is truly dreadful. I Juntos gene- 
rally know ihc most vulnerable part of 
Ihe beam they pursue, by the care which 

every animal lakes lo defend the side 
which is v i what side the 

enthusiast IS BIOS! vulnerable may be 

known bj I m the 

>rk his disciples into 
ird them against the 

of ridicule. 

ii Philip the Second was 1, 
, there was a contest in £ 

lers of friars for rope- 

The legend of one I 
more i try miracles, but the 

1 'if the other was re ' 
authentic. They reviled i ach oil 

prevent such an imminent calamil 

were prevailed upon to sub- 
mit their legends to the fie 

which came forth untouched by the 

is to have the victory, ami to be 
honoured with a double share of reve- 
rence. Whenever th Rock to 

see a minn i (inn bed 

it they sec a miracle; ii credible, 
the numbers that werc- 
ound upon this occasion. Thc- 
' le approached, and con- 
fidently threw their respective legends 

mes, when, lo I to the utter 
I .ill the assembly, in- 

Nothmg but Qua ti 

The 
r folly, 
and *0B 

i.i ri ER i XII. 

7".' th* Irtmt. 

cclebn 

ral every seventh year ; the parliament of 



I, and 

anotli i la be chosen. This 

solemnity fails Infinitely short of our 
, Feast of the Lanterns in magnificence 
•plendour ; it it also 

lit y and pure 
on ; but no festival in the 
1 can compare with it for eati 

eating, indeed, amazes me; bad I five 

hundred beads, and were etch head 

furnished with bi i they 

all be insufficient to compute the nn 
of cows, pigs, geese, anil tin I 
upon this occasion, die for the go 

I intrv. 

To say the truth, c iting seems to make 
; in all English p 
of real nt When 

a chart 

• mblc. ami 

onsulting upon it, th ■ 
I 

goes forward with succe 
be relieved, the 

e out public • 
and cat upon it. Nor 

known thai they filled the b. 

their own. But in tin ■ 

seem to exceed all 
bounds : the merits ol 

often i by the number of his 

I his con I 
upon him, and lend thi 

but to the 

And Id foi iv this people 

their pb nt ifo 1 me lis on In ■ 
it is extremely n.i: an to 

Ml a il foi 

nothing ; bat " hai 

thiS glHirl \\\ ii g 11 . \. 

improve their g I humour On the 

a- tiny (oee 

they swallow, and | out 

down, serves to increase theiranimi 

M.oiv an honest man. b 

■.-. i I Ii a 
more 
edculverin. I 
Hi: I have actually 
Moody-minded nvMx-TwvWsvex v£\"i 
forth at the \iea& oV a, tao>>, &<*ktox«>»A- 



•■ v Of /'/-■"'. a 



■ a desperab >k, who was 

But you must not suppose the 
« Ithoul .1 pn text for thus b 
other. On the contrary, no man :. 
la beat lii 
n producing very sufficient re 

n huuace, [reals with 

gin. I spirit o( their own manufacture ; 
anode ' 1 1 inks brandy, imported 

from abroad. Brandy is a what 
liquor j gin, .i li |nor wholly their own. 
This, (hen, furnishes anobvi<< 

i. — Whether it be most teas i 
to got drank with gin, or get drunk with 

• in the de- 
mil; again, and 
mother encounter. So that the 
may now properly be 
engaged in war; throe) while tbej 

ng their enemies abroad, they are i 
bert beads at home. 
I Lit. ly made an excursion to a neigh- 
lage, in order to be a spectator 
of the ceremonies practised upon this 
ion. I left town in company with 
rs, nine dozen of hams, and ■ 
ition poet, which wep 

in-drinking party. 
! the town with a very good 
face ; the tiddlers, no way intimidated by 
the enemy, kept handling thi 
the principal street. By this pi 
I ;vre, they took peaceable pa 

i their headquarters, amidst the 

ihouts of multitudes, who seemed per- 
fectly rejoiced at hearing ilu-ii i 

but above all at seeing their bt 

■ i, 1 could being 

died into an equality, and 

"■ i r. in tome measure, etl 

ivileges of natur. 
'inction she 

med i" i >in the 

rceive a cobblei « itfa ■ 
nid a haberdasher giving 

im behind his counter. 
But my r inter- 

di tnanded » ' 
for ihe ■!> 

hese were let hich 1 HI 

at first to be 



silent . however, I know 

had not the attenti 

o a skirmish 
drinker's cow and a gin-drinker's m 
which turned out, greatly l<-» the sat 
ur of the in 
This spectacle, whii ! hie 

enter!. as .it last ended I 

appearance of one of the candidati 
came to harangue the mob: lie made 

uhetic speech upon the lateen 
importation of foreign dram 
downfall of the distillery; 1 could 
of the audience shed tears. I 
□panied in ins procession by Mr 
tty and Mrs. Mayoress. Mrs. i 
tot in the least in liquoi . 
Mrs. Mayoress, one of the spectators 
biired me in my ear, that — she a 
tine woman before she bad the small i: 

Mixing with the crowd, I was run 
ducted to the hall where the 
are chosen : but what tongue 

Cene of confusion ! the whole 
seemed equally inspired with an_ 
jealousy, politics, | and ptim.li 

[ remari-ed one figure that was can 
by two men upon this occasion. I at |_ 
to pity his infirmities as uo 
ion found the fell 
ild not stand; another mad 
ranee to give his vote, hut th 
dd stand, he actually lust tin 
igue, and remained -■'■■ 

essively drunk, 
both -land and speak, being ask..' 
candidate's name for whom 
could be prevailed upon to make no 
but " Tobao o and I" 

theatre, where every pas 

out d. 

readily become worse, and w 

sophcrs may gather wisdom. — Adieu. 

LETTER CXI 1 1. 
Tf Ik.- 
Tin disputes among the learned 1 

I on in a much more | 
pendioos manner than formerly. 

I ime w hen folio was 
oppose folio, and a champion was 
listed for life under the banners of a 1 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



»6 3 



sorites. At present the controversy is 
decided in a summary way; an epigram 
or an acrostic finishes the debal 
the combatant, like the incursive I 
advances and retires with a single blow. 

important literary debate at present 

sscs the attention of the town. It 

is carried on will. .mil a proper 

■hate of tins cpigrammatical fury. An 

author, it seems, has taken an aversion to 

rsof several players, ami has written 
like ; the player-. 

e author, and assure the town 
he must be 'lull, ami then- faces mast be 
good* because he wauls a dinner: a critic 

to the poet's assislaii. 

that the verses were perfectly original, 

I. that he could never have 

n them without the assistance of 

friends; the friends, upon this, arraign 

the critic and plainly prove the verses to 

l>e all the authoi's own. So at it they 

are, all four together by the eon; the 

nt the critic, the critic at the 

he author, and the 

BOtflC* at the players again. It i 

possible! ow this manj 

di which party to adhere 
tOi The tOM), without Ming with any, 

views the combat in suspense, like the 
fabled hero of antiquity, who beheld the 
earth-bom brothers give and receive 
nd Call by indiscriminate 
tioo 
This is in HIM measure, the state of 
the present dispute) but the combatants 
here differ in one respect from the cham- 
pions of the fable. Every new R 
only gives vigour for another blow ; though 
they appear to strike, they are in fact 
mutually swelling themselves into con- 
oid thus advertising each other 
inc. "To-day," says one, "my 
-hall be in the Gazette, the next day 

e will naturally Inquire 

. 1 1 •• ■ u t us; thus we shall at least make a 

in the streets, though we have got 

nothing to sell." I have read of a dispute 

i nature, which was managed 

here about twenty years ago. Ilildebrand 

Jacob, as I think he was called, and 

were poets, both at that 

>t great reputation ; for 

Johnson had written eleven plays, acted 






with g nd Jacob, though 

he had written but live, had five times 
thanked the tOWl I unmerited 

applause. They soon became mutually 
talents; they 
. they felt, they challenged Lhl 
for each other. Johnson assured the 
public, that no poet alive had tin 
■implicit) "I Jacob, and Jacob exhibited 
Johnson as a maslerpieci liclic. 

Their mutual praise was not without I . 
tin- town B* their plays, "ere in rapl 
read, and, without censuring them. * 
Ihcm. So formidable an union, howi 
was soon opposed by Tibbald. Tibbald 
asserted that the tragedies of the on 
fault-, and the comedies of the 
substituted wit for vivacity: the 
bined champions flew at him like 
arraigned the censurcr's judgmenl, and 
impeached In-- sincerity. It « 
tune a dispute among the learned, which 
was in fact the greatest man, I 
Johnson, "i Tibbald ; they had all v. 
for the stage with great Success, then 

in almost et 
and then works in every 
However, in the hottest of lhl 
fourth combatant made his appeal 
and swept away the three 
tragedy, comedy, and all, into undis- 
tinguished ruin. 

1 tan this time they seemed consigned 
into the- h.iu Is of criticism; scarce a day 
in which they were not arraigned 
as detcstcil writers. The critics, 
enemies of Drydcn and 1'opc, were theii 
enemies. So Jacob and Johnson, instead 

' of mending by criticism, called it envy; 
and because Dryden and Pepi 
censured, they compared themselves to 

I Diyden and Pope. 

But to return. The weapon chiefly 
used in the present controversy 
and certainly never was n keener made 

| use of. They ha 
sharpness on both sides. The fn 

"Ut upon this occasion was a new 
kind of composition in tl inighl 

more p 

, than an epigram. It . 
of an argument in prose; next foil 
motto from Roscommon ; then «Msws,sSt« 

, epigram; and, Yi»\.Yj, wives, wsrcaat v*» 



~ 



a64 



THE CITIZEN' OF THI. 



explain the epigram. Bui you shall have 
it wiih .nil it.- decorations. 

EPIGRAM, 

ADDRE49KD TO THE. RSVLICTS9 ON 

IN THK K''-- "■■ BV THE Al'TIIOR. 

Bufn A* v r I ' Jotf.- B»**»iu,os. 

Lei Dot the hfic^y Bavius' angry 

Awikc roentfuei ' l:e; 

CAS, let virtue 
And triving each your bounty. Iff him rliw, 
UHlf re-t.iincil. as learned counsel can, 
.sc, however bad. he'll new japan, 
And, by a quick transition, plainly show 
Tss-is no defect of yours. but/«-'. I 
That caused his futiui ktHHtl to o'erfluw 

The last lines are certainly executed in 
a very masterly manner. 1 1 is of that 
nialion, called the per- 
plex! n iilly flings the antagonist 
into a mist ; there is no answering if. the 
laugh i* raised against htm. while he is 
ng to find out the jest. At 
ihal the author has a 
I, and thai 1"- kennel ii putrid, and 
iii a in' putrid kennel overflows, Hut why 

it overflow* It overflows, because 

ihor happens to have low pockets ! 

There Ml also another new attempt in 

11c epigram which came 

so full 

that a critic might split it into 
epigram-, each properly lilted with 
You shall sec it. 

TO G C. AND It U 
Twas • be, or all together -. 

tree of them, they know not 

whether 

ceo ut Rreal "i 

perplex ! I could have 
it quite perfect, the 
1 the cue Before, had added 
nost every won admits a I 
! a long one too, I. YOU, ' 

III.: Suppose 1 

1 I til lee 

-holt I 

lently been 
wed in notes at the bottom. Bui 

•■■ill, the man able. Here 

mger may dive for a mystery, with- 
• jhtng the bottom. Let him 
then, that small is a word purely [ 



introduced to make good rhyme, and^'i 
was a very proper word to keep n 
company. 

Vet, by being thus a spectator ofo 
dangers, I nui-t own I begin to ti 
in tln~ literary contest for my own 1 
begin to fear that my challenge I 
Rock was unadvised, and has pn 
me more antagonists than I had al 
expected. I have received private 
, veral of the literati here, tl 
my soul with apprehension. 1 may safely 
aver, that I never gave any creai. 
this good city offence, except only rnv 
rival Dr. Rock; yet by the letters 1 

and by some I ltave seen 

E rutted, I am arraigned at one time as 
eing a dull fellow, at another a- being 
!iert ; I am here petulant, there 
leavy. By the head of my an*, 
they treat me with more inhutnamt) 
a flying fish. If I dive and run in 
to the bottom, there a devouring shatk is 
ready to swallow me up; if I skim the 
.surface, a pack of dolphins are al m 
to snap me; but when I take win 
attempt to escape them by flight, 1 i- 
a prey to every ravenous bi i . I thai win 
the bosom of the deep. — Adieu. 

LETTER CX1V. 

To I lie MUM 

I in. formal 

nients that precede a t. 
here are usually as nui 

of this country ate finely calculated to 

Cite all conn; 
.ii the sexes. '1 lieu 
menls for propagating hemp, m 

arc the only commodity that meet 

loon the- venial - 
ihe verdure of the fields, the it 
ol the streams, and the beauty of the 

t i unite- io courtship, I lei l . . 
spurt among paini 

Vet 

it seems he I 

mutual love, oi an union of a 



THE CITIZEN OE THE WORLD. 



*6 5 



last anil most trilling i in. If 

their goods ami chattels can lie brought to 
unite, (heir sympathetic souls are ever 

[*h« gentle- 
. i^cil Liwu become 

: the match 
.iic piously 
Ig to act of parliament. 
tbe> who halt- fortune an 
nmelhing that islo 
but 1 actually pity those that have none. 
told there was a tune when ladies, 
with no other merit but youth, virtue, and 
beauty, bad a chance for husband.-., I 
among the ministers of the church, or the 
n of the army. The blush and inno- 
cence of sixteen was said to have ■ power- 
ful Influence over these IWO professions. 
1 late all (he little traffic of bitching, 
ogl'ng. dimpling, and smiling, has 
forbidden by an act in that case wisely 
ul provided. A lady's whole cargo 
li -, tigbs, and whispers, is declared 
utterh i rives in the 

warm latitu . where com- 

ies of this nature an t den found 

■ be i- then permitted to 
and smile when the dimples and smiles 
begin to forsake her ; and, when perhaps 
grown ugly, is ch.irital.lv entrusted with 
an unlimited use of her charms. Her 

. however, by this time have for- 

hcr : the captain has changed for 

another Distress; the priest himself leaves 

her m solitude to bewail her virginity ; ami 

she dies even without benefit of clergy. 

Thus you find the Europeans 
■ till as much earn 
asthe rudest - .fala. The Genius 

is surely now no more. In every 
I End enemies in arms to oppress bim. 
Avarice in Europe, jealousy in I 

uia, poverty among the 
• S and lust u . are all pre- 

The ' >enitis 
i i inly banished from earth, though 
.lorcd under such a variety <»f forms. | 
lie is nowhere to be found ; an. I all that 
dies iii each country can produce I 
■■'.' trifling r..: 
residence and favour. 
" The Genius of Love," says the Eastern 
;ue. " had long resided in the happy 
. of Abra, where even 



health, and every sound produce. I 
quillity. His temple at fir-t was crowd, d, 
but every age lessened the number i 
votaries, or cooled their devotion, l'erceiv- 
ing, therefore, his altars at length quite 
deserted, he Was resolved to remove to 
EOUK more propiUoas region, and he ap- 

Enscd the fair sex of en i 
e could hope for a proper reception, to 

their right to his presence- among 
them. In return to this proclamation 

.es were sent from the ladies of 
every part of the world to invite him, and 
to display the superiority of their claims. 
"And fu-t the beauties of China ap- 
peared. No country could compare with 
them for modesty, cither of look, dress, 
Or behaviour: their eyes were never lifted 
from the ground ; their robes of the 
beautiful silk hid their hands, boson 
neck, while their faces only were left un- 
covered. They indulged no airs that might 
express loose desire, and they seemed to 

nly the graces of inanimate beauty. 
Their black teeth and plucked eyebrows 

however, alleged by the (. 
against them, and he set them entirely 
aside when he came to examine their little 
feet. 

"The beauties of Circaad* UC9(t made 
their appearance. They advanced hand- 
inhand, singing the most inimodc-' 
and leading up a dance in the 

a. sttStndes. '1 hi 
half a covering ; the neck, the Kit breast, 
ami all the 1 view, 

which, after some time, 

than inflame desire The Illy and 

.' contended in forming their com- 
plexions; and a soft sleepiness of eye: 
ncy to their cl 

then beauties were obtruded, not c I' 
to their admirers ; they seemed to 

rather than 

- of Love dismissed them as un- 
worthy his regard, since they exch 
the duties of love, anil made themselves 
not the pursued, but the pursuing sex. 

"The kingdom of Cashmire ncxi [in- 
duced its charming deputies. This I 
seemed peculiarly sequeslei 
nature for his abode. Shady moui 
fenced it on one side from \V»c vnneWs^, 
sun, and sea-torae Yrteexies. irtv >&* «&»» 



266 



THE CfT/ZE.V OF THE WORLD. 



.1 luxuriance to (he air. Tlicir 
complexion! wet* of a bright yellow, that 

appeared almost transparent, while (lie 

c-nm-.n tulip seemed i.. m (heir 

checks. Their feature! anil limbs were 

delicate beyond (he statuary*! powa t" 

., mi. I their leeih whiter (nan their 

ivory. He wasalmosl persuaded to 

reside among (hem, when linfoitu 

one of the ladies talked of appointing Ml 

"In this p rn rm i on (he naked b 

intheni Am. ricfl would not be 

ilind ; their charms were found to 

- whatever (he m .1 nation 

conceive, and lerved to chow, thai 

could be perfeel, even wilh the 

seeming disadvatr brown com- 

11. But their savage educalion 

ted them utterlj inure ihlied to make 

the proper use of their power, and they 

capable of uniting 

mental with sensual satisfaction. In (his 
manner the deputies of other kingdoms 
had thi . (he black beauties 

Bin, and the town* daughters of 

.•women of Wida, "itli well- 
1 faces, and the hide. .11- vii 
iria; the squab ladies of Lapland. 
feet high, and (he giant fair ones of 

he beauties of Europe at last ap- 

I : grace was in their steps, and sen- 
smiling in every eye. It was 
the Universal opinion while they were 
.. liiug. that they would prevail ; and 
eemed to lend them his most 
able attention. They opened their 

E retentions with the utmost modesty ; ' 
ut unfortunately, as their orator pro- 
ceeded, she happened to let fall the 
words, 'house in town, settlement, and 
pin-money.' These seemingly h.v 
terms had instantly a -.uprising effect:. 
nius with ungovernable rage 
midst the circle; and, waving his 

G! -ft this earth, and flew 
ck to those ethereal mansions from 

11 led. 
"The whole assembly was struck wilh 

unaaefnenl ; they now justly : 
that fei would be 11 . 

Love had forsaken them. They continued 
some time thus 111 a state of torpid despair, 



when it was proposed byoncof (he nuriili 

that since the real Genius had lei 

in order to continue 

should set up an idol 

that (he b. 

furnish him with what each hked 

Thi- proposal was instantly relisl 

agreed to. An idol was form 

the capricious gills of all tin 

though no way resembling the departe 

Genius. The ladies of China furnished f 

monster with wings; those of C. 

supplied him with bonis ; the dai 

ped a purse in bis 
the virgins of Congo furnish. 
a tail. Since that lime .ill the 
addressed to I.oveare in realil 
idol; but, as m oilier false religiot 
adoration - fervent where 

least sincere." — Adieu. 

LETTER CXV, 
Ti> tht tnmt 

IKIND have ever been prone to 1 
paliate 111 the praise of human 1 
The dignity of in 
always been the fa\ 
humanily : they have declaimed wi 
ostentation which usual!'. 
as are sure of having a | 
they have obtained victories because 
were none to oppose. Yet, from all 
have ever read or seen, men appear man 
apt to err by having too high, than 
having too despicable an opinion of the 
nature ; and, by attempting to exalt the 
original place in creation, depren 
real value in society. 

The most ignorant 11. 
been found to think most highly of 

peculiarly concerned in (heir glory 
preservation j to have fought 1 : 
and inspired their teachers: (heir ' 

I to be familiar with heaven ; 
every hero has a guard of ana 
as men, to attend him. When (he 
tuguese first came among (he wi 
inhabitants of the 
savage nations readily allowed the stm 

considered them at best but as 1 

servants, brought to thi 

guardian serpent, to supply then 






THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



*6 7 



luxuries they could have lived nil 

i liny C"uld L'raul the I 
more riches, they could never allow them 
-uuhaknii;.!. thcil TuLtimii.'i'Mom, 
bracelet of (hell 

i with 

.'inc-r, examii in 'lie 

rotty niul predate 

warriors able to conquer 

I tainted H uh more 

Human nature 

: lie thinks 
he is 

sns and powers "i othen 

n ; nor 

, by bringing 

city. He is satisfied to 
be one of a country where mighty things 
and imagines the i. 

Beet a lu-tre ■ -i j himself, 
grees, lie loses the idea of his 
e in .i cup: 
ry powers of liui . 
i mi extraordinary gifts 

wiih their claims. 

ion why demigod- ami 
ever been erected in tin 

: they 

.. people who h.nl high ..pinions 

e igno- 

■ I ; they addressed 

ere willing in allow thai 

da, because they " 

I Willi 

.11 men 
nettling 

■ ity : that ignorant natu 
more prond of building a lov 

■ for ages, 

ing up a dem 
i v and ere:.'. same pride 

install 
a god or an hero; but though the adoring 
savagr -sus to the cl 

i i ..ah toe hero not one inch 
andard of humanity: incapable, 



therefore, of exalting the idol, lie ii. 
himself, and falls prostrate DC 

When man bai thus acq 

neous idea of tin dignit] 

and the gods become perfectly mil 

.. but angels, angels are bin men — 

nay, but servants, that stand in waiti 

thus address llieir pn.pli.jt 
I Illy : " I salute thee, gloriou- 
wli'.ni I lie sun i- but the shadow. Master- 

ll 11 II All cri 
slar of justii 

not rich anil liberal but by iIiclmIi- ol il'V 
munificent hands. The angel d. . 
ips lii- hai . 
n n( ili. pi; 
primum mobile would never dart the ball 
of the sun through the trunk of 1.. 
I Dot to serve the 

-he has for line. '1 lie 
angel I 

high ll ■. it i" 

i of the faithful ! 
Gabriel, « lib all his ail and knowledge, 

i- i.ui a men 

friend, men think proper in ll 
but if iin!. i 'I thcK be 
beings, with what a di altrii 'I 

•ngs of 
little nil. Hal- ll.u- Battl 
thus to see creatup run the 

monkey, ami more active than the 
claiming i" '.ry of 

thus arrogating a partnership m the crea- 
tine ! Sure Heaven is 
kind, that launches no thunder at those 
guilty heads: but it is kind, and regards 
llieir follies willi 

Ires that il loved into being. 

ice of 
making demigods might have been al- 
io not 
bat any man became a g'«J in a 
ciiiintr, i.babilants were refined. 

Such countries generally have too close an 
ion uilo human weakness, to think it 
I with celestial power, Thcysome- 
indeed adnii' the gods of strangers, 
,.A\VweB>.v 
ence in lima ov ob&oirvoi ■,'C&<sviN<e£*x>«» 



268 



THE CmZBN OF THE WORLD. 



being forgotlcn, while nothing but their 
ower .mil their miracles were reman- 
1 The Chinese, fur instance, 

god of their own country: the Idols 
which worship .it tins da 

bt from ihe barbarous nations around 

them. The Roman emperor-, who pre- 
tended to divinity were generally taught 
i that they were mortal ; and 
Alexander, though he passed among bar- 
M countries for ■ real goil, could 
never persuade his polite countrymen into 
a similitude of thinking. The I 
moniana shrewdly complied with his com- 
mands by the following sarcastic edict : — 

Ei 'A\<fa,fy).i, fi"i il i, tttvt |mb 

Adieu. 

LETTER CXVI. 

Tt Ihr l.i ill 

These is something irresistibly pleasing 
in ihr »n of a fine woman ; even 

though her tongue be til 

The mind 
with the regularity of the 
■ .n view, and, struck with external 
i - into respondent harmony. 
Intlnsagre. lion, 1 lately found 

If in company with my friend and 
at ion turned upon 
• med equally capable of 
id inspiring. Wewereeachof 
inions upon this subject: the 
lady insisted thai it was a natural and uni- 
versal passion, and produced the ha] 
of iliose who cultivated it with proper prc- 
II ; my friend denied it to be the 
troth Of nature, but allowed it to have a 
OS, and affirmed, that it was of 
Infinite service in refinii : while 

1, to keep op the dispute, affirmed il 

the cunning 

■I admitted by the 

silly part ol'ours; there , more 

natural than taking snuff, or chewing 

opium. 

" Hon b il po rible," cried i. "thai 

such a passion can be natural, when OOf 
opintODS even of benutv, which i 

entirely the result of fashion and 
caprice! The ancients, who pretended to 
be COI in the .in, have praised 

heads, red hair, and eyt 
that joined each other above the nose. 



Sui b were the charms thai once eat] 

C.ilullus, Ovid, and Anai.rcon. 
would :it present be out of hin 
lovers praised them for such grs 
should -in antique beauty now 
face wo 
upline ot the tweezer, foi 

■inb, before it could be seen in | 
company. 

" But thedifferencebetv 

is is not so bell 

thediffcrentcountri 
i of Gonqor 
thick lips: a Chinese lover i 

of thin. In Ch 
nose is thought 

: cross but a mountain « 
r.ues it from the Tartars, and ihei 

asunder, are all the fashion. In I 
and some other countries 
marrii -. chooses to have I 
in the Philippine Islands, if a I 
happens to > i the lirsl 

that he is put off with a \ ■: 
i- declared void to all into 
and the bride sent back with dis;; rare. In 
some parts of the 1 
properly fed up d" 
one hundred crowns : in tin- I 
ladies of the ver 

wcver, -ell 
andsomeomi 

tum even to England, don'l I 
the beautiful part of the sex 
and none now marrying or making 
but old men and old women that 
saved money? Don't 1 
fifteen to twenty-one rendered 
void lo all i: ■ 

i ious years ol 

te of virginity! What! shall I call 
that rancid passi. 
between tut old bachelor of fifty-six and a 

'.uly of forty-nim 
whal advnnl 

■ belly ■ 
on the man's side! Would 
me that such a passion 
the human race were n 

, became bi 
i j" 

" \V hether love be natural or no," r 



THE C/T/ZEV OF THE WORLD. 



360 



my friend gravely, " il contribute! to the 
uess of every society into which it is 
luced. All nui p 

I in at intervals ; love is a 

i -t plea- 

rureiy th.it gamester who ['lays 

e best advantage, 

unable 

ining, and the pool 
turned in flames 
alas! no way metaphorical. lint what- 
ever advantages the individual nn 
bora tin- passion, society will certainly be 
I ni'l improvi ,1 h action : 

deviated to discourage 

.11 the 

ol plant morals iii 

. it . ultivates them when 

: -li-h from :■ 

irelylo brush 

.■ n. 

licate 

itution t it I. 

introd smallest 

dei « ith ■ I 
languished in Rome, and 

ep for ages, 
•tight its way among u.. tl 

ill the 

'•ol|. |. 

' 

I 
find tlv 

lay cli 

"■ thi 
i new 

i to the ' 
-ion, but cannot 
nobler origin than yon 

it is 

rejected 

to natural ■ 



those ; re it is cultivated, only 

nearer advt The 

same efforts that are Used in some places 
it\,.iii. I oilier mil : 
employed U 
. however unpolii 

'..able for inn... ■ 
famous for passion ; il I r.l in 

the coldest, as well as in the v. 

in the sultry n i 
Southern America the 
fli .1 with Do! 

w ah. .ut having her mind : 

In alt my EnnnV I" 

Ainiflit r.rofiioon Hill I [ 

For though tbt rivei roe up hci 1 n 

tts p ■ ; ii. t nunc. 

I the effects of loi 
to be the result of an artificial ps 

institution into the whit h 

v.lii ..! ii 

..t it Few lovers are unacquainted with 

tlic fate ■! the two Italian lovei 
and Julia licllamano, wdio, 

separation, expired with pleasure ii 

other's arms. Such instances are too 
rraatlons of the reality of the 
to shon tl. • 
ting the ml 
oi the heart." rVdii u. 

LETTER CXVU. 

To Ihtiamc. 

clock htal Sinn k two, the expiring 

■ :. the 
Watchman forget- the hour in slumber. 
I In- laborious and the happy are at rest, 
and nothing wakes but meditation, guilt, 

ir. The drunkard once 

'. tlu rol.ber 

id, and the suicide 

lifts In own -acred 

Let me no longer waste the 
Ige of antiquity, or tli 
contemporary grmus, but pursue the 
dk, where 

but a few hours post walked befbn 

where she kept up 

like a froward child, - I with 

run hangs tU •ssmssV "Y>m. 

dying Urdu (cjefoYg eowv. ». \d\vi* <&e»«s 



*7° 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 






no sound is heard but of the chiming i 
or the distant watch-dog. All the battle 
of human pride is forgotten ; an hour like 
this may well display the emptiness of 
human vanity. 

: : will come a time, when this 
temporary solitude maybe made continual, 
and the city itself, like it- inhabitant 
away, and leave .1 desert in it- room. 

What cities as great as this have once 
triumphed in existence, hid their victories 

as great, joy as just, and as unbounded j 

. ith snort-sighted presumption, pro- 
mised themselves immortality '. Posterity 

can hardly trace the situation of some ; the 
sorrowful traveller wanders over the awful 
niins of others ; and, as he beholds, he 
learns wisdom, and feels the transience of 

gobhuMiy possession. 

" Hi re," he one-, "stood their citadel. 

now grown over with weeds ; there their 

, but now the haunt of every 

noxious reptile ; temples and 1 heat res stood , 

m only an undistinguished heap of 

rum, They are fallen, for luxury and 

' made them feeble. The rc waids 
Of the state were conferred on amusing and 
not on useful members of sod 

Ce invited the in. 
who, though at lirst r 

again, conquered by perseverance, and at 
last swept the del to nndfaluv 

traction." 
How few appear in those streets "huh 
ue few hours ago were crovi 
and tho-e who appear now no longer 
treat their daily mask, noi attempt : 

1 • I In ise who make the streets 
ind find a short 1 
wretchedness at the doors of the opulent! 

. whose circumstances are too humble 

■ t redress, ami ■ : lesare 
too great even for pity. Their Wfet 

■ther horror than p 

laimed them ; societ) turns it 
upon their distress, and has given the 

1 hanger. These \ r 

■ ;avc once si 

■ •I been Battered into hi 
have been prostituted to the gay hull 



villain now turned mil 

at the doors 

relieve I hem. 

Why, why was I bom a man. .and 
see the suffering 
relieve? Poor housele 
world will give j 

ive you relief. Th 
tunes of the great, the 
uneasiness of the rich, an 
all the powei of eloquence, and hi 

igage our attention and 
sorrow. The poor weep unl 
secuted by every subordin 
tyranny ; and every law w hi 
security, becomes an enemy to them. 

Why was this heart of mine forme 
so much sensibility? or why was 11 
fortune adapted to its 11. 
ness, without a capacil) 
makes the man w 
than the object which sui 
— Adieu. 

LETTER tWIIl. 
Fan HmmtaLin C»i All.<~{i.llu i__ 

•rr % bje the HM\ 

I UAVI been ju-t sent upon nn nab 1 
: 10 v . ommis 

D hinlh 
Ike pleasure I shall find upon 1 
native country. I shall leave - 
proud, barbarous, inhospitable > 
where every 

Hut though I find the inhabitants Ml 
yet the 1 hitch merchants who ai 

in -till more 
They have raised my dislike to Eui 
■ 1 : by them I learn ho« 
human nature . h 
dignities an European * 

the emperor to thi 

he was obliged I lesl{ 

for the 

Utor of the Sfholc 



THE C/TIZEX OF THE lrOfH.P. 



271 



the presents, art out on beau- 
iifnl enamelled Cables, adorned with 
flowers, bome on men's shoulders, and 

followed bj antic Mid d 

10 ihe gift* 
themselves, I had fancied Ihe donors must 
have 'lie honours. 

diout n qnaiter of an hour after the 
presents had been carried in triumph, the 
envoy and hi* train were brought f"' 
They were covered from head to foot with 
long black veils, winch prevented their 
.'. each led by a conductor, chosen 
from the meanest of the people. In this 
dishonourable manner, having traversed 
the city of Jeddo, they at length arrived 
at the palace gate; ami, after waiting half 
■a boar, wen admitted into the guard- 
room. Here their eyes were uncovered, 
and in about an hour the gentleman usher 
introduced lliein into the hall of audience. 
The emperor was at length shown, 
in 1 kind of alcove at the upper end of the 

■ten envoy ni coBdnetad 

towards the throne. 

A I soon as he had approached within a 

D distance, the gentleman usher cried 

out with aloud v.. nan ;" 

B»OJ Tell I'. 
the ground, tfld CWpl upon his hands and 
feet towards the throne. Still approach- 
isclf upon his knees, and 

bowed In- forehead to the ground. 
These ceremonies being over, fie was 
directed to withdraw, still gni.clling on 
his belly, and going backward like a 

loba ■ 

ceesively fond of riches, 
they are earned with such cir- 
cumstances of ah| in. Do the 
1 1 1 leaven itself with 
t of more profound respect ? Do they 
c honours on the Supreme of 
.'.loins king, 
who gives them a permission to poi 
trinkets and porcelain? What ■ glorious 
cschange, to forfeit their national honour, 
•en their title to humanity, for a 
screen or a snuff-box .' 

[f tin s, • ..-.• 1 - 1 1 1.. in. 1 essayed in the first 

mortifying, those which 

were 1 re infi- 

ln the second .111 

the empeior and the ladies 



were placed behind lattices, in such a man- 
mi :is to tee, without being seen. II. n- 
all ihc Europeans were directed to pass 
in review, and grovel and ad the 

lore: with this spectacle the whole 
court seemed highly delighted, Th 

gers were asked a thousand ridiculous 
questions, as their names, and their ages; 
they were ordered to write, to Stan 
right, to sit, to stoop, to cotnplimei 
Other, to be drunk, to speak the Japanese 

ge, to talk Dutch, to sing, ti 
in short, they were ordered to do all that 
COOld satisfy the curiosity of woman. 

Imagine, my dear Altangi, a set of 
grave men tint- transformed into buffoons. 
and acting a part even whil as honour- 
able as that of those instructed animals 
Which ate shown in tin street; of Pi-kin to 
the mob on a holiday. Yet the cen 
did not end here, for every guat lord 01 
the court was to be visited in the same 
manner ; and their ladies, who lot 
whim from their husbands, were all 
equally fond of seeing the strangers per- 
form, even the children nulling highly 

diverted with the dancing Dutchmen. 

" Alas!" cried I ti. my-ell, upon 1 
ing from such a spectacle, "is; this the 
nation which assumes such dignity si the 
court of Pekin ? Is this the people that 
appear so proud at home, and in every 
country where they ha ve theleast suth 
How docs a love of gain transform the 

1 of mankind into the mot) 
temptible and ridiculous! I had rather 
continue poor all my life, than become 
rich at such a rate. Perish those riches 
which are acquired at the expense of my 
honour or my humanity I Let me 
said I, "a country where there are none 
but such as treat all others like ilavi 
more detestable still, in suffering 
treatment. I have seen enough of thil 
nation to desire to see more of 01 

leave a people susp tu toi 

whose morals are corrupted, and equally 
debased by supers) it i- .n and vice; wheie 
the sciences are left uncultivated, where 
the great are slaves to the | 

to the 1 eopti ; «h. re the ■ 

He only win 11 debarred of Ihe 

civil B.TC WH V» >j«V*- 



212 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



than those of Christianity ; in a 
won), a country when; men are for- 
bidden to think, and consequently labour 
soda the most miserable slavery, — that of 
mental servitude, — Adieu. 

i ETTER CX1X. 

Frtm Lit* Chi AthiHgi tii Finn Hisim, First 
isiit of t'ir Ctrtiiwn.il Acmdrmj .it 
Ftkitt in I I 

Tut misfortunes of (he great, my friend, 
■ ngage our attention, .ire 
gcd upon in tones of declamation, 
and the world i> called upon to g 
the noble sufferers : they have at once Che 
comfort of admiration and pily. 

\ (i, where is the magnanimity of bear- I 
ing misfortunes when the whole world is 
looking on ? Men in such dKUmti 
can net bravely even from motives of 
flc only who in the vale of 
itycan brave adversity — who, with- 
out friends to encourage, acquaintances to . 
pity, or even without hope to alleviate his 
sses, can behave with tranquillity 
and indifference, is truly great | whether 
t or courtier, he deserves admi- 
ration, and should be held up for our ! 
imitation and respect. 

The miseries of the poor are, however, 
entirely disregarded ; though some undcr- 

Stl real hardships in one day, than 
at in their whole lives. It is indeed 
■ e what difficulties the meanest | 
-I, sailor or soldier endures without 

ronrtai :ret. Even day to bin 

iy of misery, and yet he bom his 

hard fate without repining, 

Wuli what indignation do 1 hear the 
heroes of tragedy complain of misfbltttnei 
an. I tiai l-!n:.>. w hose greatest calamity is 
founded in arrogance and pride! Their 
t distresses are pleasures compa re d 
to what many of the adventuring poor 
day sustain, without murmuring. 
eat, drink, and sleep ; have 
to attend them, and are sure of 
for life ; while m 
ires are obliged to v 
It a Iriend to comfort or to 
them, find enmity in cverv law, and are 
loo ) tin even justice. 

IVf l>cen led into these reflections 
from accidentally meeting, some days ago, 




>i fellow begging at one of the outle 
of this town, with a wooden leg. I wi 

is to learn what had reduced I 
his present situation ; and, 
him wlut I thought propel 
know the history ol his life and m 
tunes, and the manner in which he Vraf 
reduced to his present distress. Tl 
allied soldier, for such he v. 
intrepidity truly British, leal 
crutch, put himself into an 
comply with my request, and g 
history as follows : — 

" As for misfortunes, sir, I cam 
tend to have gone through 
others. Except the loss of m 
my being obliged to beg, 1 a 
any reason, thank Heaven, tli 
complain : there are some who 
Ixith legs and an eye : but, thank lleav. 
i| quite so bad with me. 

" My rather was a labourer in the 
try, and died when I n 
so I was put upon the parish. As I 
wandering sort of a man. the ] 

I belonged, or where 1 was bora ; 
sent meto nnothei parish, and that par 
sent me to a third : till at last it w. 
thought I belonged to no parish at at' 
At length, however, they fixed mi 
some disposition to be .■< scholar, at 
actually learned my letters ; but thi 
tcr of the workhouse put me i 

" I lere I lived an easy kin 

ears. I only wrought ten I,. 
v. and had • I drink D| 

vided for my labour. It is true, 1 Wl 
not suffered to stir far from the hoi 
fi :ir I should run away: but 
I had the liberty of the w 
the yard before th< 
h for me. 
" I v as ni ■ 

where 1 was UJ Iritr . I 

I ate and drank wel 

gh, till he died. I 
obliged to provide for I 
resolved to go and seek nv 

:. ami went from 
working when I could get cmpl 
and starving when 1 c 
might have lived so still ; but : 



THE CITIZEX OF THE WORLD. 



:?3 



one day to go through a field lielonging 
to a magistrate, I spied a k 

lib ju-t before me. I believe the 

put H in my head to fling my stick 

at it : well, "lint will you have on'l ? I 

te, Bnd was bringing il 
in triumph, when the Justice him-cll" mot 
me : hi a villain, and collaring 

me, desired I would give an account of ■ 
myself. I began immediately to give a 
full account Of nil that I knew of my 
I mii ; but though 
I gave a very long ICCOUAt, the Justice | 
said 1 could give no account of myself; 
• 1 mi indicted, and found guilty of 
being poor, and sent to Newgate, in 
-tansported to the plant. ' 

| this and that of being 
in gaol ; but, for my part, I [bund Newgate 

ever I was in in 

all my life. 1 had my bill) fid to cat and 

drink, and did no work; but, alas 

i life was too good to last for ever. 
I was taken out of prison, after five 
months, put on board of a ship, u 
off with two hundred more. Our passage 
was lull indifferent, for we were all 
fined in the hold, and died very fast, for 
want of sweet air and provisions : but, 
for my ; not want meat, because 

I bid 1 fever all the way: Providence | 
was kind ; when provisions grew short, il 
took away my desire of eating. When we 
•hoie. we weie sold to the planters. 
■veil years, ami as 1 was 
loUr— for 1 had forgot my letters— I 
I to n oik among the negroes; | 
and served out my time, as in duty bound 

" V\ hen m, time was expired, I worked 
. and glad I wo- 
uld I i cause 1 loved my 
country. liberty! liberty! liberty! that 
v.y of ever) I in, and 
1 will 1 was afraid, 
ftT, that I should be indicted I'm I 
ond once more ; so I did not much 
tO go into the count. 

when I 
rould get them. I mi very happy in 

this manner for some time; till one 
ing, coming horn It, two men 

knocked me down, and then desired me 
to »land still. They belonged to a press- 



gang : I was carried bcfoic the I 

and as I could give no account ol I 

(that ».i. the thing that always 1. 

me), I had my choice left, whether to go 
on board a man-of-war, or list for a sol- 
dier. I chose to be asoldiei ; and in thil 
post of a gentleman I lenred two 
paigns in Flanders, was at the battles of 
V«J and Fontenoy, and received Ml 
wound through the breast, whl 
day. 
" When the peace came on, I WI 
charged ; and U I could not work, be- 
"inetimes painful, 
i • landman in the E ■ t India 

Company's service. 1 ben fought the 
lunch in six pitched battles ; and verily 

believe, that if I could read and writ 

H would have given 111 
and made me a corporal. But that v. 
my good fortune ; I soon fell nek, and 
when I became good for nothing, got 
leave to return home again with 

- in my pocket, which 1 Hived iii 

trice, This was at the beginning 
of the present war, so I hoped to be set 
■ m shore, and to have- the pleasure of 
Spending my money; but the government 
wanted men, and I was pressed again, 
before ever I could set foot on shore. 

" Die boatswain found me, as he said. 
an obstinate fellow : he swore that 1 
understood my business perfectly well, 
but that 1 shammed Abraham inei 
be idle. Cod knows, I knew nothing of 
sea business : he beat me without con- 
sidering what he was about. But sli 
nn forty pounds was some comfort to 
under every beating: the money was my 
comfort, and the money I might have had 
to thil day, but that our thin 

French, and so I lost il all. 
" Our crew was carried iol 
prison, and many of them died, because 
they were not used to live in a gaol ; but, 
fur toy pott, it was nothing to me, for 1 
was seasoned. One night, however, as 

leaping on a bed of boards, with a 
warm blanket about me, (for I always 
loved to lie well,) 1 was awakened by the 
boatswain, who had a dark lantern in bis 
hand 'Jack,' says he to Be, 'will you 
knock out the French sentry's hcivwA' — 

t CMC,' sa^s, \, sXWWWJ, v» V«^ 






of the wo 



II awake, 'if I lend a hand.' - 
,1 I hope * 

i, which m all the cloths 1 had, 

with him lo 

fight the Frenchmen We bad no arms; 
man is able to beat five 

tit the door, "here both the seulr:-. 

ipon them, 

then .inn- in a : nd knocked 

them dowB. From llieuce nine of us 

to the quay, Utd seizing the 

■ met, got out of the harbour, 

id not been beee 

three days before we were taken up by 

BO English privateer, who was gl 

so many good hands; and we consented 

to run Dm chaOCB However, a 

not so touch luck as we expected. In 

days we fell in with a French man- 

, "f forty guns, while we had but 

e ; so to it we went. The 

For three hours, and I verily 

iheFrench- 

iinfbrtunately we lost almost 

I was once more in the 
power of the French, and I believe it 

would base gone hard with me, had I 

hi back to my old gaol in Brest; 

tune, we woe retaken, 

to England once 

"I had almost forgo! to tell yon. thai 

in this last . | I was wounded in 

faces, — I lost four fingers of the left 

and my leg was shot off 1 lad I 
bad i lost my leg 

and UM of my ! rd a king's 

ship, and n er, 1 should have 

othingaitd maintenance 

I nv. life -. but that w.\s 

bom with a 

lii- mouth, and another 

ever, blessed 

i I health, and have 

I th u 1 know of. 
i I the Justice of Peace." 

lints saying, I" . leaving my 

me in admiration of his Inde- 
nt ; nor could m 

i habitual acquaint- 
ance with i hool of 
Idleu. 



The titles ol Em 

no means so sublime. 

pour or Pegu, not sati 

the globe and all its appurtenant 

him and his heirs, assert 

in the firmament, and e 

to the mill I 

Europe, with more mo I 

titles to earth, but make up 

what is wanting in theit • 

is their pas-ion foi a long list of 

lid trifles, that 1 have kn 

.a prince with more titles th.. 

Spanish nobleman will 

than shirts. 

itrary to this, "tl 

a writer of the la 
"disdain to accept of such ti 
tcntl only lo increase their pr 
improving their glory: they 
depending on the feeble helps 
for respect, perfectly satisfied wil 

At present, however, these 
laid aside; the English monarchs h 
late assumed new tiGes.andhai 
their coins with the i 

ire dukedom 

.re employments, 
this, I make no 
add new lustre.tothe British tliron. 
in reality, paltry 
diminish that respect they ai 

ure. 
There is in the honours 

a majestic simplicity, which 1>' ■ 
to inspire our reverence and re-, 
numerous md trifling ornaments in either 
are strong ii 

Shoul ice, Iheempi 

mnnd; 

Great Britain, Frn 

to be acknowledged as Puke •-. 

nirg, ••! I 




77// OF THE WOULD. 






I remem' of 1 1 « i -» 

i in tin illi ■ 

y Willi 

the Po 

■ lull. 

whii ii he teemed to - I r value 

This lie thought too gri 

I 
'hui hi* ntbjei i- thould 
Nun for the luiin 
VI 
1- nlighlencr of ii 

mighty 
ltd 
Tlii- <l; majestic and 

us of a 

1 u-ri-c in the 

Willi. I thru' 

i thus 

ivalcnt 

march 
-I, ; anrl ii I 
: tbh titles upon Bi itish 

tliis might h 

' The 
them, 

1 1 •-■ 
inp him Ihc 



'ii. complimcntiag him 

■ be bune em p eror, " hold 

I in multiplying 
ranitj ; but sin nglh and fn 

i find the 
ty. 

TIk 

. 

and kuIUoe 

rjuit th 
and 1 1 

-. true 

ad « bile he 

. 

;■' !•! em] : 

i.i. mi : 

1 

: I 

my applause ; b 

> ,1||.| 

; 

anarcl iuL 

■ ' o never examine 
With tl with more 






THE CJT/ZE.V OF THE ir, . 



uniformity What is true with regard to 

individuals, i« nol 

".eminent like iliis 
i- in continual fluctuation, while those 

here men arc taught not W 

ontinue ah» 

nme In A-m. lot instance, where the 

monarch's a y force, 

cknowledeed through (ear, ■ i 
ernment ts entirely unknown. All 
habitants Men to wear the same 
i complexion, and remain contented 

with hereditary oppression. The 

■ure is the ill Innate rule of duly ; 

branch of the administration is a 

ome of I lie whole ; and if one 
tyrant is deposed, .mother starts up in his 

em as hia predece s sor, rhe 

>h, on the contrary, instead ol being 

led I'v power, em guide them- 

id of appealing to 
tin- pleasure of the prince, appeal to the 
his of mankind. What one 
tank oi men assert, I- denier] by othi 

i pen to 
with greater or less 

n directed by pre- 
it, which inner alters ; the I 
by reason, which i- ever changing its 

tcting in this manner by precedent, 
■re evident : original errors are thu- I on- 
tinned, without hopes of retires- j and all 

marks of \ i died down 

stand no superiority of thinking 

! allowed its exertion in rn 

But to recompense those 
oents undergo no 

'hey have no 01 « 

.lions in the eon- 
ItitOtSi iiniie; the struggle for 

r, ami all becomes tranv 
arc babilu I 

: ire taught to form 
which they 

'i-iy. 

:cs of a i 
from the 

land, are not less ' 

than 1 1 former, it 

to co-. enefit ; 

possible advantage will aeot 



be sought, and every attempt 

il must be attended with a n 

IS reasons will lead diflcj 
and equity and adv..; 
often be outbalanced by a conibii 
clamour and prejudice. But lhou_ ~ 
a people may be thus ij 
have been inlluenced by a 
their error, are seldom si 
felt ; each man i- himself the 

obeyed, and 
easily forgive. Thedisadvani 
may, in reality, be . qual lu n 
the most di 
will bear l 
when lie know- hirnsell 
of his own misfot 

LETTER I Wll. 

My long residence he- 
me. As every object cease: 
it no longer continues to be 
some i 

pleasure itself, if pcrmi 
iiisup] lie are ll.u 

: new hap] bj 

I only, tl . the ail 

of my son to vary tlii- (riflin 
borrow new |tl. 

faligui 1 own, thus <pent 

wandering from pi 

bm em] 

we bustle in n 

a coronation; wliethei 

whatever object at tl 

sureh 

pointment. The 

and are in 
bably is all the di 

This ma) 
of my : 

□nntry, as supposing themrii 



T//L ■ OF THE WORLD. 



277 



one omission foi which e for- 

upon their buildings, n 
mountain*. This is a branch of .-■ 
011 wUcb all Otho o very 

my deficiency "ill appear the 1 
faring. With wii.ii pleasure, for 

■ read of a traveller in 

Egypt a fallen column with 

ije, ami finding it exactly five feet 

coming out 
; hole from ihat he enti 
ing the finger of an antique 

ig a new conjecture to 
the hundred and fourteen conjecture! 

1 upon the nam 

Methiniu 1 hear tome of my friends in 

China demanding .1 similar account of 
London and the adjacent villages ; and if 
I remain litre much longer, it is probable 

I may gratify their curiosity. I in 

when run dry on other topic. 

\ of the dty wall ; to describe 

jutiful building the mansion- house; 
1 will enumerate the magnificent - 
in which ihe nobility chiefly reside, and 

in monarch ; nor « ill 1 
forget 6 of Shoe Lone, in which 

I myself have resided rrivsl 

lbs]] find me DO way inf. 1 

of my brother travellers in ihe arts 
1. Al pn sent, hi iwc ■ 
of Ihis way of writ 

i in a 
fa Town, and 
Has in Ihe manner of modern voyagers. 

much of Kentish I 
I '.iiy desire to see that 

I could have wished, 

indeed ily without 

thither; but that w is im] 
and therefore 1 resolved I 

. ntish 
-they take coach, which 
nlnepcnce, or they may go afoot, which 

my opinion, 

1 he most eligible convenience, but 
go on foot, having 
If, that going in that 
moaner would be the cheapest way. 



you set out from Dog-house bar, 

on a line level road railed in 
OB both sides, commanding on the ri 
small prospect of groves and fields, eni 
led with flowers, which would wonderfully 
charm the sense of smelling, were il 
foradunghill on tl itsef- 

Buvtawitbthi ! 

much gl [uity than thi 

1 in u~i no) omit ■ piece of taji 

to commit upon ! ' My 

makers 

of the dunghill, for having broughl 

-. ii should 
fallen upon the makers of Ihe rot 

. en the dunghill 
"Ana proceeding in this manner for 

-cine time, a building, resembling some- 

whoi a triumphal 

view. This structure, bowel 
peculiar to this country, and vulgar!) 1 
a turnpike-gate: I could 

haractera, on the 
front, probably upon the occasii 

• il tO 
■me subsequent Si 
turer who may happen 1 
so, continuing my coin - 

1 unwalled fa 1 

'.m. 

" Islington is a pretty neal 1 

built of brick, with a church and bells; il 

mall lake, or rather pond, in the 

midst, ' • mush ncg- 

I am told ii - dry in rammei 1 II 

■ very proper 

iclefbr iish ; of which the inhab 

themselves seem sensible, by bringing all 

1 there from London. 

"Aftei having surveyed the curiosities 

of this fair and beautiful town, I proceeded 

i- building. 

Die White Conduit House, on my 

right. Here the inhabitants of London 

often assemble to ..f hoi 

.ill their little tables before them, 
employed on this occasion, must, nodoubt, 
be a very amusing sighl 
but still toon orra in 

" 1 rout ii tanoa 

to Pancras, as it is wittten, ew'VasvwiSsg:, 
as It u pronounced-, Yj«a. -»ft\\Ocs ■SawAJW* 



=-s 



THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD. 



■ 
■< ill venture 
io», iii the I 
which, 

make; ■ :t : ami, in- 

deed, 1 1 us i itioa to 

i puce of to much sanctity as I'angrace is 
universally esteemed. However this be, 
II except [lie parish church and its 

little in Psngnue worth 
ion of the curious observer, 
ron Pangrace to Kentish Town is 

I one mile and B,qu 
nigh a line chain 
ry, well watered with beautiful 
di tins, and enamelled with Bowers of all 

. which might contribute to charm 
it not that the odo- 
riferous ealet are often more impregnated 

with dust than perfume. 

you enter Kentish Town, the eye 
led witli the sho 
artificers, such a- venders of candle-. 

DOm ; there are also 

■■i.t buildings of red brick, with 

. or rather pillars, 

in | peculiar order of architecture- I send 

drawing of several— r, IRC 
This pretty town probably born- 
name from il to the GOV 

Kent : and, indc il onnaiural 

itlld, as there arc only London 
and the adjacent i 

them. it will, perceiving 

I made a nasi . 
and a certain dried fruit called 
g to protract my remarks 
liirii ; a ii. 1 liii- I would '.cry 

me. but was 
by a c which, in truth, I h id 

•ecu, lor night coming 

• "). it ;Topcr 

i ., as I was . •hligea to 

." — Adieu. 

CWIII. 
7V the i.imr, 

R a variety of disappoiiitwenl 
arc at length fully satisfied. My 

I long expected, is arrived: at once, 
by his presence, banishing my anxiety, and 
Opening ie of unexpected plea- 

sure. His improvements in mind and 
j.erson have far surpassed even the sanguine 




i if n father, 
but he i 1 . returned B ni 

Eerson, hardi ned by tra 
versity. II 
however, had infused a 
into his conversation, w hich seemed 
intervals to interrupt our mutual ■-. 
lion. I expected lhat this con' I 
cure only Irom time . 
willing to I ■ fav< 

in a moment, repaid every in 

Two days after hi 
Black, with his hcnutifi I uiet 
congratulate us upon this pit 

.. ly kinswoman was i. 
be the very captive m 
from Persia, ana who had l> 
on the Wolga, am 
si.ui peasants lo tl 

1 to hold I 
might be prolix in 

:ti 
may conceive then joy without m; 
ance : words were unal 
transports; then how cai 

When two young persot 
enamoured of each other, noil 
me such pleasure as seeing tie 
whether 1 know the parties oi r. 
happy at thus bi 
the uri 

measure, formed me foi a n 
and given me a soul ' 
every mode of human f« 

her we mighl nor crow i 
image : his 
of similar material- with 
his consent, 
■inted for the sola 
oupii 

All the acquaintances which II 
since my arrival ll 

lily. Thelitl nCOII 

master of the certmonh 

with proper decorum. T 
and the pawnbroki 
sprightly u 

I Mrs, Tibb 
e was set oti 




of .1 pig i>i. ii was lenl bj the little 

Beau, 10 In ive with 

proper formality. The whole company 
easily perceived thai k would be a double 
wedding bet - over, and. indeed, 

my friend and tin- med to make 

no secret of their passion; he even called 
Ide, in order to know my candid 
opinion, whether I did not think Mm a 
little too old to be married. "As for my 

.irt," continued he, "I know I am 

•■• play the fool ; hut all my friends 
■ .list- my wisdom, and produce me 

ii toothers." 

At dinner everything run on 

with good humour, harmony, and satisfac- 
tion. Every creatine in Company thought 
pretty, and every jest was 
The Man in Black sat next 
In. n; , ihimed her 

her knee- and her elbow, 
I something arch in hi 
icn she patted his cheek i net 

Antiquated passion so playful, so harm- 

verend 

The second COntM was now called rbx, 

and, oniony other dishes, | hnc- 

tnrkey was placed before the widow. The 

von know, carve as they eat; 

ire, lieggcd his m 

to help inin to .1 pul of the turkey. The 

. pleased with an opportunity of 

r skill in carving, fan ait upon 

which ii teems she piqued herself. | 

I it up by first taking off the leg. 
cries my friend. " if I might 

the wing, and then the I 
ire easily." — " Sir," replies the 

ive me leave to understand cat- 
ting up a fowl- I always begin with the 
leg."—" Yes. madam." replies the lover ; 
"bin If the Wing be the most com 

begin with the «ing." — 

the lady, " when you 

or own, begin with the 

I give mc K 

e I am not to be 

•' Madam," 




interrupt- he, lo 1 1 

instructi I IcL. -ii I" interruptt the 

other; "who is old, sir? whin I die of age, 
I know of some that will quake for fear. 
If the leg does not come off, take the 
turkey to yourself." — " Madam," n 
the Man in black, " 1 don't care a farthing 
whether the leg or the wing cornel I 
you arc for the leg first, why, you 
have the argument, h it be as I 

say."— " As i.,r the matter of that," cries 
low, " I don't care a fig. * bethi 

are for the leg off or on 
the future I stance." — " 

replied the other, "that is easily dot 
is only removing to the other end ol 
table ; and so, madam, your most obedient 
humble servant." 

'I bus was this courtship of an age dc- 
d in one moment ; for this dial 
B the match I 
. thai had been but just 

concluded. The smallest accidents i 
point the most important maties. llow- 
ever.lhoagh it in some measure intenu pud 

Hon, it no w. ] 

inesaol the youthful couple; 
bj the yoanj -. I could 1 1 1 

d with this 
intern] 

In a few hours the whole I 
seemed entirely forgotten, ami 
since enjoyed thi lions which 

result from a consciousness of making 

othi rbaj ] y My ton at i his i..h j srtnei 

arc fixed here for life: the Man in 1 

1 en them up a small estate in the 
country, which, added to what 1 w . 

!■- of supplying aU 
the real, but I 

ess. As for m; self, the w orld being 
but one city to mc, I do not much 
in which of the streets I happen to N 
1 -hall, thcicfure.spendlhercmninderof my 
days in examining the manners of different 

es, and have prevailed upon the 

ii black to he my o mpanion 
"They must often change, "sa\ 

srould be constant in happiness or 



I I III Ml l/.f.S "I I til. U.iRI U. 






E S S A \ S. 



I 

i 



ESSAYS. 
IIIK PREFACE. 



The folloroing Et 'it timet, and m different 

The pamphlets in which 

'The flltt: . .-/)• eiiip/oi y,/ loit'l then 

nine, m tii.it many ij my bht attempts hi this way have fatten 

)e tunes — the Ghost in Cock 

':nily into the \corld t P can by na means complain 
'J/ie ma 'the day A.ne indeed b\ 

:. Matt oj : hove teen i 

' to the 

it in multiplied editions, I have Itm some t) ■ 
inted, and claimed by different parents as 

■ I fit the end 701th the nan 
;os. These gentlemen 
kindly stood sponsors to my produc.iont, and li .,■ my 

at. to vindicate my dm of the 

fubti 
if I .:iiiin late that fit 

■ { of :n ,i sir. when the •. 

."/ his posteriors to satisfy their hui: 
' cut for Ir.msc'f. 

taken it into I 

lh.it : hen I ron. 

i <ill think it seai-.: and superficial art tri> 

\'.i that carry on ah of 

../ it must he owned, in 
/ is true. I could have « 

ho.i ,' :t is not in. 

prepared to enter into the dH 

the honours of 'a vtt 

/oration for til? . 

it another fault in this collection of trifies, 
far,: •. that the hi md) 11 Sttl 

' 

and many 9 

ere consider. 

t .. think it that 



2S4 



ESSA VS. 



1 :o complain >•/ me. ij -«t 

at dull E< at ttasl upon par, and until tlity think 

mail me their humble debtor (y praise, / am ranked 
im por t a nt *. Instead, therefore, of attempting to establish a credl 
aft lie ;mser to apply to some more distant correspond. 

of heing protested Of home, it mfrndent. Upon I 

'It upon Posterity. 

Mr. Posteri I v, 

sir. — \ ':,;,- hundred 'and ninety-nine years after sight hereof 
■ 11.111.I found, Worth of praise, free from all ..mg a 

that will th: 'le to him, and place it to the account of. 



ESSAY I. 

J}fscri/ti.''i ,•/ utrAtm clubs. 

1 rem em her to have read in some 
l>liilo,opher (I believe in Tom Bro«-n*s 

it, lei .1 man's diameter, 
men's 01 complexion, be wh.it they will, 
i_v in London to match 
ilicm. If he be splenetic, be may every 
.. et companion- on the scat;, in St. 

■ Pork, with whose groans hi 
mix li ly talk of the 
weather, If he 1 may 
real his rage among the old orators at 

Coffee-house, and damn the 
iuse it keep* him from 

J -;l III 

nt the Humdrum Club in Ivy 

Lone ; and, if actual!) II I 

llam 01 the Foundery, ready to 

but, although such as have 1 know- 
ledge of the town nay 1 them- 
selves with tempers C01 I their 

■ countryman who come- t" I 
London Ends nothing more difficult. 

tried 

\\ itli DOIT 01 c.inic 'iff with 

indifferent success. I -pent a whole 
.eh, during 

lodge-. clings, with- 

1 introduced 

a friend, to oil. ! by an 

1 nent 



[1758-1765.] 



to gain admittance. In short, no coquette 
was ever more solicitous to match ber 
ribbons to her complexion, than I to suit 
my club to my temper; for I was loo 

He to bring my temper to c. 
toil. 

The first club I entered, u| 
to town, was that of th 
The name was entirely si 

. .1 lover of mirth, go" 
and even sometimes of fun, 

chUdhoi 1. 

As no other passport was re 
but the payment of two shillings i 
door, I introduced myself without ft 

to the mem . were 

already assembled, and I 
begun upon busini 

1 in his hand, pn ._■ head 

of the table. 

gnomy, in oi 
superiority of genius in men vrho 

mankind. I 

I ill in [Ins Sj 

1 lor my lift 
iimpcr, fat, or profo 
peculations 
by the 1 

upon 

who sat next me, that I iw see 



mvself, siid to those 



something touched off to a 
I introduced I Mr. Spnggins was going to give us Mad 
- ' changed my name [ Tom ' in all its glory. Mr. Spi . 



J-SSMVS. 



28 S 



endeavoured to excuse himself) for as he 

B madman and king, il was 
■ through ihe pai I 

His 

I I", a greal ma- 

much vociferation. The 

tiered up the jack-chain, anH, 

. our performer ct 
I li an inverted jomI.ih. 
! rattled his chain and shook his 
if the whole 
company, he began his song. As 1 have 
r to sins in 
themselves, 
ni to me to 
long the nan 
li""i. . : ii-li, 1 rose 

! out 

I the 
- ny of the resL 

Elie gentleman who sal next 

pleased with my taste and the 
tebatlon ; and whisper 
thai I had suffered on Im- 
mense I I come a few minutes 
; , I might have heard " t ieedio I »ob- 
tBng in a tip-top manner In the 

pimple-nosed spirit at the pre-' 
'it he was era] 

bund the attention 

employed upon .i Gal 

Vfter ,\ ihorl 

Welsh 

llh the humour- of I i 
after thai came on "Old 

i 

The glass 
to circulate pretty h 
thOM I ll ni when sober, 

id in then turn ; eVOV nun 
IB why 

while- 
Old the Lady" in 
ier sang to a plate which be 
edges. Nothing 
; voice rose 
above voice, and the whole became one 



above 



universal shout, when the landlord came 

j that the rei 

Rabelais colli the 

MS in which I reckoning i- men- 
tioned the must melancholy of out 
never was so much noise so quick I \ qu 

as by this short but pathetic oration i 

landlord. "Drunk out!" v 

':■. of discontent round the i 
"drunk out dread) ! that was very 
thai -" much punch could be drunl 

already— impossible I " The landlord, 
however, seeming rc-olved not In | 

(torn I i:e company 

I, and a preHdeal 
the night ensuing; 

A mend 'ii mine, in whom I wi 

I il. lining some time after the ciiteitainnicnt 
'hing, proposed to brin^ 
I the club that he freqin 
he fancied Would -nil I 

r exactly. "We have at the 

- he, " no riotous mirth DO] 
ion or burl- 
ing ; all is conducted with wisdon 
i y : besides, some of 01 

■ 

ue the proper acquaintance, and to 

such 1 will bVroght introduce you.' 1 I 

the proposal : to be 

acquainted with men worth fort) thi 

\ and to talk wisdom thc 
nighi, were offers that threw nv 

r.ipiure. 

.\t ' :n gb' 

, introdue'Ml by n 

the company — Ibi Ihoi 

<ch— but to the table at which they 
sitting. Upon my entering the 
I could not ovoid fed 
bon from Ihe solemnity 

I before rne ; tin in 

li w ith a pipe in his i 
ami a pewter pol in his hand, and with 
faces that might ■ . i into 

absolute wisdom. Happysociety, tl 

they apeak, delivei nothing i 

but convey their thoughts to each 

,ii with meaning, and matured by 
reflect 

I n \ . ■ srreevA Vcwm \ cwvV.wiKa. 



a full half-hour, expecting each moment 
omebody would begin to open his 

h : every time the pipe wi 

1 1 WHS to speak ; but il 
was only to spit. At i 

il, ami 0V» 
their extreme diffidence — for to this 1 

lance — I rubh. 

hands, and, looking as wi-e i- pa 

n little eoolisa at thi- time of i ■.- 
ill,-. I to none of the 

company in particular, nunc thought 
himself obliged to answer; wherefore I 
continued Still to rub my hands and look 

id to a 

It next me ; to « I 

that the beer was extl 

Ei my neighbour made BO reply, but 
y .1 1 i ike. 

I now began to be uneasy in this dumb 
, till one of them a little relieved 
me, by observing, thai bread had i."t risen 

" Ay," sayi another, 

still keeping the pipe in his mouth, "that 
mind of a pleasant stury about 
that— hem— very well; )TOU mtUI l.ndw — 
bul before I begin— sir, my service to you 
— where was I ?" 

My next club goes by the name of the 

Harmonica] fly from that 

love of order and friendship which every 

i commends in institutions i»T this 

nature. The landlord was tiimseli the 

founder. The money spent is fool 

each; and they sometimes whip for a 

To this club I' 

lions are requisite, except the 

Introductory fonrpence,aad my landlord's 

. which, as he gain by it, he 

isea. 

We all here talked and behaved as 
else usually does on his club 
d the topic uf i' 
each othei . snuffed the 

th our lingers, and Id! 

from the 
company sainted each other la Un- 
common manner: Mr FWIows-mendcr 
I Mr. Curt 

ome the last 

limenl 
I 
■gain ol the chin- 



I ii. Twist tol 

itll ** hi. in 
niately acquainted ; while the bag 
ai the some nine, was tellings 
ith « horn I 
anything. A gentleman in I 
and 1' cud 

■ 
of the Ghost in L uck Lane : ' 
it in the paper:, of the day, and was I 

not read. .Near him, Mi I 
disputing on the old subject of iel 

the pn 
Leathi 

binatii 

hear altogether, and which 

upper part 

themselves, and • 

>me luckless neigl< 
in-ell bent upon the some ■ 
against lame other. 

Wi: have often heard of thi 
and thi:. iii' 
,cnbe 

hand, 9 ird, as it m 

member of tl 

to observe, 
told of the ghost I 
and thi lory to tell, 

continuing narrative filled 
the conversation. 

ghort 
giving three loud raps at the b 
Says my lord to me, m 

■ 
of the yearth for v 
A damnable false I 
Bound 
tell it . 

; Mi I crsii.l 

— 'A - I 

1 met a I hen what '■ 

you Ik ; 

nelho, an.! I 
The v 

lo Dog-house bar — 1 1 
DrUgger, sir. hes damned low in it . 
'prentice boy has n 
than he 
anoth. . 

ncn, inn - — - 1 1 



I KS 



287 



formy friend, whom you know, gentlemen, 

rod who is a parliament-man, a nun of 

loence, a den honest creature, to 

be sure ; we were laughing last night at 

— Deaih ami damnation upon all his 
ity, by simple barely tasting— Sour 
grapes, as the fox said once when fie 
not reach them: and I'll, I'll tell you a 
story about that that will make you burst 

(ides with laughing : a fox once — 
Sill nobody listen t" the song — "As I 
was a-wnlking upon the highway, I met 
a young damsel both buxom ami gay,' — 
No ghost, gentlemen, can be murdered ; 
nor did I ever hear but of one ghost killed 
in all my life, and that was tabbed in the 
belly with a — My blood and soul if I don't 
— Mr, Bellows mender, I have the honour 
of drinking your very good health 
me if I do — dam— blood — bugs — fire — 

whii — blid — til— rat — trip" Tl. 

all riot, . and rapid confusion. 

angry at men for being 

lid here find ample room for 

I ; bat, alas ! I have been a 

loo] myself; sad I I be angry 

with th for being something so n 

to cvciy child of humanity? 

;ued wiih this society, I was Intro- 

i he following night to a club of 
fashion, On taking my place, I found the 
conversation sufficiently 
good-natured : for my Lord and Sir Paul 
were not yet arrived. I now thought my- 
self completely fitted, anil rev living to 
seek no farther, determined to take up my 
■ re for the winter ; while my 

i began to open insensibly to the 

ry face 

O: but the delusion soon 

apprise 

kttd Sir Paul were 

ju-i arrived. 

lent nil oat felicity was 

at an end ; our new guests bustled into 
the room, and took their seats at the head 
of the table. Adieu, now, all confidence! 
creature strove who should most 
recommend himself to our members of 
distinction. Each seemed quite regardless 
of pleasing any but our new guest- ; and 
• wore the appearance of friend- 

w- turned into rivalry, 



this flattery and obsequious attention, our 
great men look any notice of the n 

npany. Their whole discouisc was 
addressed to each other. Sir Pool told 
his Lordship a long story of Moras 

lod his Lordship gave Sir 1'aul a 
very long account of his new melh 
managing silk-worm-: be led him, and 

uently the rest of the company, 
through all the stages of feeding, sunning, 
and hatching ; with an episode on mul- 
berry-trees, a digression upon grass seeds, 
and a long pal bonl his new- posti- 

lion. In tins manner we travelled 
wishing f to be the last ; but all 

ill vain : 

Hills over lulls, and Alps on Alpi 

The last club in which I was enrolled 
a member was a society "I moral philo- 
sophers, as they called themselves, who 
assembled twice a week, in order to show 
the absurdity of the present mode of 
religion, and establish a new one in ils 
stead. 

1 found the members very warmly dis- 
puting when I arrived, not indeed 
religion or ethics, but about who hod 
1 to lay down his preliminary 
sixpence upon entering the room. The 
president swore that he had laid his own 
down, and so swore all the company. 

liming this contest I had an oppor- 
tunity of observing the laws, and also tile- 
rs, of the society. The president, 
who hid been, U I was told, lately a 
bankrupt, was ■ tall pale figure, with a long 
black wig: the next to him was dressed 
in a large while wig anil I black o 
a third, by the brownness of complexion, 
seemed a native of Jamaica ; and a fourth, 
by his hue, appeared to be a blacksmith. 
Hul their rules will give the most jufl 
of their learning and principles. 

I We. being i laudable society of moral 
philosophers, intends to dispute twice a 
weeknbout religion and priestcraft ; leaving 
behind us old wives' tales, and following 
good learning and ^ound sense: and if so 
be, that any other persons has a mind to 
be of the society, they shall be entitled so 
ing the sum of three 
shillings, to be spent by the cowvsys-xvi "v". 

pouch. 



188 



r.ss 



civet 
Rook 



1 1 That no member gel drunk I 
■ i the clock, upon pain of for 

to be ipenl by the company m 
pum.'i. 

III. Thai, U members arc sometimes 
go way without paying, every | 
snail pay sixpence upon his entering the 
room; ami all disputes shall be 
by a majority ; and all fines shall be paid 
in punch. 

IV That sixpence shall be every ni;;ht 

P'ven to the president, in order to buy 
oles of learning for the good of the 
the president has already put 
' to a good deal of expense in buy- 
ng books for the club; particularly, the 
works of Tully, Socrates, and Cicero, 
which he will soon read to the society. 

V. All them who brings a new argument 
against religion, ami who being a philo- 
sopher and a man of learning, as the rest 

•-, shall be admitted to the freedom 
of the society, upon paying sixpence only, 
to be spent in punch. 

VI. Whenever we are to have an extra- 
ordinary meeting, it shall be advertised by 
some outlandish name in the newspapers. 

Saunufks MacWiU'. resident. 
A N 1 1 1 c i :. v BLXWIT, /'/..- /"resident, 

his 4- mark. 
William Tlkpin, Sco-.-t.iry. 

ESSAY II. 

Sff.-itHfH .'fn Mng.i:int in Mim'tituT. 

We essayists, who arc allowed but one 
subject at a time, arc by no means so for- 
tunate as the writers of magazines, who 
upon several If a magazincr be 
dull up ii-li war, he soon has us 

mi with Uie Ghost in Cock ljine ; 
if the us to doze upon that, he 

by an Eastern tale 

■id poetry for the 

i the weather. It 

i> tin ! i magazine never to 

nd the 
reader, Ilk. horse, has At least 

ible refreshment of having the 
spur often changed. 

A» I ire no reason why these 

.>(T all the rewards of ge-i:-.i.. 1 have 

some thoughts for the future of making 

magazine in miniature : I shall 



hop from subject to subject, and it 

nraged, 1 intend in lime 
ftuille volant with pictures. '■ 
in the usual form with 




A modest Address to 
The public has been so often imp 
upon by the imperforating promises 
others, that it is with the utmost modesty 
we assure them of our inviolable ddsigjl 
of giving the very b 
astoni- ; The public we I 

and regard, and, therefore, to instrui 
entertain them is our highest am 1 
with labours calculated as v. 
head as the heart. If four extra., 
pages of letter-press be any n 
lion of our wit, »'c ma) 
honour of vindicating 

I more in favoui of the Infi 
M \r. u.ink would 

to say less, would be injurious to our 
As "c have no interested mol 
undertaking, being a society ol 

of distinction, we disdain to eat oi 

like hirelings: we are all gentlem 

solved to sell our may. 

merely for our own amusement. 

H.li.—Se cartful to ask for the luff 

Host to that most ingenious of i 
us, the Tripoline Arriba 
May it please your Excellency, — As ] 
Uie hue aits is universally alio 
and admired, permit the author- 
Infernal Magazine to lay the foil 
humbly at your Excellency 
and should out labours ever ba 
happiness of one day ;; 
of Fcr, we doubt nut that the Ui 
wherewith we ori 
retained w iih the 
May it pi. 

Your most devoted humble servant! 
The Authors of the 
Infernal Mac 

Speech spoken by the In.i 

II'..' 
Mi hi 




ESS A YS. 



289 






are again 111. riends, 

have no money ? Lei 
nk, Ibe Dutch Jew, be 

r sorry for this; but, my good Mr. 

rider, wli.it is .ill this to you 

1 must mend broken bellows, 

I i\ rile bad prose, as long a-; we live, 

.- like a Spanish war or not. 

Believe me, my honest friends, wl 

you may talk of liberty and your own 

. both that liberty and reason are 

i ncd by ever; pooi man 

ill c\c. . .mil as we (re I 

. so others are born to watch over 
tile we are working. In the 
sense then, my good fi 
let 1 lie great keep watch over us, and let 
us mind our DO 

' last get money ourselves, and set 
111 our turn. I have a 
ight in 
Inch I shall beg leave to trans- 
lur inslruction. An author, 
1 r, finely observes, 
senti perfectum format;" 
money makes a perfect 
Let us then gel ready D 
111 thai will spend tin 
lb Spain, 

/ 
/nit, fktr. 

man, you may enter the 
I 
v, anil tun 

. 

. ol a ohail in a 

nig in com- 
■ 
I 10 one but thai 
Dl ui with affectation or a bad 

young, and live with an aid 
man, i 

■ ■ 

1 1. .11 1 laugh mut h in publ 

ire not as merry as you will 



hate you, either because they cm- 

mirth* 

the DfviL Tiv 

. :nis, a 

Oil tj 

The person who desires to raise the devil 
is to sacrifice a dog, a cat, and a lien, all 
of his own properly, to Beelzebub, lie 

ice, and then 

to receive a mark In tome Ul 
eitlit-r under the eye-lid, 01 h 

the mouth, inflicted by the devil hi 
I pon this he has power given hie 

-; one for earth, another Era* 

air, and a third h 

limes the devil holds an assembly of 
11s. iii which each is to give an 
1 of «hat evil he ha. dor* 

hi- apt ears in the 
They, open, 

grand 

1. -Hints them 

mankind, in [ 
ami ot riding, upon 

r. lie shows them the 

method, upon examination, of giving 

to assume the form of ai 
there is but one metl 

What 

tin- they are 111 .t permitti 

they w ill'lllg '■■ 

I thus 
detected. 

\V lit. 

Asem, an Emttern .' 

ttu Witdtm of /Vdm'^w ,1. 
GtvrrniHtnt of Ou I 

Wrkbi Taurii lift* Id head above the 

-ti.rm. and pi ■ -.i^li t 

of the --Her hut .1 pi"-] 

nodding rocks, falling I 
the variety of tri uw • M 'he. 

bleak bosom of this (rvgniVvA mnavtoti 



ESS A VS. 



secluded from society, and detest it 
ways of men, lived Asem the Man-hater. 
Asem had spent hi- youth with men, 

• red in their amusements, and had 
been taught to love his (el low -creatures 
with the must ardent affection; but, from 
the tenderness of his di